Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 416

Search results for: polyethylene film

416 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato.

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415 Standard and Processing of Photodegradable Polyethylene

Authors: Nurul-Akidah M. Yusak, Rahmah Mohamed, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz

Abstract:

The introduction of degradable plastic materials into agricultural sectors has represented a promising alternative to promote green agriculture and environmental friendly of modern farming practices. Major challenges of developing degradable agricultural films are to identify the most feasible types of degradation mechanisms, composition of degradable polymers and related processing techniques. The incorrect choice of degradable mechanisms to be applied during the degradation process will cause premature losses of mechanical performance and strength. In order to achieve controlled process of agricultural film degradation, the compositions of degradable agricultural film also important in order to stimulate degradation reaction at required interval of time and to achieve sustainability of the modern agricultural practices. A set of photodegradable polyethylene based agricultural film was developed and produced, following the selective optimization of processing parameters of the agricultural film manufacturing system. Example of agricultural films application for oil palm seedlings cultivation is presented.

Keywords: Photodegradable polyethylene, plasticulture, processing schemes.

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414 Photo Catalytic Oxidation Degradation of Volatile Organic Compound with Nano-TiO2/LDPE Composite Film

Authors: Kowit Suwannahong, Wipada Sanongra, Jittiporn Kruenate, Sarun Phibanchon, Siriuma Jawjit, Wipawee Khamwichit

Abstract:

The photocatalytic activity efficiency of TiO2 for the degradation of Toluene in photoreactor can be enhanced by nano- TiO2/LDPE composite film. Since the amount of TiO2 affected the efficiency of the photocatalytic activity, this work was mainly concentrated on the effort to embed the high amount of TiO2 in the Polyethylene matrix. The developed photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and SEM. The SEM images revealed the high homogeneity of the deposition of TiO2 on the polyethylene matrix. The XRD patterns interpreted that TiO2 embedded in the PE matrix exhibited mainly in anatase form. In addition, the photocatalytic results show that the toluene removal efficiencies of 30±5%, 49±4%, 68±5%, 42±6% and 33±5% were obtained when using the catalyst loading at 0%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% (wt. cat./wt. film), respectively.

Keywords: Photocatalytic oxidation, Toluene, nano-TiO2/LDPE composite film.

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413 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

Abstract:

In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE).

All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging.

Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH.

The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: Polymer packaging, life cycle assessment, resource efficiency.

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412 Starch Based Biofilms for Green Packaging

Authors: Roshafima R. Ali, W. A. Wan Abdul Rahman, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, N. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This current research focused on development of degradable starch based packaging film with enhanced mechanical properties. A series of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/tapioca starch compounds with various tapioca starch contents were prepared by twin screw extrusion with the addition of maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene as compatibilizer. Palm cooking oil was used as processing aid to ease the blown film process, thus, degradable film can be processed via conventional blown film machine. Studies on their characteristics, mechanical properties and biodegradation were carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and optical properties, tensile test and exposure to fungi environment respectively. The presence of high starch contents had an adverse effect on the tensile properties of LDPE/tapioca starch blends. However, the addition of compatibilizer to the blends improved the interfacial adhesion between the two materials, hence, improved the tensile properties of the films. High content of starch amount also was found to increase the rate of biodegradability of LDPE/tapioca starch films. It can be proved by exposure of the film to fungi environment. A growth of microbes colony can be seen on the surface of LDPE/tapioca starch film indicates that the granular starch present on the surface of the polymer film is attacked by microorganisms, until most of it is assimilated as a carbon source.

Keywords: Degradable polymer, starch based biofilms, blown film extrusion, green food packaging.

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411 Weight Loss Degradation of Hybrid Blends LLDPE/Starch/PVA upon Exposure to UV Light and Soil Burial

Authors: M. Rahmah, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz, M. Mohd Muizz Fahimi, M. Farhan

Abstract:

Poly bag and mulch films for agricultural field caused pose environmental problem due to the non-degradable plastics wastes upon disposal. Thus, a degradable poly bag was designed with hybrid sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Two Different blended compositions of SS and PVA hybrid have been compounded. Then, the hybrids blended are mixed with linear line density polyethylene (LLDPE) resin to fabricate poly bag film through conventional film blowing process. Samples of LLDPE, SS and PVA hybrid film were exposed to UV light and soil burial. The weight losses were determined during degradation process. Hybrid film by degradation of starch was found to hydrolyze and hydroxyl groups decrease on esterification upon exposure to soil burial and uv radiation. It was found out that, the hybrid film for 60% of SS composition showed greatest degradation in soil and UV radiation.

