Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: microwave irradiation

264 Effects of Microwave Heating on Biogas Production, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Volatile Solids Solubilization of Food Residues

Authors: Ackmez Mudhoo, Pravish Rye Moorateeah, Romeela Mohee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the preliminary investigation of microwave (MW) irradiation pretreatments on the anaerobic digestion of food residues using biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays. Low solids systems with a total solids (TS) content ranging from 5.0-10.0% were analyzed. The inoculum to bulk mass of substrates to water ratio was 1:2:2 (mass basis). The experimental conditions for pretreatments were as follows: a control (no MW irradiation), two runs with MW irradiation for 15 and 30 minutes at 320 W, and another two runs with MW irradiation at 528 W for 30 and 60 minutes. The cumulative biogas production were 6.3 L and 8.7 L for 15min/320 W and 30min/320 W MW irradiation conditions, respectively, and 10.5 L and 11.4 L biogas for 30min/528 W and 60min/528 W, respectively, as compared to the control giving 5.8 L biogas. Both an increase in exposure time of irradiation and power of MW had increased the rate and yield of biogas. Singlefactor ANOVA tests (p<0.05) indicated that the variations in VS, TS, COD and cumulative biogas generation were significantly different for the pretreatment conditions. Results from this study indicated that MW irradiation had enhanced the biogas production and degradation of total solids with a significant improvement in VS and COD solubilization.

Keywords: microwave irradiation, pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, food residues.

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263 Measurement of Systemic Power Efficiency of Microwave Heating Application

Authors: Yi He, Nutdechatorn Puangngernmak, Suramate Chalermwisutkul

Abstract:

Microwave heating process has been developed about sixty years while measurement system has also progressed. Because of irradiation of high frequency of microwave, researchers have been utilized many costly technical instrument measuring parameters to evaluate the performance of microwave heating system. Therefore, this paper is intended to present an easier and feasible efficiency measurement method. It can help inspecting efficiency of microwave heating system with good accuracy, while the method can also give reference to optimizing procedure for microwave heating system for various load material

Keywords: measurement, microwave heating system, systemic power efficiency

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262 The Effect of Carbon on Molybdenum in the Preparation of Microwave Induced Molybdenum Carbide

Authors: Abd. Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nurshaira Haifa Suhaimi

Abstract:

This study shows the effect of carbon towards molybdenum carbide alloy when exposed to Microwave. This technique is also known as Microwave Induced Alloying (MIA) for the preparation of molybdenum carbide. In this study ammonium heptamolybdate solution and carbon black powder were heterogeneously mixed and exposed to microwave irradiation for 2 minutes. The effect on amount of carbon towards the produced alloy on morphological and oxidation states changes during microwave is presented. In this experiment, it is expected carbon act as a reducing agent with the ratio 2:7 molybdenum to carbon as the optimum for the production of molybdenum carbide alloy. All the morphological transformations and changes in this experiment were followed and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and FESEM.

Keywords: Carbon, molybdenum carbide, microwave induced alloying.

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261 Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Joe Shen Heng

Abstract:

As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varying grades of glycerol, i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity, that is obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Amidst the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demonstrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.2% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: Biodiesel, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation.

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260 Nano-Alumina Sulfuric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Derivatives

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Alireza Najafi Chermahini, Leila Ghorbanian

Abstract:

An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of α- aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using natural alumina, alumina sulfuric acid (ASA), nano-γ-alumina, nanoalumina sulfuric acid (nano-ASA) under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The advantages of methods are short reaction times, high yields, milder conditions and easy work up. The catalysts can be recovered for the subsequent reactions and reused without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

Keywords: Nano-γ-alumina, nano-alumina sulfuric acid, green synthesis, microwave irradiation, α-aminonitriles derivatives.

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259 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence

Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj

Abstract:

Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of GaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current

Keywords: GaAs solar cell, 1MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence.

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258 Microwave Assisted Fast Synthesis of Flower-like ZnO Based Guanidinium Template for Photodegradation of Azo Dye Congo Red

Authors: N. F .Hamedani, A.R. Mahjoub, A. A. khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, F.Farzaneh

Abstract:

ZnO nanostructure were synthesized via microwave method using zinc acetate as starting material, guanidinium as structure directing agents, and water as solvent.. This work investigates the photodegradation of azo dyes using the ZnO Flowerlike in aqueous solutions. As synthesized ZnO samples were characterized using X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and FTIR spectroscopy.In this work photodecolorization of congored azo dye under UV irradiation by nano ZnO was studied.

