Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Leila Ghorbanian

35 Preparation and Characterization of Silk/Diopside Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Leila Ghorbanian, Iren Dabirian

Abstract:

This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.

Keywords: Electrospinning, nanofibers, silk fibroin, diopside, composite scaffold.

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34 Nano-Alumina Sulfuric Acid: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminonitriles Derivatives

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Alireza Najafi Chermahini, Leila Ghorbanian

Abstract:

An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of α- aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using natural alumina, alumina sulfuric acid (ASA), nano-γ-alumina, nanoalumina sulfuric acid (nano-ASA) under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. The advantages of methods are short reaction times, high yields, milder conditions and easy work up. The catalysts can be recovered for the subsequent reactions and reused without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

Keywords: Nano-γ-alumina, nano-alumina sulfuric acid, green synthesis, microwave irradiation, α-aminonitriles derivatives.

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33 Control of Pressure Gradient in the Contraction of a Wind Tunnel

Authors: Dehghan Manshadi M., Mirzaei M., Soltani M. R., Ghorbanian K.

Abstract:

Subsonic wind tunnel experiments were conducted to study the effect of tripped boundary layer on the pressure distribution in the contraction region of the tunnel. Measurements were performed by installing trip strip at two different positions in the concave portion of the contraction. The results show that installation of the trip strips, have significant effects on both turbulence and pressure distribution. The reduction in the free stream turbulence and reduction of the wall static pressure distribution deferred signified with the location of the trip strip.

Keywords: Contraction, pressure distribution, trip strip, turbulence intensity.

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32 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

Authors: H. Yazdani, K. Ghorbanian

Abstract:

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

Keywords: Active flow control, flow field, OpenFOAM, plasma actuator.

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31 Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides

Authors: Leila Motamed-Jahromi, Mohsen Hatami, Alireza Keshavarz

Abstract:

This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.

Keywords: Nonlinear optics, propagation equation, plasmonic waveguide.

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30 Effectiveness of Working Memory Training on Cognitive Flexibility

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of memory training exercise on cognitive flexibility. The method of this study was experimental. The statistical population selected 40 students 14 years old, samples were chosen by available sampling method and then they were replaced in experimental (training program) group and control group randomly and answered to Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; covariance test results indicated that there were a significant in post-test scores of experimental group (p<0.005).

Keywords: Cognitive flexibility, working memory exercises, problem solving, reaction time.

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29 Neuroplasticity: A Fresh Beginning for Life

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ezatollah Ahmadi

Abstract:

Neuroplasticity or the flexibility of the neural system is the ability of the brain to adapt to the lack or deterioration of sense and the capability of the neural system to modify itself through changing shape and function. Not only have studies revealed that neuroplasticity does not end in childhood, but also they have proven that it continues till the end of life and is not limited to the neural system and covers the cognitive system as well. In the field of cognition, neuroplasticity is defined as the ability to change old thoughts according to new conditions and the individuals' differences in using various styles of cognitive regulation inducing several social, emotional and cognitive outcomes. This paper attempts to discuss and define major theories and principles of neuroplasticity and elaborate on nature or nurture.

Keywords: Neuroplasticity, Cognitive plasticity, Plasticity theories, Plasticity mechanisms.

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28 An Approximation Method for Exact Boundary Controllability of Euler-Bernoulli System

Authors: Abdelaziz Khernane, Naceur Khelil, Leila Djerou

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the numerical implementation of the Hilbert Uniqueness Method for the exact boundary controllability of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. This study may be difficult. This will depend on the problem under consideration (geometry, control and dimension) and the numerical method used. Knowledge of the asymptotic behaviour of the control governing the system at time T may be useful for its calculation. This idea will be developed in this study. We have characterized as a first step, the solution by a minimization principle and proposed secondly a method for its resolution to approximate the control steering the considered system to rest at time T.

Keywords: Boundary control, exact controllability, finite difference methods, functional optimization.

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27 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: All-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator.

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26 Antibacterial Activity of the Chennopodium album Leaves and Flowers Extract

Authors: Leila Amjad, Zohreh Alizad

Abstract:

Recent years have instance that there is a invigoration of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the support of health in all parts of the world . This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium album Linn. flowers and leaves were collected from East Esfahan, Iran. The effects of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested against 4 bacterial strains by using disc,well-diffusion method. Results showed that flowers and leaves methanolic and ethanolic extracts of C.album don-t have any activity against the selected bacterial strains. Our study has indicated that ,there are effective different factors on antimicrobial properties of plant extracts

Keywords: Chennopodium album, antibacterial activity, extract

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25 An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new maintenance model for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is developed, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, multivariate Bayesian control.

