Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3412

Search results for: Boundary layer flow

3412 A Large-Eddy Simulation of Vortex Cell flow with Incoming Turbulent Boundary Layer

Authors: Arpiruk Hokpunna, Michael Manhart

Abstract:

We present a Large-Eddy simulation of a vortex cell with circular shaped. The results show that the flow field can be sub divided into four important zones, the shear layer above the cavity, the stagnation zone, the vortex core in the cavity and the boundary layer along the wall of the cavity. It is shown that the vortex core consits of solid body rotation without much turbulence activity. The vortex is mainly driven by high energy packets that are driven into the cavity from the stagnation point region and by entrainment of fluid from the cavity into the shear layer. The physics in the boundary layer along the cavity-s wall seems to be far from that of a canonical boundary layer which might be a crucial point for modelling this flow.

Keywords: Turbulent flow, Large eddy simulations, boundary layer and cavity flow, vortex cell flow.

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3411 Large Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves a numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 15°angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It reposes inputting a cylindrical rod upstream of the leading edge in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, non-stationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 51%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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3410 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong

Abstract:

This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: Wall Pressure Fluctuation, Boundary Layer Flow, Transition, Turbulent Flow, Axisymmetric Body, Flow Noise.

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3409 Natural Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid on Solid Sphere with Newtonian Heating

Authors: A.R.M. Kasim, N.F. Mohammad, Aurangzaib, S. Sharidan

Abstract:

The present paper considers the steady free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic fluid on solid sphere with Newtonian heating. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. Thus, the augmentation an extra boundary condition is needed to perform the numerical computational. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into non-dimensional form by using special dimensionless group and then solved by using an implicit finite difference scheme. The results are displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic K and Prandtl Number Pr parameters on skin friction, heat transfer, velocity profiles and temperature profiles. Present results are compared with the published papers and are found to concur very well.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, Newtonian heating, sphere, viscoelastic fluid.

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3408 Investigation of Increasing the Heat Transfer from Flat Surfaces Using Boundary Layer Excitation

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with effect of exciting boundary layer on increase in heat transfer from flat surfaces. As any increase in heat transfer between a fluid inside a face and another one outside of it can cause an increase in some equipment's efficiency, so at this present we have tried to increase the wall's heat transfer coefficient by exciting the fluid boundary layer. By a collision between flow and the placed block at the fluid way, the flow pattern and the boundary layer stability will change. The flow way inside the channel is simulated as a 2&3-dimensional channel by Gambit TM software. With studying the achieved results by this simulation for the flow way inside the channel with a block coordinating with Fluent TM software, it's determined that the figure and dimensions of the exciter are too important for exciting the boundary layer so that any increase in block dimensions in vertical side against the flow and any reduction in its dimensions at the flow side can increase the average heat transfer coefficient from flat surface and increase the flow pressure loss. Using 2&3-dimensional analysis on exciting the flow at the flow way inside a channel by cylindrical block at the same time with the external flow, we came to this conclusion that the heat flux transferred from the surface, is increased considerably in terms of the condition without excitation. Also, the k-e turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Heat transfer, Turbulence, Excitingboundary layer.

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3407 A Frequency Dependence of the Phase Field Model in Laminar Boundary Layer with Periodic Perturbations

Authors: Yasuo Obikane

Abstract:

The frequency dependence of the phase field model(PFM) is studied. A simple PFM is proposed, and is tested in a laminar boundary layer. The Blasius-s laminar boundary layer solution on a flat plate is used for the flow pattern, and several frequencies are imposed on the PFM, and the decay times of the interfaces are obtained. The computations were conducted for three cases: 1) no-flow, and 2) a half ball on the laminar boundary layer, 3) a line of mass sources in the laminar boundary layer. The computations show the decay time becomes shorter as the frequency goes larger, and also show that it is sensitive to both background disturbances and surface tension parameters. It is concluded that the proposed simple PFM can describe the properties of decay process, and could give the fundamentals for the decay of the interface in turbulent flows.

Keywords: Phase field model, two phase flows, Laminarboundary Layer

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3406 Numerical Study of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil

Authors: M. Tahar Bouzaher

Abstract:

This study involves numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 18° angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It involves putting a cylindrical rod - upstream of the leading edge- in vertical translation movement in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, nonstationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The rod movement is reproduced using the dynamic mesh technique and an in-house developed UDF (User Define Function). The frequency varies from 75 to 450 Hz and the considered amplitudes are 2%, and 3% of the foil chord. The frequency chosen closed to the frequency of separation. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 61%.