Keywords: Photo catalyst, Nano crystals, Zinc Oxide

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257 Numerical Analysis of All-Optical Microwave Mixing and Bandpass Filtering in an RoF Link

Authors: S. Khosroabadi, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

In this paper, all-optical signal processors that perform both microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber (RoF) link are presented. The key device is a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) which performs all-optical microwave mixing. An up-converted microwave signal is obtained and other unwanted frequency components are suppressed at the end of the fiber span.

Keywords: Microwave mixing, bandpass filtering, all-optical, signal processing, MZM.

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256 Demulsification of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Microwave Heating Technology

Authors: Abdurahman H. Nour, Rosli M. Yunus, Azhary. H. Nour

Abstract:

The mechanism of microwave heating is essentially that of dielectric heating. After exposing the emulsion to the microwave Electromagnetic (EM) field, molecular rotation and ionic conduction due to the penetration of (EM) into the emulsion are responsible for the internal heating. To determine the capability of microwave technology in demulsification of crude oil emulsions, microwave demulsification method was applied in a 50-50 % and 20- 80 % water-in-oil emulsions with microwave exposure time varied from 20-180 sec. Transient temperature profiles of water-in-oil emulsions inside a cylindrical container were measured. The temperature rise at a given location was almost horizontal (linear). The average rates of temperature increase of 50-50 % and 20-80 % water-in-oil emulsions are 0.351 and 0.437 oC/sec, respectively. The rate of temperature increase of emulsions decreased at higher temperature due to decreasing dielectric loss of water. These results indicate that microwave demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions does not require chemical additions. Microwave has the potential to be used as an alternative way in the demulsification process.

Keywords: Demulsification, temperature profile, emulsion.Microwave heating, dielectric, volume rate.

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255 Study of γ Irradiation and Storage Time on Microbial Load and Chemical Quality of Persian Saffron

Authors: M. Jouki, N. Khazaei , A. Kalbasi , H. Tavakolipour, S. Rajabifar, F. Motamedi. Sedeh, A. Jouki

Abstract:

Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food. It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation for improvement of saffron shelf life. Samples were treated with 0 (none irradiated), 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held for 2 months. The control and irradiated samples were underwent microbial analysis, chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation at 30 days intervals. Microbial analysis indicated that irradiation had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the reduction of microbial loads. There was no significant difference in sensory quality and chemical characteristics during storage in saffron.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, saffron, microbes, contamination.

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254 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Steam

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Irradiation, steam, plasma, cluster formation, liquid droplets, evolution.

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253 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy

Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, photoluminescence, porous silicon, nanocomposites.

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252 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowder

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: Irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide.

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251 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee, Farrah Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: Microwave Absorber, Reflection Loss, Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB), X- Band.

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250 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites

Authors: F. Abbas Pour Khotbehsara, B. Salehpour, A. Kianvash

Abstract:

Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.

Keywords: Gamma ray irradiation, Hard Ferrite, Magnetic coefficient, Radiation dose.

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249 Forecasting Direct Normal Irradiation at Djibouti Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Ahmed Kayad Abdourazak, Abderafi Souad, Zejli Driss, Idriss Abdoulkader Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to predict the solar irradiation in Djibouti for the first Time that is useful to the integration of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and sites selections for new or future solar plants as part of solar energy development. An ANN algorithm was developed to establish a forward/reverse correspondence between the latitude, longitude, altitude and monthly solar irradiation. For this purpose the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) data of eight Djibouti sites were used as training and testing in a standard three layers network with the back propagation algorithm of Lavenber-Marquardt. Results have shown a very good agreement for the solar irradiation prediction in Djibouti and proves that the proposed approach can be well used as an efficient tool for prediction of solar irradiation by providing so helpful information concerning sites selection, design and planning of solar plants.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, solar irradiation, concentrated solar power, Lavenberg-Marquardt.