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24 An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability

Authors: Leila Fatemi, Morteza Moradi, Azadeh Mansouri

Abstract:

In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.

Keywords: Structural Control, optimal control, optimal sliding mode controller, modified sliding surface.

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23 Investigating the Treatability of a Compost Leachate in a Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor: An Experimental Study

Authors: Shima Rajabi, Leila Vafajoo

Abstract:

Compost manufacturing plants are one of units where wastewater is produced in significantly large amounts. Wastewater produced in these plants contains high amounts of substrate (organic loads) and is classified as stringent waste which creates significant pollution when discharged into the environment without treatment. A compost production plant in the one of the Iran-s province treating 200 tons/day of waste is one of the most important environmental pollutant operations in this zone. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate the compost wastewater treatability in hybrid anaerobic reactors with an upflow-downflow arrangement, to determine the kinetic constants, and eventually to obtain an appropriate mathematical model. After starting the hybrid anaerobic reactor of the compost production plant, the average COD removal rate efficiency was 95%.

Keywords: Leachate treatment, anaerobic hybrid reactor

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22 Optimal Production and Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable Production System with Stochastic Demand

Authors: Leila Jafari, Viliam Makis

Abstract:

In this paper, the joint optimization of the economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ), safety stock level, and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is presented for a partially observable, deteriorating system subject to random failure. The demand is stochastic and it is described by a Poisson process. The stochastic model is developed and the optimization problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. A modification of the policy iteration algorithm is developed to find the optimal policy. A numerical example is presented to compare the optimal policy with the policy considering zero safety stock.

Keywords: Condition-based maintenance, economic manufacturing quantity, safety stock, stochastic demand.

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21 Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits

Authors: Saadoudi Mouni, Hamebaba Leila, Abdeddaim Mohamed

Abstract:

In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

Keywords: Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna, Zizyphus lotus, Fibres, Soluble sugars.

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20 Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Structure and Pollen Grains Development in Chenopodium album L

Authors: Leila Amjad, Mahsa Shafighi

Abstract:

The role of the pollen grain, with to the reproductive process of higher plants, is to deliver the spermatic cells to the embryo sac for egg fertilization. The aim of this project was study the effect of electromagnetic fields on structure and pollen grains development in Chenopodium album. Anthers of Chenopodium album L. were collected at different stages of development from control (without electromagnetic field) and plants grown at 10m from the field sources. Structure and development of pollen grains were studied and compared. The studying pollen structure by Light and Scanning electron microscopy showed that electromagnetic fields reduction of pollen grains number and male sterility, thus , in some anthers, pollen grains were attached together and deformed compared to control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular tissue and organ levels.

Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, pollen, Chenopodium albumL.

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19 Evaporative Air Coolers Optimization for Energy Consumption Reduction and Energy Efficiency Ratio Increment

Authors: Leila Torkaman, Nasser Ghassembaglou

Abstract:

Significant quota of Municipal Electrical Energy consumption is related to Decentralized Air Conditioning which is mostly provided by evaporative coolers. So the aim is to optimize design of air conditioners to increase their efficiencies. To achieve this goal, results of practical standardized tests for 40 evaporative coolers in different types collected and simultaneously results for same coolers based on one of EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) modeling styles are figured out. By comparing experimental results of different coolers standardized tests with modeling results, preciseness of used model is assessed and after comparing gained preciseness with international standards based on EER for cooling capacity, aeration, and also electrical energy consumption, energy label from A (most effective) to G (less effective) is classified; finally needed methods to optimize energy consumption and coolers’ classification are provided.

Keywords: Cooler, EER, Energy Label, Optimization.

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18 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process.

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17 One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells

Authors: Leila Samiee, Amir Yadegari, Saeedeh Tasharrofi

Abstract:

In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords: Alkaline fuel cell, graphene, metal-free catalyst, paraphenylenediamine.

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16 Investigation and Comparison of Energy Intensity in Iranian Transportation Industry (Case Study Road Transportation Sector)

Authors: A. Mojtaba Aghajani, B. Leila Shavakhi

Abstract:

Energy intensity(energy consumption intensity) is a global index which computes the required energy for producing a specific value of goods and services in each country. It is computed in terms of initial energy supply or final energy consumption. In this study (research) Divisia method is used to decompose energy consumption and energy intensity. This method decomposes consumption and energy intensity to production effects, structural and net intensity and could be done as time series or two-periodical. This study analytically investigates consumption changes and energy intensity on economical sectors of Iran and more specific on road transportation(rail road and road).Our results show that the contribution of structural effect (change in economical activities combination) is very low and the effect of net energy consumption has the higher contribution in consumption changes and energy intensity. In other words, the high consumption of energy is due to Intensity of energy consumption and is not to structural effect of transportation sector.