Keywords: LLDPE, PVA, sago starch, degradation, soil burial, UV radiation.

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410 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and PE-ionomer nanocomposite samples were prepared by mixing of the polymer with organofilized montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of each modified montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5% (w/w). The twin-screw kneader was used for the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nanofillers. The level of MMT exfoliation was studied by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The mechanical properties of prepared materials were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis at 30°C and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polyethylene (vinyl acetate), Clay, Nanocomposite, Montmorillonite.

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409 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/ MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem

Abstract:

We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: Electrode Deposition, Flexible, Graphene oxide, Graphene, High Power CO2 Laser, MnO2.

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408 An Optical Sensing Film for Fe(III) Determination Based on 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′- cyanine Iodide Immobilized in Nafion Film

Authors: K. Kajsanthia, J. Wittayakun, S. Prayoonpokarach

Abstract:

An optical chemical sensing film based on immobilizing of 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′-cyanine (pseudocyanine iodide) in nafion film was developed for the determination of Fe(III). The sensing film was homogeneous, transparent, and mechanically stable. Decrease of the absorbance measured at 518 nm was observed when the sensing film was immersed in a solution of Fe(III). The optimum response of the sensing film to Fe(III) was obtained in a solution with pH 4.0. Linear calibration curve over an Fe(III) concentration range of 1-30 ppm with a limit of detection of 0.71 ppm was obtained. Cd(II) is the major interference. The sensing film exhibited good stability for 2 months and high reproducibility. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Fe(III) in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: iron(III), _nafion, optical sensing film, pseudocyanine iodide

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407 Fabrication and Characterization of Sawdust Composite Biodegradable Film

Authors: M.Z. Norashikin, M.Z. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This report shows the performance of composite biodegradable film from chitosan, starch and sawdust fiber. The main objectives of this research are to fabricate and characterize composite biodegradable film in terms of morphology and physical properties. The film was prepared by casting method. Sawdust fiber was used as reinforcing agent and starch as polymer matrix in the casting solution. The morphology of the film was characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM). The result showed that the film has smooth structure. Chemical composition of the film was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) where the result revealed present of starch in the film. The thermal properties were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) where the results showed that the film has small difference in melting and degradation temperature.

Keywords: Sawdust, composite, film, biodegradable.

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406 Study on the Atomic-Oxygen-Protection Film Preparation of Organic Silicon and Its Properties

Authors: Zheng-Kuohai, Yang-Shengsheng, Li-Zhonghua, Zhao-Lin

Abstract:

Materials used on exterior spacecraft surfaces are subjected to many environmental threats which can cause degradation, atomic oxygen is one of the most threats. We prepared organic silicon atomic-oxygen-protection film using method of polymerization. This paper presented the effects on the film structure and its durability of the preparation processing, and analyzed the polymerization theory, the film structure and composition of the film. At last, we tested the film in our ground based atomic oxygen simulator, and indicated that the film worked well.

Keywords: Atomic oxygen, siloxane, protection, plasma, polymerization.

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405 Breakdown of LDPE Film under Heavy Water Absorption

Authors: Eka PW, T. Okazaki, Y. Murakami, N., Hozumi, M. Nagao

Abstract:

The breakdown strength characteristic of Low Density Polyethylene films (LDPE) under DC voltage application and the effect of water absorption have been studied. Mainly, our experiment was investigated under two conditions; dry and heavy water absorption. Under DC ramp voltage, the result found that the breakdown strength under heavy water absorption has a lower value than dry condition. In order to clarify the effect, the temperature rise of film was observed using non contact thermograph until the occurrence of the electrical breakdown and the conduction current of the sample was also measured in correlation with the thermograph measurement. From the observations, it was shown that under the heavy water absorption, the hot spot in the samples appeared at lower voltage. At the same voltage the temperature of the hot spot and conduction current was higher than that under the dry condition. The measurement result has a good correlation between the existence of a critical field for conduction current and thermograph observation. In case of the heavy water absorption, the occurrence of the threshold field was earlier than the dry condition as result lead to higher of conduction current and the temperature rise appears after threshold field was significantly increased in increasing of field. The higher temperature rise was caused by the higher current conduction as the result the insulation leads to breakdown to the lower field application.