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248 Application of UV-C Irradiation on Quality and Textural Properties of Button Mushrooms

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian. A. Mohammad- Razdari

Abstract:

The effect of 1.0 kJ/m2 Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on pH, weight loss, color, and firmness of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tissues during 21-days storage at 4 ºC was studied. UV-C irradiation enhanced pH, weight, color parameters, and firmness of mushroom during storage compared to control treatment. However, application of 1.0 kJ/m2 UV-C treatment could effectively induce the increase of weight loss, firmness, and pH to 14.53%, 49.82%, and 10.39%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of UV-C irradiation could be an effective method to maintain the postharvest quality of mushrooms.

Keywords: Mushroom, polyethylene film, quality, UV-C irradiation.

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247 Effects of Hydrogen-Ion Irritation on the Microstructure and Hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V Alloy

Authors: Jing Zhang, Yongqin Chang, Yongwei Wang, Xiaolin Li, Shaoning Jiang, Farong Wan, Yi Long

Abstract:

Microstructural and hardening changes of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe irradiated with 100 keV hydrogen ions at room temperature were investigated. It was found that dislocation density varies dramatically after irradiation, ranging from dislocation free to dense areas with tangled and complex dislocation configuration. As the irradiated Fe-0.2wt.%V samples were annealed at 773 K, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops disappear, while many small precipitates with enriched C distribute in the matrix. Some large precipitates with enriched V were also observed. The hardness of Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy and pure Fe increases after irradiation, which ascribes to the formation of dislocation loops in the irradiated specimens. Compared with pure Fe, the size of the irradiation-introduced dislocation loops in Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy decreases and the density increases, the change of the hardness also decreases.

Keywords: Irradiation, Fe-0.2wt.%V alloy, microstructures, hardness.

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246 Synthesis of Mg/B Containing Compound in a Modified Microwave Oven

Authors: Gülşah Çelik Gül, Figen Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Magnesium containing boron compounds with hexagonal structure have been drawn much attention due to their superconductive nature. The main target of this work is new modified microwave oven by on our own has an ability about passing through a gas in the oven medium for attainment of oxygen-free compounds such as c-BN.  Mg containing boride was synthesized by modified-microwave method under nitrogen atmosphere using amorphous boron and magnesium source in appropriate molar ratio. Microwave oven with oxygen free environment has been modified to aimed to obtain magnesium boride without oxygen. Characterizations were done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Mg containing boride, generally named magnesium boride, with amorphous character without oxygen is obtained via designed microwave oven system.

Keywords: Magnesium containing boron compounds, modified microwave synthesis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR.

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245 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

Authors: Adriana Souza M. Batista, Cláubia Pereira, Luiz O. Faria

Abstract:

The irradiation of polymeric materials has received much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100 kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.

Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry, gamma irradiation, PVDF, X-ray diffraction technique.

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244 Effect of Dose Rate of Irradiation on Ultrastructure of Duodenal Mucosa

Authors: L. Labéjof, I. Mororó, P. Galle, G. Barbosa, M.I. Severo, A.H. de Oliveira

Abstract:

Ultrastructure of duodenum mucosa of irradiated rat was studied versus dose rate of irradiation following exposure to gamma rays from 60-Cobalt source. The animals were whole body irradiated at two dose rates (1 Gy.mn-1 and 1 Gy.h-1) and three total doses (1, 2 or 4 Gy) for each dose rate. 24 or 48 h after irradiation, their small intestine was removed and samples of duodenum were processed for observations under a transmission electron microscopy. Samples of duodenum mucosa of control rats were processed in the same way. For the lower dose rate of 1 Gy.h-1, main lesions characteristic of apoptosis were detected within irradiated enterocytes at a total dose of 2 Gy and 24 h after exposure. Necrosis was noted in the samples, 48 h after exposition. For the higher dose rate of 1 Gy.mn-1, fewer changes were detected at all total doses 24 or 48 h irradiation. Thus, it was shown that the appearance of radiationinduced alterations varies not only with increasing total dose and post-irradiation time but especially with decreasing dose rate.