Keywords: Divisia Method, Energy Intensity, Net IntensityEffect, Road Transportation , Structural Effect.

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15 The Impact of Women on Urban Sustainability (Case Study: Three Districts of Tehran)

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malekabadi, Leila Jalalabadi, Zahra Kiyani Ghaleh No

Abstract:

Today, systems of management and urban planning, attempt to reach more sustainable development through monitoring developments, urban development and development plans. Monitoring of changes in the urban places and sustainable urban development accounted a base for the realization of worthy goals urban sustainable development. The importance of women in environmental protection programs is high enough that in 21 agenda has been requested from all countries to allocate more shares to women in their policies. On the other hand, urban waste landfill has become one of the environmental concerns in modern cities. This research assumes that the impact of women on recycling, reduction and proper waste landfill is much more than men. For this reason, three districts; Yousef Abad, Heshmatieh & Nezam Abad are gauged through questionnaire and using the analytical research hypothesis model. This research will be categorized as functional research. The results have shown that noticing the power of women, their participation towards realization of the development objectives and programs can be used in solving their problems.

Keywords: Citizens (Urban), Environmental, Sustainability, Solid waste, Tehran.

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14 Impacts of Tillage on Biodiversity of Microarthropod Communities in Two Different Crop Systems

Authors: Leila Ramezani, Mohammad Saeid Mossadegh

Abstract:

Different uses of land by humans alter the physico chemical characteristics of the soil and affect the soil microhabitat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tillage in three different human land uses on microarthropods biodiversity in Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Three microhabitats including a permanent grassland with old Date-Palms around and no till system, and two wheat fields, one with conservative agricultural practices and low till system and the other with conventional agricultural practices (deep tillage), were compared for the biodiversity of the two main groups of soil microarthropods (Oribatida and Collembola). Soil samples were collected from the top to a depth of 15 cm bimonthly during a period of two years. Significant differences in the biodiversity index of microarthropods were observed between the different tillage systems (F = 36.748, P =0.000). Indeed, analysis of species diversity showed that the diversity index at the conservative field with low till (2.58 ± 0.01) was higher (p < 0.05) than the conventional tilled field (2.45 ± 0.08) and the diversity of natural grassland was the highest (2.79 ± 0.19, p < 0.05). Indeed, the index of biodiversity and population abundance differed significantly in different seasons (p < 0.00).

Keywords: Biodiversity, collembola, microarthropods, oribatida.

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13 Optimal Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable Two-Unit System

Authors: Leila Jafari, Viliam Makis, Akram Khaleghei G.B.

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a maintenance model of a two-unit series system with economic dependence. Unit#1 which is considered to be more expensive and more important, is subject to condition monitoring (CM) at equidistant, discrete time epochs and unit#2, which is not subject to CM has a general lifetime distribution. The multivariate observation vectors obtained through condition monitoring carry partial information about the hidden state of unit#1, which can be in a healthy or a warning state while operating. Only the failure state is assumed to be observable for both units. The objective is to find an optimal opportunistic maintenance policy minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the partially observable semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm for finding the optimal policy and the minimum average cost is developed, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Condition-Based Maintenance, Semi-Markov Decision Process, Multivariate Bayesian Control Chart, Partially Observable System, Two-unit System.

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12 Study of the Process of Climate Change According to Data Simulation Using LARS-WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian

Abstract:

Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahrood and Semnan. In this regard, LARS-WG software, HADCM3 model and A2 scenario were used for the 2010-2030 period. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be a 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data, and in general, there will be a 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.

Keywords: Climate change, Semnan province, LARS-WG model, climate parameters, HADCM3 model.

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11 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Hypromellose, gliclazide, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model.

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10 Types of Epilepsies and Findings EEG- LORETA about Epilepsy

Authors: Leila Maleki, Ahmad Esmali Kooraneh, Hossein Taghi Derakhshi

Abstract:

Neural activity in the human brain starts from the early stages of prenatal development. This activity or signals generated by the brain are electrical in nature and represent not only the brain function but also the status of the whole body. At the present moment, three methods can record functional and physiological changes within the brain with high temporal resolution of neuronal interactions at the network level: the electroencephalogram (EEG), the magnet oencephalogram (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); each of these has advantages and shortcomings. EEG recording with a large number of electrodes is now feasible in clinical practice. Multichannel EEG recorded from the scalp surface provides very valuable but indirect information about the source distribution. However, deep electrode measurements yield more reliable information about the source locations intracranial recordings and scalp EEG are used with the source imaging techniques to determine the locations and strengths of the epileptic activity. As a source localization method, Low Resolution Electro-Magnetic Tomography (LORETA) is solved for the realistic geometry based on both forward methods, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Finite Difference Method (FDM). In this paper, we review the findings EEG- LORETA about epilepsy.

