Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 788

Search results for: Carbon

788 Beneficiation of Pyrolitic Carbon Black

Authors: Jefrey Pilusa, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This research investigated treatment of crude carbon black produced from pyrolysis of waste tyres in order to evaluate its quality and possible industrial applications. A representative sample of crude carbon black was dry screened to determine the initial particle size distribution. This was followed by pulverizing the crude carbon black and leaching in hot concentrated sulphuric acid for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants. Analysis of the refined carbon black showed a significant improvement of the product quality compared to crude carbon black. It was discovered that refined carbon black can be further classified into multiple high value products for various industrial applications such as filler, paint pigment, activated carbon and fuel briquettes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Briquettes, Fuel, Filler, Pyrolysis.

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787 The Evaluation of Low-Carbon Economy Jiangsu, China

Authors: Qiu Dong-Fang, Li Bao-bao, Min Xing

Abstract:

Low-carbon economy means the energy conservation and emission reduction. How to measure and evaluate the regional low-carbon economy is an important problem which should be solved immediately. This paper proposed the eco-efficiency ratio based on the ecological efficiency to evaluate the current situation of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu province and to analyze the efficiency of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu and other provinces, compared both advantages and disadvantages. And then this paper put forward some advices for the government to formulate the correct development policy of low-carbon economy, to improve the technology innovation capacity and the efficiency of resource allocation.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency ratio, Jiangsu, China, low-carbon economy.

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786 Insertion of Thiazolidinediones into Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Behnoush Zare, Mojdeh Akhavan, Ahmad Reza Dehpour

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the insertion of pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic effects.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, MD Simulation, Thiazolidinedions

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785 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City.

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784 Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications

Authors: D. Abdul Budan, T.S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, Glass fiber, Helical composite spring, spring rate.

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783 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: Microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst.

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782 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

One- and two-dimensional carbon nanostructures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nanostructures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: Carbon nanostructures, magnetic field, Raman spectroscopy.

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781 Estimation of Carbon Released From Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fire in Thailand

Authors: Ubonwan Chaiyo, Yannick Pizzo, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

This study focused on the estimation of carbon released to the atmosphere from dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) fires in Thailand. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a cone calorimeter to simulate the DDF fires. The leaf litter collected from DDF in western Thailand was used as biomass fuel. Three different masses of leaf litter were employed, 7g, 10g and 13g, to estimate the carbon released from this type of vegetation fire to the atmosphere. The chemical analysis of the leaf litter showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 46.0±0.1%. From the experiments, it was found that more than 95% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 5% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. From the study, the carbon released amounted 440.213±2.243 g/kgdry biomass, and the carbon retained in the residues was 19.786±2.243 g/kgdry biomass. The quantity of biomass fuel consumed to produce 1 g of carbon released was 2.27±0.01gkgdry biomass. Using these experimental data of carbon produced by the DDF fires, it was estimated that this type of fires in 2009 contributed to 4.659 tonnes of carbon released to the atmosphere, and 0.229 tonnes of carbon in the residues to be returned to soil in Thailand.

Keywords: Carbon mass balance, carbon released, tropical dry dipterocarp forest, biomass bunring.

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780 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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779 The Low-carbon Transition Exploration of China's Traditional Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Heng Ma

Abstract:

Aiming at the problems existing in low-carbon technology of Chinese manufacturing industries, such as irrational energy structure, lack of technological innovation, financial constraints, this paper puts forward the suggestion that the leading role of the government is combined with the roles of enterprises and market. That is, through increasing the governmental funding the adjustment of the industrial structures and enhancement of the legal supervision are supported. Technological innovation is accelerated by the enterprises, and the carbon trading will be promoted so as to trigger the low-carbon revolution in Chinese manufacturing field.

Keywords: Low-carbon economy, traditional manufacturing industry, industrial structure, carbon emission reduction.

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778 The Effect of Unburned Carbon on Coal Fly Ash toward its Adsorption Capacity for Methyl Violet

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at 400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.

Keywords: CFA, carbon, methyl violet, adsorption capacity.

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777 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues. 

Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Soil inorganic carbon, Carbon sequestration, Open burning, Sugarcane.

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776 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: the pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: Activated carbon, organic contaminants, Membrane bioreactor.

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775 The Effect of Carbon on Molybdenum in the Preparation of Microwave Induced Molybdenum Carbide

Authors: Abd. Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nurshaira Haifa Suhaimi

Abstract:

This study shows the effect of carbon towards molybdenum carbide alloy when exposed to Microwave. This technique is also known as Microwave Induced Alloying (MIA) for the preparation of molybdenum carbide. In this study ammonium heptamolybdate solution and carbon black powder were heterogeneously mixed and exposed to microwave irradiation for 2 minutes. The effect on amount of carbon towards the produced alloy on morphological and oxidation states changes during microwave is presented. In this experiment, it is expected carbon act as a reducing agent with the ratio 2:7 molybdenum to carbon as the optimum for the production of molybdenum carbide alloy. All the morphological transformations and changes in this experiment were followed and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and FESEM.