Keywords: CFD, Flow separation, Active control, Boundary layer, rod, NACA 2415.

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3405 Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Anuar Ishak, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

Unsteady boundary layer flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet when the sheet is stretched in its own plane is studied in this paper. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in a micropolar fluid. The transformed unsteady boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Keller-box method for the whole transient from the initial state to final steady-state flow. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity and microrotation distributions as well as the skin friction coefficient for various values of the material parameter K. It is found that there is a smooth transition from the small-time solution to the large-time solution.

Keywords: Boundary layer, micropolar fluid, stretching surface, unsteady flow.

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3404 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Ejector with Diffuser with Boundary Layer Suction

Authors: Vaclav Dvorak

Abstract:

The article deals with experimental and numerical investigation of axi-symmetric subsonic air to air ejector with diffuser adapted for boundary layer suction. The diffuser, which is placed behind the mixing chamber of the ejector, has high divergence angle and therefore low efficiency. To increase the efficiency, the diffuser is equipped with slot enabling boundary layer suction. The effect of boundary layer suction on flow in ejector, static pressure distribution on the mixing chamber wall and characteristic were measured and studied numerically. Both diffuser and ejector efficiency were evaluated. The diffuser efficiency was increased, however, the efficiency of ejector itself remained low.

Keywords: Air ejector, boundary layer suction, CFD, diffuser.

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3403 Triggering Supersonic Boundary-Layer Instability by Small-Scale Vortex Shedding

Authors: Guohua Tu, Zhi Fu, Zhiwei Hu, Neil D Sandham, Jianqiang Chen

Abstract:

Tripping of boundary-layers from laminar to turbulent flow, which may be necessary in specific practical applications, requires high amplitude disturbances to be introduced into the boundary layers without large drag penalties. As a possible improvement on fixed trip devices, a technique based on vortex shedding for enhancing supersonic flow transition is demonstrated in the present paper for a Mach 1.5 boundary layer. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-order (fifth-order in space and third-order in time) finite difference method for small-scale cylinders suspended transversely near the wall. For cylinders with proper diameter and mount location, asymmetry vortices shed within the boundary layer are capable of tripping laminar-turbulent transition. Full three-dimensional simulations showed that transition was enhanced. A parametric study of the size and mounting location of the cylinder is carried out to identify the most effective setup. It is also found that the vortex shedding can be suppressed by some factors such as wall effect.

Keywords: Boundary layer instability, boundary layer transition, vortex shedding, supersonic flows, flow control.

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3402 Thermosolutal MHD Mixed Marangoni Convective Boundary Layers in the Presence of Suction or Injection

Authors: Noraini Ahmad, Seripah Awang Kechil, Norma Mohd Basir

Abstract:

The steady coupled dissipative layers, called Marangoni mixed convection boundary layers, in the presence of a magnetic field and solute concentration that are formed along the surface of two immiscible fluids with uniform suction or injection effects is examined. The similarity boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg with shooting technique. The Marangoni, buoyancy and external pressure gradient effects that are generated in mixed convection boundary layer flow are assessed. The velocity, temperature and concentration boundary layers thickness decrease with the increase of the magnetic field strength and the injection to suction. For buoyancy-opposed flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter enhances the velocity boundary layer but decreases the temperature and concentration boundary layers. However, for the buoyancy-assisted flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter decelerates the velocity but increases the temperature and concentration boundary layers.

Keywords: Magnetic field, mixed Marangoni convection, similarity boundary layers, solute concentration.

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3401 Numerical Investigation of Two-dimensional Boundary Layer Flow Over a Moving Surface

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R.N. Pralhad

Abstract:

In this chapter, we have studied Variation of velocity in incompressible fluid over a moving surface. The boundary layer equations are on a fixed or continuously moving flat plate in the same or opposite direction to the free stream with suction and injection. The boundary layer equations are transferred from partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting methods. We have found numerical solution to velocity and skin friction coefficient.

Keywords: Boundary layer, continuously moving surface, shooting method, skin friction coefficient.