Keywords: Epilepsy, EEG, EEG- Loreta, loreta analysis.

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini, Leila Mirmoghtadaie

Abstract:

In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: Biopolymer, microencapsulation, Spray-drying, Walnut green husk.

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8 Optimization of Reaction Rate Parameters in Modeling of Heavy Paraffins Dehydrogenation

Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Farhad Khorasheh, Mehrnoosh Hamzezadeh Nakhjavani, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study, a procedure was developed to determine the optimum reaction rate constants in generalized Arrhenius form and optimized through the Nelder-Mead method. For this purpose, a comprehensive mathematical model of a fixed bed reactor for dehydrogenation of heavy paraffins over Pt–Sn/Al2O3 catalyst was developed. Utilizing appropriate kinetic rate expressions for the main dehydrogenation reaction as well as side reactions and catalyst deactivation, a detailed model for the radial flow reactor was obtained. The reactor model composed of a set of partial differential equations (PDE), ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as algebraic equations all of which were solved numerically to determine variations in components- concentrations in term of mole percents as a function of time and reactor radius. It was demonstrated that most significant variations observed at the entrance of the bed and the initial olefin production obtained was rather high. The aforementioned method utilized a direct-search optimization algorithm along with the numerical solution of the governing differential equations. The usefulness and validity of the method was demonstrated by comparing the predicted values of the kinetic constants using the proposed method with a series of experimental values reported in the literature for different systems.

Keywords: Dehydrogenation, Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst, Modeling, Nelder-Mead, Optimization

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7 Investigating Climate Change Trend Based on Data Simulation and IPCC Scenario during 2010-2030 AD: Case Study of Fars Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian, Abbas Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The development of industrial activities, increase in fossil fuel consumption, vehicles, destruction of forests and grasslands, changes in land use, and population growth have caused to increase the amount of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere in recent decades. This has led to global warming and climate change. In the present paper, we have investigated the trend of climate change according to the data simulation during the time interval of 2010-2030 in the Fars province. In this research, the daily climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and number of sunny hours during the 1977-2008 time interval for synoptic stations of Shiraz and Abadeh and during 1995-2008 for Lar stations and also the output of HADCM3 model in 2010-2030 time interval have been used based on the A2 propagation scenario. The results of the model show that the average temperature will increase by about 1 degree centigrade and the amount of precipitation will increase by 23.9% compared to the observational data. In conclusion, according to the temperature increase in this province, the amount of precipitation in the form of snow will be reduced and precipitations often will occur in the form of rain. This 1-degree centigrade increase during the season will reduce production by 6 to 10% because of shortening the growing period of wheat.

Keywords: Climate change, Lars.WG, HADCM3 model, Fars province, climatic parameters, A2 scenario.

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6 Compressed Adobe Technology Analyses as Local Sustainable Materials for Retrofitting against Earthquake Approaching India Experiences

Authors: Leila Kazemi, Akram Pourmohammad, Zargham OstadiAsl, Maryam Jahandideh, Ahadollah Azami

Abstract:

Due to its geographical location, Iran is considered one of the earthquake-prone areas where the best way to decrease earthquake effects is supposed to be strengthening the buildings. Even though, one idea suggests that the use of adobe in constructing buildings be prohibited for its weak function especially in earthquake-prone areas, however, regarding ecological considerations, sustainability and other local skills, another idea pays special attention to adobe as one of the construction technologies which is popular among people. From the architectural and technological point of view, as strong sustainable building construction materials, compressed adobe construction materials make most of the construction in urban or rural areas ranging from small to big industrial buildings used to replace common earth blocks in traditional systems and strengthen traditional adobe buildings especially against earthquake. Mentioning efficient construction using compressed adobe system as a reliable replacement for traditional soil construction materials , this article focuses on the experiences of India in the fields of sustainable development of compressed adobe systems in the form of system in which the compressed soil is combined with cement, load bearing building with brick/solid concrete block system, brick system using rat trap bond, metal system with adobe infill and finally emphasizes on the use of these systems in the earthquake-struck city of Bam in Iran.

Keywords: Local Materials, Compressed Earth Blocks, Sustainable Construction, Retrofitting

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