Keywords: Low density polyethylene, heavy water absorption, conduction current, temperature rise.

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404 The Improved Biofuel Cell for Electrical Power Generation from Wastewaters

Authors: M. S. Kilic, S. Korkut, B. Hazer

Abstract:

Newly synthesized Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol polymer was first time used for a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell. Working electrodes based on Polypropylene-g-Polyethylene glycol were operated as unmediated and mediated system (with ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles). Glucose oxidase and bilirubin oxidase was selected as anodic and cathodic enzyme, respectively. Glucose was used as fuel in a single-compartment and membrane-less cell. Maximum power density was obtained as 0.65 nW cm-2, 65 nW cm-2 and 23500 nW cm-2 from the unmediated, ferrocene and gold/cobalt oxide modified polymeric film, respectively. Power density was calculated to be ~16000 nW cm-2 for undiluted wastewater sample with gold/cobalt oxide nanoparticles including system.

Keywords: Bilirubin oxidase, Enzymatic fuel cell, Glucose oxidase, Nanoparticles.

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403 Strategic Risk Issues for Film Distributors of Hindi Film Industry in Mumbai: A Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: R. Dyondi, S. K. Jha

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to address the strategic risk issues surrounding Hindi film distribution in Mumbai for a film distributor, who acts as an entrepreneur when launching a product (movie) in the market (film territory).The paper undertakes a fundamental review of films and risk in the Hindi film industry and applies Grounded Theory technique to understand the complex phenomena of risk taking behavior of the film distributors (both independent and studios) in Mumbai. Rich in-depth interviews with distributors are coded to develop core categories through constant comparison leading to conceptualization of the phenomena of interest. This paper is a first-of-its-kind-attempt to understand risk behavior of a distributor, which is akin to entrepreneurial risk behavior under conditions of uncertainty.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Risk Behavior, Film Distribution Strategy, Hindi Film Industry, Risk.

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402 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: Electrodeposition, Non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD.

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401 Classification of Causes and Effects of Uploading and Downloading of Pirated Film Products

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of the Internet film piracy. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize and explain various motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study proposes groups of economical, sociopsychological and other factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. The paper also studies the interactions between downloaders and uploaders and offers the causality of the motivational factors and its effects on the film industry. Moreover, the study also focuses on proposed scheme of relations of downloading movies and the possible effect on box office revenues.

Keywords: Download, Film piracy, Internet, Upload

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400 Development of a Porous Silica Film by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Binay K. Dutta, Tayseir M. Abd Ellateif, Saikat Maitra

Abstract:

In the present work homogeneous silica film on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol. The silica sol precursor with uniformly granular particle was derived by the alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of glycerol template. The film was prepared by dip coating process. The templated hetero-structured silica film was annealed at elevated temperatures to generate nano- and meso porosity in the film. The film was subsequently annealed at different temperatures to make it defect free and abrasion resistant. The sol and the film were characterized by the measurement of particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, measurement of the refractive index, thermal conductivity and abrasion resistance. The porosity of the films decreased whereas refractive index and dielectric constant of it `increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity of the films increased with the increase in the film thickness. The developed porous silica film holds strong potential for use in different areas.

Keywords: Silica film, Nanoporous, Sol-gel, Templating, Dip coating.

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399 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith III

Abstract:

Historical narration is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history. This “translation” is examined within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during an era in which life was conceived of as innately artistic. The emergence of this “aestheticization” of memory and history enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: Propaganda, Film, International Literature, Popular Culture.

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398 Neo Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison S.

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: Film, Political, Neo Realism, Thailand.