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3400 CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

Authors: K. Vasudeva Karanth, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.

Keywords: Boundary layer suction converging slot, Flowseparation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jetsand wakes.

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3399 Effect of Mesh Size on the Viscous Flow Parameters of an Axisymmetric Nozzle

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow in the axisymmetric nozzle taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier- Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the supersonic flow parameters at the exit of convergingdiverging nozzle. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, along with CFL coefficient and mesh size level is selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the boundary layer thickness is significant at the exit of the nozzle. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid, especially near the wall, where we have a strong variation of velocity, temperature and shear stress. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, nozzle

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3398 High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements

Authors: Alexander Buhr, Klaus Ehrenfried

Abstract:

Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed. The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard (TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures. The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.

Keywords: Boundary layer, high-speed PIV, ICE3, moving train model, roughness elements.

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3397 Cooling Turbine Blades using Exciting Boundary Layer

Authors: Ali Ghobadi, Seyed Mohammad Javadi, Behnam Rahimi

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the effect of exciting boundary layer on cooling process in a gas-turbine blades. The cooling process is numerically investigated. Observations show cooling the first row of moving or stable blades leads to increase their life-time. Results show that minimum temperature in cooling line with exciting boundary layer is lower than without exciting. Using block in cooling line of turbines' blade causes flow pattern and stability in boundary layer changed that causes increase in heat transfer coefficient. Results show at the location of block, temperature of turbines' blade is significantly decreased. The k-ε turbulence model is used.

Keywords: Cooling, Exciting Boundary Layer, Heat Transfer, Turbine Blade.

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3396 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid

Authors: Ezzah Liana Ahmad Fauzi, Syakila Ahmad, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.

Keywords: boundary layer, mixed convection, nanofluid, porous medium, vertical cone.

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3395 Unsteady Water Boundary Layer Flow with Non-Uniform Mass Transfer

Authors: G. Revathi, P. Saikrishnan

Abstract:

In the present analysis an unsteady laminar forced convection water boundary layer flow is considered. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are taken as variables such that those are inversely proportional to temperature. By using quasi-linearization technique the nonlinear coupled partial differential equations are linearized and the numerical solutions are obtained by using implicit finite difference scheme with the appropriate selection of step sizes. Non-similar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the stream-wise coordinate to the point where skin friction value vanishes. The effect non-uniform mass transfer along the surface of the cylinder through slot is studied on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients.

Keywords: Boundary layer, heat transfer, non-similar solution, non-uniform mass, unsteady flow.

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3394 Effect of Plunging Oscillation on an Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Section

Authors: F. Rasi Marzabadi

Abstract:

A series of experiments were carried out to study unsteady behavior of the flow field as well as the boundary layer of an airfoil oscillating in plunging motion in a subsonic wind tunnel. The measurements involved surface pressure distribution complimented with surface-mounted hot-films. The effect of leadingedge roughness that simulates surface irregularities on the wind turbine blades was also studied on variations of aerodynamic loads and boundary layer behavior.

Keywords: Boundary layer transition, plunging, reduced frequency, wind turbine.

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3393 PIV Investigation into the Evolution of Vortical Structures in the Zero Pressure Gradient Boundary Layer

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R. Tahir

Abstract:

Experimental investigation has been carried out towards understanding the complex fluid dynamics involved in the interaction of vortical structures with zero pressure gradient boundary layer. A laminar boundary layer is produced on the flat plate placed in the water flume and the synthetic jet actuator is deployed on top of the plate at a definite distance from the leading edge. The synthetic jet actuator has been designed in such a way that the to and fro motion of the diaphragm is maneuvered at will by varying the operating parameters to produce the typical streamwise vortical structures namely hairpin and tilted vortices. PIV measurements are made on the streamwise plane normal to the plate to evaluate their interaction with the near wall fluid.

Keywords: Boundary layer, synthetic jet actuator, flow separation control, vortical structures.

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3392 Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid in the Presence of Heat Generation

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Mohd Ariff Admon, Sharidan Shafie

Abstract:

The present paper considers the steady free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastics fluid with constant temperature in the presence of heat generation. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into non-dimensional form by using special dimensionless group. Computations are performed numerically by using Keller-box method by augmenting an extra boundary condition at infinity and the results are displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic K, heat generation γ , and Prandtl Number, Pr parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles. The results of the surface shear stress in terms of the local skin friction and the surface rate of heat transfer in terms of the local Nusselt number for a selection of the heat generation parameterγ (=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) are obtained and presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Without effect of the internal heat generation inside the fluid domain for which we take γ = 0.0, the present numerical results show an excellent agreement with previous publication.