Keywords: Carbon, molybdenum carbide, microwave induced alloying.

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774 Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles

Authors: Svitlana Kopyl, Vladimir Bystrov, Mikhail Maiorov, Manuel Valente, Igor Bdikin, Antonio C.M. Sousa

Abstract:

Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles. Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature; however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K. The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetization, nanofluids

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773 Improving Carbon Sequestration in Concrete: A Literature Review

Authors: Adedokun D. A., Ndambuki J. M., Salim R. W.

Abstract:

Due to urbanization, trees and plants which covered a great land mass of the earth and are an excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber through photosynthesis are being replaced by several concrete based structures. It is therefore important to have these cement based structures absorb the large volume of carbon dioxide which the trees would have removed from the atmosphere during their useful lifespan. Hence the need for these cement based structures to be designed to serve other useful purposes in addition to shelter. This paper reviews the properties of Sodium carbonate and sugar as admixtures in concrete with respect to improving carbon sequestration in concrete.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, Sodium carbonate, Sugar, concrete, Carbon dioxide.

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772 A Study on the Removal of Trace Organic Matter in Water Treatment Procedures Using Powder-activated Carbon Biofilm

Authors: Rou-Han Lee, Jie, Chung Lou, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

This study uses natural water and the surface properties of powdered activated carbon to acclimatize organics, forming biofilms on the surface of powdered activated carbon. To investigate the influence of different hydraulic retention times on the removal efficacy of trace organics in raw water, and to determine the optimal hydraulic retention time of a biological powdered activated carbon system, this study selects ozone-treated water processed by Feng-shan Advanced Water Purification Plant in southern Taiwan for the experiment. The evaluation indicators include assimilable organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and total organic carbon. The results of this study can improve the quality of drinking water treated using advanced water purification procedures.

Keywords: Water Purification Procedures, Biological Powdered Activated Carbon System, Assimilable Organic Carbon

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771 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that, the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: Chromium, Adsorption, Taguchi method, Activated carbon.

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770 Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in a Monolithic Reactor

Authors: S. Chauhan, T.P.K. Grewal, S.K. Aggarwal, V.K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Solution for the complete removal of carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases still poses a challenge to the researchers and this problem is still under development. Modeling for reduction of carbon monoxide is carried out using heterogeneous reaction using low cost non-noble metal based catalysts for the purpose of controlling emissions released to the atmosphere. A simple one-dimensional model was developed for the monolith using hopcalite catalyst. The converter is assumed to be an adiabatic monolith operating under warm-up conditions. The effect of inlet gas temperatures and catalyst loading on carbon monoxide reduction during cold start period in the converter is analysed.

Keywords: carbon monoxide, catalytic, modeling, monolith

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769 Conversion of Modified Commercial Polyacrylonitrile Fibers to Carbon Fibers

Authors: R. Eslami Farsani, A. Shokuhfar, A. Sedghi

Abstract:

Carbon fibers are fabricated from different materials, such as special polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers, rayon fibers and pitch. Among these three groups of materials, PAN fibers are the most widely used precursor for the manufacture of carbon fibers. The process of fabrication carbon fibers from special PAN fibers includes two steps; oxidative stabilization at low temperature and carbonization at high temperatures in an inert atmosphere. Due to the high price of raw materials (special PAN fibers), carbon fibers are still expensive. In the present work the main goal is making carbon fibers from low price commercial PAN fibers with modified chemical compositions. The results show that in case of conducting completes stabilization process, it is possible to produce carbon fibers with desirable tensile strength from this type of PAN fibers. To this matter, thermal characteristics of commercial PAN fibers were investigated and based upon the obtained results, with some changes in conventional procedure of stabilization in terms of temperature and time variables; the desirable conditions of complete stabilization is achieved.

Keywords: Modified Commercial PAN Fibers, Stabilization, Carbonization, Carbon Fibers.

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768 Experimental Study on Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Pairs with Different Refrigerants

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Ahmed Hamza H. Ali, Ali K. Abel-Rahman

Abstract:

This study is experimentally targeting to develop effective in heat and mass transfer processes for the adsorbate to obtain applicable adsorption capacity data. This is done by using fin and tube heat exchanger core and the adsorbate is adhesive over its surface and located as the core of the adsorber. The pairs are activated carbon powder/R-134a, activated carbon powder/R-407c, activated carbon powder/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-407c and activated carbon granules/R-134a, at different adsorption temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 50°C. The following is results is obtained: at adsorption temperature of 25 °C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.8352kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.1583kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. While, at adsorption temperature of 50°C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.3207kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.0609kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. Therefore, the activated carbon powder/R-134a pair is highly recommended to be used as adsorption refrigeration working pair because of its higher maximum adsorption capacity than the other tested pairs, to produce a compact, efficient and reliable for long life performance adsorption refrigeration system.

Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent/Adsorbate Pairs, Adsorption Capacity, Refrigeration.

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767 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.

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766 Using Molecular Dynamics to Assess Mechanical Properties of PAN-Based Carbon Fibers Comprising Imperfect Crystals with Amorphous Structures

Authors: A. Ito, S. Okamoto

Abstract:

We constructed an atomic structure model for a PAN-based carbon fiber containing amorphous structures using molecular dynamics methods. It was found that basic physical properties such as crystallinity, Young’s modulus, and thermal conductivity of our model were nearly identical to those of real carbon fibers. We then obtained the tensile strength of a carbon fiber, which has no macro defects. We finally determined that the limitation of the tensile strength was 19 GPa.

Keywords: Amorphous, carbon fiber, molecular dynamics, tensile strength.

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765 Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Keh-Chin Chang, Joo-Guan Hang

Abstract:

Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during burn-off process.

Keywords: Coke oven, burning off, carbon deposits, carbon combustion, CFD.

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764 Risk Factors’ Analysis on Shanghai Carbon Trading

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Zhiyuan Liu

Abstract:

First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then, the frequency response diagram is analyzed and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed; respectively, we got the average value for each 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 days. Finally, the data are used as input of the Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.

Keywords: Shanghai carbon trading, carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, wavelet analysis, BP neural network model.

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763 Adsorption of Inorganic Salt by Granular Activated Carbon and Related Prediction Models

Authors: Kai-Lin Hsu, Jie-Chung Lou, Jia-Yun Han

Abstract:

In recent years, the underground water sources in southern Taiwan have become salinized because of saltwater intrusions. This study explores the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon on salinizing inorganic salts using isothermal adsorption experiments and provides a model analysis. The temperature range for the isothermal adsorption experiments ranged between 5 to 45 ℃, and the amount adsorbed varied between 28.21 to 33.87 mg/g. All experimental data of adsorption can be fitted to both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters for per chlorate onto granular activated carbon were calculated as -0.99 to -1.11 kcal/mol for DG°, -0.6 kcal/mol for DH°, and 1.21 to 1.84 kcal/mol for DS°. This shows that the adsorption process of granular activated carbon is spontaneously exothermic. The observation of adsorption behaviors under low ionic strength, low pH values, and low temperatures is beneficial to the adsorption removal of perchlorate with granular activated carbon.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Per Chlorate, Adsorption, Granular Activated Carbon

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762 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman

Abstract:

Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: Electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation.

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761 On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units

Authors: L. Bartonová, D. Juchelková, Z. Klika, B. Cech

Abstract:

Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3 fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes (also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8 combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile combustibles in coal were studied as well.

Keywords: Coal combustion, emissions, toxic elements, unburned carbon.

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760 Applications of Carbon Fibers Produced from Polyacrylonitrile Fibers

Authors: R. Eslami Farsani, R. Fazaeli

Abstract:

Carbon fibers have specific characteristics in comparison with industrial and structural materials used in different applications. Special properties of carbon fibers make them attractive for reinforcing and fabrication of composites. These fibers have been utilized for composites of metals, ceramics and plastics. However, it-s mainly used in different forms to reinforce lightweight polymer materials such as epoxy resin, polyesters or polyamides. The composites of carbon fiber are stronger than steel, stiffer than titanium, and lighter than aluminum and nowadays they are used in a variety of applications. This study explains applications of carbon fibers in different fields such as space, aviation, transportation, medical, construction, energy, sporting goods, electronics, and the other commercial/industrial applications. The last findings of composites with polymer, metal and ceramic matrices containing carbon fibers and their applications in the world investigated. Researches show that carbon fibers-reinforced composites due to unique properties (including high specific strength and specific modulus, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fatigue strength, and high thermal stability) can be replaced with common industrial and structural materials.

Keywords: Polyacrylonitrile Fibers, Carbon Fibers, Application

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759 Construction of a Low Carbon Eco-City Index System Based on CAS Theory: A Case of Hexi Newtown in Nanjing, China

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

The practice of urban planning and construction based on the concept of the “low carbon eco-city” has been universally accepted by the academic community in response to urban issues such as population, resources, environment, and social development. Based on this, the current article first analyzes the concepts of low carbon eco-city, then builds a complex adaptive system (CAS) theory based on Chinese traditional philosophical thinking, and analyzes the adaptive relationship between material and non-material elements. A three-dimensional evaluation model of natural ecology, economic low carbon, and social harmony was constructed. Finally, the construction of a low carbon eco-city index system in Hexi Newtown of Nanjing was used as an example to verify the effectiveness of the research results; this paradigm provides a new way to achieve a low carbon eco-city system.

Keywords: Complex adaptive system, low carbon ecology, index system, model.

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