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397 Role of Director's Philosophical Approach in Cinematographic Expression

Authors: Sedat Cereci

Abstract:

The original idea for a feature film may come from a writer, director or a producer. Director is the person responsible for the creative aspects, both interpretive and technical, of a motion picture production in a film. Director may be shot discussing his project with his or her cowriters, members of production staff, and producer, and director may be shown selecting locales or constructing sets. All these activities provide, of course, ways of externalizing director-s ideas about the film. A director sometimes pushes both the film image and techniques of narration to new artistic limits, but main responsibility of director is take the spectator to an original opinion in his philosophical approach. Director tries to find an artistic angle in every scene and change screenplay into an effective story and sets his film on a spiritual and philosophical base.

Keywords: Director, role, film, approach, opinion.

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396 Modeling of the Internet Film Piracy - Preliminary Report

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of film piracy over the Internet. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study discusses group factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. Furthermore, the paper discusses the theoretical effect on box office revenues and explains it on a proposed scheme of solutions for decreasing revenues. The article also maps the scheme of incentive motivational anti-piracy campaigns. Moreover, the paper proposes the preliminary scheme for system dynamic modeling of the Internet film piracy. Scheme is developed as a model of behaviors, influences and relations among the elements pertaining to the Internet film piracy.

Keywords: Box office, Cinema, Film, Internet piracy, Uploading

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395 Synthesis of Cross-Linked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Cross-linked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomannan and its mixture with kappa carrageenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained cross-linked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be cross-linked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The cross-linked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling.

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394 Quality Evaluation of Ready to Eat Potatoes’ Produce in Flexible Packaging

Authors: Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Aija Ruzaike, Lija Dukalska, Ilze Stokmane, Liene Strauta

Abstract:

Experiments have been carried out at the Latvia University of Agriculture Department of Food Technology. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of thermal treatment in flexible retort pouch packaging on the quality of potatoes’ produce during the storage time. Samples were evaluated immediately after retort thermal treatment; and following 1; 2; 3 and 4 storage months at the ambient temperature of +18±2ºC in vacuum packaging from polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) and aluminum/polyethylene (Al/PE) film pouches with barrier properties. Experimentally the quality of the potatoes’ produce in dry butter and mushroom dressings was characterized by measuring pH, hardness, color, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation. The sterilization was effective in protecting the produce from physical, chemical, and microbial quality degradation. According to the study of obtained data, it can be argued that the selected product processing technology and packaging materials could be applied to provide the safety and security during four-month storage period.

Keywords: Potatoes’ produce, shelf life, retort thermal treatment and packaging.

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393 Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter

Authors: Vahid Fayaz , Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.

Keywords: 6MV Photon , EDR-2 film, Radiotherapy, TreatmentPlanning system

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392 Some Characteristics of Biodegradable Film Substituted by Yam (Dioscorea alata) Starch from Thailand

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Khumthong Mahawongwiriya, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

Yam starch obtained from the water yam (munlued) by the wet milling process was studied for some physicochemical properties. Yam starch film was prepared by casting using glycerol as a plasticizer. The effect of different glycerol (1.30, 1.65 and 2.00g/100g of filmogenic solution) and starch concentrations (3.30, 3.65 and 4.00g /100g of filmogenic solution) were evaluated on some characteristics of the film. The temperature for obtaining the gelatinized starch solution was 70-80°C and then dried at 45°C for 4 hours. The resulting starch from munlued granular morphology was triangular and the average size of the granule was 26.68 μm. The amylose content by colorimetric method was 26 % and the gelatinize temperature was 70-80°C. The appearance of the film was smooth, transparent, and glossy with average moisture content of 25.96% and thickness of 0.01mm. Puncture deformation and flexibility increased with glycerol content. The starch and glycerol concentration were a significant factor of the yam starch film characteristics. Yam starch film can be described as a biofilm providing many applications and developments with the advantage of biodegradability.

Keywords: Characteristics of Biodegradable film, yam starch, Dioscoreaalata, substitute, Thailand.

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391 The Catalytic Effects of Potassium Dichromate on the Pyrolysis of Polymeric Mixtures Part I: Hazelnut Shell and Polyethylene Oxide and their Blend Cases

Authors: A. Caglar, B. Aydinli

Abstract:

The pyrolysis of hazelnut shell, polyethylene oxide and their blends were carried out catalytically at 500 and 650 ºC. Potassium dichromate was chosen according to its oxidative characteristics and decomposition temperature (500 ºC) where decomposition products are CrO3 and K2CrO4. As a main effect, a remarkable increase in gasification was observed using this catalyst for pure components and blends especially at 500 ºC rather than 650 ºC contrary to the main observation in the pyrolysis process. The increase in gas product quantity was compensated mainly with decrease in solid product and additionally in some cases liquid products.