Keywords: Free Convection, Boundary Layer, CircularCylinder, Viscoelastic Fluid, Heat Generation

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3391 Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Turbulent Flow around the Panorama Giustinelli Building for VAWT Application

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. Mogno, S. Giacometti, E. Benini

Abstract:

A boundary layer wind tunnel facility has been adopted in order to conduct experimental measurements of the flow field around a model of the Panorama Giustinelli Building, Trieste (Italy). Information on the main flow structures has been obtained by means of flow visualization techniques and has been compared to the numerical predictions of the vortical structures spread on top of the roof, in order to investigate the optimal positioning for a vertical-axis wind energy conversion system, registering a good agreement between experimental measurements and numerical predictions.

Keywords: Boundary layer wind tunnel, flow around buildings, atmospheric flow field, vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT).

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3390 Effect of Thermal Radiation on Temperature Variation in 2-D Stagnation-Point flow

Authors: Vai Kuong Sin

Abstract:

Non-isothermal stagnation-point flow with consideration of thermal radiation is studied numerically. A set of partial differential equations that governing the fluid flow and energy is converted into a set of ordinary differential equations which is solved by Runge-Kutta method with shooting algorithm. Dimensionless wall temperature gradient and temperature boundary layer thickness for different combinaton of values of Prandtl number Pr and radiation parameter NR are presented graphically. Analyses of results show that the presence of thermal radiation in the stagnation-point flow is to increase the temperature boundary layer thickness and decrease the dimensionless wall temperature gradient.

Keywords: Stagnation-point flow, Similarity solution, Thermal radiation.

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3389 A Study of Various Numerical Turbulence Modeling Methods in Boundary Layer Excitation of a Square Ribbed Channel

Authors: Hojjat Saberinejad, Adel Hashiehbaf, Ehsan Afrasiabian

Abstract:

Among the various cooling processes in industrial applications such as: electronic devices, heat exchangers, gas turbines, etc. Gas turbine blades cooling is the most challenging one. One of the most common practices is using ribbed wall because of the boundary layer excitation and therefore making the ultimate cooling. Vortex formation between rib and channel wall will result in a complicated behavior of flow regime. At the other hand, selecting the most efficient method for capturing the best results comparing to experimental works would be a fascinating issue. In this paper 4 common methods in turbulence modeling: standard k-e, rationalized k-e with enhanced wall boundary layer treatment, k-w and RSM (Reynolds stress model) are employed to a square ribbed channel to investigate the separation and thermal behavior of the flow in the channel. Finally all results from different methods which are used in this paper will be compared with experimental data available in literature to ensure the numerical method accuracy.

Keywords: boundary layer, turbulence, numerical method, rib cooling

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3388 Revolving Ferrofluid Flow in Porous Medium with Rotating Disk

Authors: Paras Ram, Vikas Kumar

Abstract:

An attempt has been made to study the effect of rotation on incompressible, electrically non-conducting ferrofluid in porous medium on Axi-symmetric steady flow over a rotating disk excluding thermal effects. Here, we solved the boundary layer equations with boundary conditions using Neuringer-Rosensweig model considering the z-axis as the axis of rotation. The non linear boundary layer equations involved in the problem are transformed to the non linear coupled ordinary differential equations by Karman's transformation and solved by power series approximations. Besides numerically calculating the velocity components and pressure for different values of porosity parameter with the variation of Karman's parameter we have also calculated the displacement thickness of boundary layer, the total volume flowing outward the z-axis and angle between wall and ferrofluid. The results for all above variables are obtained numerically and discussed graphically.

Keywords: Ferrofluid, magnetic field porous medium, rotating disk.

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3387 Sliding Mode Control with Fuzzy Boundary Layer to Air-Air Interception Problem

Authors: Mustafa Resa Becan

Abstract:

The performance of a type of fuzzy sliding mode control is researched by considering the nonlinear characteristic of a missile-target interception problem to obtain a robust interception process. The variable boundary layer by using fuzzy logic is proposed to reduce the chattering around the switching surface then is applied to the interception model which was derived. The performances of the sliding mode control with constant and fuzzy boundary layer are compared at the end of the study and the results are evaluated.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, fuzzy, boundary layer, interception problem.