Keywords: Dose rate, Radiation Inury, Apoptosis, SmallBowel

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243 Microwave Drying System with High-Tech Phase Controller: A Modified Applicator

Authors: A. S. Jambhale, B. V. Barbadekar

Abstract:

Microwave energy can be used for drying purpose. It is unique process. It is distinctly different from conventional drying process. It is advantageous over conventional drying / heating processes. When microwave energy is used for drying purpose, the process can be accelerated with a better control to achieve uniform heating, more conversion efficiency, selective drying and ultimately improved product quality of the output. Also, less floor space and compact system are the added advantages. Existing low power microwave drying system is to be modified with suitable applicator. Appropriate sensors are to be used to measure parameters like moisture, temperature, weight of sample. Suitable high tech controller is to be used to control microwave power continuously from minimum to maximum. Phase - controller, cycle - controller and PWM - controller are some of the advanced power control techniques. It has been proposed to work on turmeric using high-tech phase controller to control the microwave power conveniently. The drying of turmeric with microwave energy employing phase controller gives better results as formulated in this paper and hence new approach of processing turmeric will open future doors of profit making to allied industries and the farmers.

Keywords: Applicator, microwave drying, phase controller.

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242 Combined Microwaves and Microreactors Plant

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Mitsuhiro Matsuzawa

Abstract:

A pilot plant for continuous flow microwave-assisted chemical reaction combined with microreactors was developed and water heating tests were conducted for evaluation of the developed plant. We developed a microwave apparatus having a single microwave generator that can heat reaction solutions in four reaction fields simultaneously in order to increase throughput. We also designed a four-branch waveguide using electromagnetic simulation, and found that the transmission efficiency at 99%. Finally, we developed the pilot plant using the developed microwave apparatus and conducted water heating tests. The temperatures in the respective reaction fields were controlled within ±1.1 K at 353.2 K. Moreover, the energy absorption rates by the water were about 90% in the respective reaction fields, whereas the energy absorption rate was about 40% when 100 cm3 of water was heated by a commercially available multimode microwave chemical reactor.

Keywords: Microwave, Microreactor, Heating, Electromagnetic Simulation

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241 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x

Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze

Abstract:

On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.

Keywords: InAs, InP, solid solutions, irradiation.

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240 Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

Authors: Rumman Md Raihanuzzaman, Lee Chang Chuan, Zonghan Xie, Reza Ghomashchi

Abstract:

Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding of microwave sintering and its contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of the resulting carbide materials requires further studies and attention. In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behavior during microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding. This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing information of how the process works and what type of materials it is best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed, highlighting some of the key issues and challenges faced in this research area.

Keywords: Cemented carbides, consolidation, microwave sintering, mechanical properties.

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239 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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238 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: A. Azuraida, M. K. Halimah, C. A. C. Azurahanim, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different composition [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defect in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: Boro-Tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties.

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237 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center.

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236 Self-Organization of Radiation Defects: Temporal Dissipative Structures

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to radiation damage evolution is developed. Stable temporal behavior taking place in solids under irradiation are examined as phenomena of self-organization in nonequilibrium systems. Experimental effects of temporal self-organization in solids under irradiation are reviewed. Their essential common properties and features are highlighted and analyzed. Dynamical model to describe development of self-oscillation of density of point defects under stationary irradiation is proposed. The emphasis is the nonlinear couplings between rate of annealing and density of defects that determine the kind and parameters of an arising self-oscillation. The field of parameters (defect generation rate and environment temperature) at which self-oscillations develop is found. Bifurcation curve and self-oscillation period near it is obtained.

Keywords: Irradiation, Point Defects, Solids, Temporal Selforganization.

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235 Ficus deltoidea Extract Protects HaCaT Keratinocytes from UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation

Authors: Rosnani Hasham, Hyun Kyung Choi, Chang Seo Park

Abstract:

Ficus deltoidea from the Moraceae family is a popular medicinal herb in Malaysia. It possesses strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of F. deltoidea extract on UVB-irradiated HaCaT Keratinocytes were investigated. HaCaT Keratinocytes were UVBirradiated (12.5 mJ/cm3) and were treated with 0.05, 0.08 or 0.1% of F. deltoidea extract. Cell viability following UVB irradiation was significantly higher in the groups treated with the F. deltoidea extract at doses of 0.05, 0.08 or 0.1% than in control group with UVB irradiation only. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) play primary roles in the inflammation process upon UV irradiation and are known to be stimulated by UVB irradiation. Treatment with the F. deltoidea extract dramatically inhibited the UV-induced TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, and COX-2 expression. These results suggest that the F. deltoidea extract inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and may be an effective protective agent for the treatment of skin diseases.

Keywords: Ficus deltoidea, anti-inflammatory activity, cytokines, COX-2.

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