Keywords: Hazelnut shell, Polyethylene oxide, Potassium dichromate, Pyrolysis.

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390 Characterization of HD-V2 Gafchromic Film for Measurement of Spatial Dose Distribution from Alpha Particle of 5.5 MeV

Authors: A. Aydarous, M. El Ghazaly

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the newly released Gafchromic HD-V2 film for alpha particle of 5.5 MeV. Gafchromic HD-V2 was exposed to alpha particles of energy 5 MeV from 241Am for different durations. Then the films were scanned with a flatbed scanner. The dose response curve up to 2200 Gy has been achieved. The film’s reproducibility and sensitivity were evaluated. The results obtained show that the net optical density increases almost exponentially with the increase in the exposure time, and it becomes saturated after prolonged exposure times. The red channel shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 4 x 10-3 Gy-1 at netOD of 0.4. The inter-film reproducibility was measured and the relative uncertainty found was 1.7 %, 2.1 % and 2.3 % for grey, red and green channels, respectively.

Keywords: Alpha dosimetry, 241Am, Gafchromic film.

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389 Experimental Film Class: Watbangkapom School, Samut Songkhram

Authors: Areerut J.

Abstract:

Experimental Film Class Project is supported by the Institute for Research and Development at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This project is purported to provide academic and professional services to improve the quality standards of the community and locals in accordance with the mission of the university, which is to improve and expand knowledge for the community and to develop and transfer such knowledge and professions to the next generation. Eventually, it leads to sustainable development because the development of human resources is deemed as the key for sustainable development. Moreover, the Experimental Film Class is an integral part of the teaching of film production at Suan Sunandha International School of Art (SISA). By means of giving opportunities to students for participation in projects by sharing experience, skill and knowledge and participation in field activities, it helps students in the film production major to enhance their abilities and potentials as preparation for their readiness in the marketplace. Additionally, in this class, we provide basic film knowledge, screenwriting techniques, editing and subtitles including uploading videos on social media such as YouTube and Facebook for the participant students.

Keywords: Experimental Film Class, Watbangkapom School, Participant students, Basic of film production, Film Workshop.

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388 Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hybrid Blends of LLDPE/Starch/PVA

Authors: Rahmah, M., Farhan, M., Akidah, N.M.Y

Abstract:

Polybag and mulch film in agricultural field are used plastics which caused environmental problems after transplantation and planting processes due to the discarded wastes. Thus a degradable polybag was designed in this study to replace non degradable polybag with natural biodegradable resin that is widely available, namely sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hybrid blend consists of SS, PVA and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was compounded at different ratios. The thermal and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. Hybrid films underwent landfill degradation tests for up to 2 months. The films showed gelation and melting transition existed for all three systems with significant melting peaks by LLDPE and PVA. All hybrid blends loses its LLDPE semi crystalline characteristics as PVA and SS systems had disrupted crystallinity and enhanced the amorphosity of the hybrid system. Generally, blending SS with PVA improves the mechanical properties of the SS based materials. Tensile strength of each film was also decreased with the increase of SS contents while its modulus had increased with SS content.

Keywords: Appearance peak, LLDPE, PVA, sago starch.

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387 Sericin Film: Influence of Concentration on its Physical Properties

Authors: N. Namviriyachote, N. Bang, P. Aramwit

Abstract:

Silk sericin (SS) is a glue-like protein from silkworm cocoon. With its outstanding moisturization and activation collagen synthesis properties, silk protein is applied for wound healing. Since wound dressing in film preparation can facilitate patients- convenience and reduce risk of wound contraction, SS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared with various concentrations of SS. Their physical properties such as surface density, light transmission, protein dissolution and tensile modulus were investigated. The results presented that 3% SS with 2% PVA is the best ingredient for SS film forming.

Keywords: Sericin, silk protein, film, wound healing.

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