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3386 Design and Characteristics of New Test Facility for Flat Plate Boundary Layer Research

Authors: N. Patten, T. M. Young, P. Griffin

Abstract:

Preliminary results for a new flat plate test facility are presented here in the form of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), flow visualisation, pressure measurements and thermal anemometry. The results from the CFD and flow visualisation show the effectiveness of the plate design, with the trailing edge flap anchoring the stagnation point on the working surface and reducing the extent of the leading edge separation. The flow visualization technique demonstrates the two-dimensionality of the flow in the location where the thermal anemometry measurements are obtained. Measurements of the boundary layer mean velocity profiles compare favourably with the Blasius solution, thereby allowing for comparison of future measurements with the wealth of data available on zero pressure gradient Blasius flows. Results for the skin friction, boundary layer thickness, frictional velocity and wall shear stress are shown to agree well with the Blasius theory, with a maximum experimental deviation from theory of 5%. Two turbulence generating grids have been designed and characterized and it is shown that the turbulence decay downstream of both grids agrees with established correlations. It is also demonstrated that there is little dependence of turbulence on the freestream velocity.

Keywords: CFD, Flow Visualisation, Thermal Anemometry, Turbulence Grids.

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3385 Unsteady Laminar Boundary Layer Forced Flow in the Region of the Stagnation Point on a Stretching Flat Sheet

Authors: A. T. Eswara

Abstract:

This paper analyses the unsteady, two-dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat sheet when the flow is started impulsively from rest and at the same time, the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The partial differential equations governing the laminar boundary layer forced convection flow are non-dimensionalised using semi-similar transformations and then solved numerically using an implicit finitedifference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Results pertaining to the flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed for all dimensionless time, uniformly valid in the whole spatial region without any numerical difficulties. Analytical solutions are also obtained for both small and large times, respectively representing the initial unsteady and final steady state flow and heat transfer. Numerical results indicate that the velocity ratio parameter is found to have a significant effect on skin friction and heat transfer rate at the surface. Furthermore, it is exposed that there is a smooth transition from the initial unsteady state flow (small time solution) to the final steady state (large time solution).

Keywords: Forced flow, Keller-box method, Stagnation point, Stretching flat sheet, Unsteady laminar boundary layer, Velocity ratio parameter.

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3384 Effect of Mesh Size on the Supersonic Viscous Flow Parameters around an Axisymmetric Blunt Body

Authors: Rabah Haoui

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to analyze a viscous flow around the axisymmetric blunt body taken into account the mesh size both in the free stream and into the boundary layer. The resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations is realized by using the finite volume method to determine the flow parameters and detached shock position. The numerical technique uses the Flux Vector Splitting method of Van Leer. Here, adequate time stepping parameter, CFL coefficient and mesh size level are selected to ensure numerical convergence. The effect of the mesh size is significant on the shear stress and velocity profile. The best solution is obtained with using a very fine grid. This study enabled us to confirm that the determination of boundary layer thickness can be obtained only if the size of the mesh is lower than a certain value limits given by our calculations.

Keywords: Supersonic flow, viscous flow, finite volume, blunt body.

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3383 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flows Induced by a Permeable Continuous Surface Stretched with Prescribed Skin Friction

Authors: Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

The boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction is studied for permeable surface. The surface temperature is assumed to vary inversely with the vertical direction x for n = -1. The skin friction at the surface scales as (x-1/2) at m = 0. The constants m and n are the indices of the power law velocity and temperature exponent respectively. Similarity solutions are obtained for the boundary layer equations subject to power law temperature and velocity variation. The effect of various governing parameters, such as the buoyancy parameter λ and the suction/injection parameter fw for air (Pr = 0.72) are studied. The choice of n and m ensures that the used similarity solutions are x independent. The results show that, assisting flow (λ > 0) enhancing the heat transfer coefficient along the surface for any constant value of fw. Furthermore, injection increases the heat transfer coefficient but suction reduces it at constant λ.

Keywords: Stretching surface, Boundary layers, Prescribed skin friction, Suction or injection, similarity solutions, buoyancy effects.

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