Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 242

Search results for: Hassan Abbassi

242 Evaluation of Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation by Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: Houda Jalali, Hassan Abbassi

Abstract:

In this numerical work, natural convection and entropy generation of Al2O3–water nanofluid in square cavity have been studied. A two-dimensional steady laminar natural convection in a differentially heated square cavity of length L, filled with a nanofluid is investigated numerically. The horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. Vertical walls corresponding to x=0 and x=L are respectively maintained at hot temperature, Th and cold temperature, Tc. The resolution is performed by the CFD code "FLUENT" in combination with GAMBIT as mesh generator. These simulations are performed by maintaining the Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, while the solid volume fraction varied from 1% to 5%, the particle size is fixed at dp=33 nm and a range of the temperature from 20 to 70 °C. We used models of thermophysical nanofluids properties based on experimental measurements for studying the effect of adding solid particle into water in natural convection heat transfer and entropy generation of nanofluid. Such as models of thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity which are dependent on solid volume fraction, particle size and temperature. The average Nusselt number is calculated at the hot wall of the cavity in a different solid volume fraction. The most important results is that at low temperatures (less than 40 °C), the addition of nanosolids Al2O3 into water leads to a decrease in heat transfer and entropy generation instead of the expected increase, whereas at high temperature, heat transfer and entropy generation increase with the addition of nanosolids. This behavior is due to the contradictory effects of viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. These effects are discussed in this work.

Keywords: Entropy generation, heat transfer, nanofluid, natural convection.

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241 Radon Concentration in the Water Samples of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

Authors: T. S. Shashikumar

Abstract:

Radon is a radioactive gas emitted from radium, a daughter product of uranium that occurs naturally in rocks and soil. Radon, together with its decay products, emits alpha particles that can damage lung tissue. The activity concentration of 222Ra has been analyzed in water samples collected from borewells and rivers in and around Hassan city, Karnataka State, India. The measurements were performed by Emanometry technique. The concentration of 222Rn in borewell waters varies from 18.49±1.89 to 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 with geometric mean 120.48±12.87 Bql-1 and in river waters it varies from 92.63±9.31 to 93.98±9.51 Bql-1 with geometric mean of 93.16±9.33 Bql-1. In the present study, the radon concentrations are higher in Adarshanagar and Viveka Nagar which are found to be 397.26±12.3 Bql-1 and 325.78±32.56 Bql-1. Most of the analysed samples show a 222Rn concentration more than 100 Bql-1 and this can be attributed to the geology of the area where the ground waters are located, which is predominantly of granitic characteristic. The average inhalation dose and ingestion dose in the borewell water are found to be 0.405 and 0.033 µSvy-1; and in river water it is found to be 0.234 and 0.019 µSvy-1, respectively. The average total effective dose rate in borewell waters and river waters are found to be 0.433 and 0.253 µSvy-1, which does not cause any health risk to the population of Hassan region.

Keywords: Borewell, effective dose, emanometry, 222Rn.

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240 Surface Morphology and Formation of Nanostructured Porous GaN by UV-assisted Electrochemical Etching

Authors: L. S. Chuah, Z. Hassan, C. W. Chin, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

This article reports on the studies of porous GaN prepared by ultra-violet (UV) assisted electrochemical etching in a solution of 4:1:1 HF: CH3OH:H2O2 under illumination of an UV lamp with 500 W power for 10, 25 and 35 minutes. The optical properties of porous GaN sample were compared to the corresponding as grown GaN. Porosity induced photoluminescence (PL) intensity enhancement was found in these samples. The resulting porous GaN displays blue shifted PL spectra compared to the as-grown GaN. Appearance of the blue shifted emission is correlated with the development of highly anisotropic structures in the morphology. An estimate of the size of the GaN nanostructure can be obtained with the help of a quantized state effective mass theory.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, porous GaN, electrochemical etching, Si, RF-MBE.

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239 Performance of InGaN/GaN Laser Diode Based on Quaternary Alloys Stopper and Superlattice Layers

Authors: S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

The optical properties of InGaN/GaN laser diode based on quaternary alloys stopper and superlattice layers are numerically studied using ISE TCAD (Integrated System Engineering) simulation program. Improvements in laser optical performance have been achieved using quaternary alloy as superlattice layers in InGaN/GaN laser diodes. Lower threshold current of 18 mA and higher output power and slope efficiency of 22 mW and 1.6 W/A, respectively, at room temperature have been obtained. The laser structure with InAlGaN quaternary alloys as an electron blocking layer was found to provide better laser performance compared with the ternary AlxGa1-xN blocking layer.

Keywords: Nitride semiconductors, InAlGaN quaternary, laserdiode, superlattice.

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238 A New Algorithm for Solving Isothermal Carbonization of Wood Particle

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed as a potential solver for one-dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of wood particles. To check the validity of this algorithm, the LBM results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and particle size on the evolution of the local temperature and mass loss inside the wood particle.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, pyrolysis, conduction, carbonization.

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237 Analysis of Conduction-Radiation Heat Transfer in a Planar Medium: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

In this paper, the 1-D conduction-radiation problem is solved by the lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of various parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the wall emissivity are studied. In order to check on the accuracy of the numerical technique employed for the solution of the considered problem, the present numerical code was validated with the published study. The found results are in good agreement with those published

Keywords: Conduction, lattice Boltzmann method, planar medium, radiation.

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236 Influence of Bentonite Additive on Bitumen and Asphalt Mixture Properties

Authors: Ziari Hassan, Divandari Hassan, Babagoli Rezvan, Akbari Ali

Abstract:

Asphalt surfaces are exposed to various weather conditions and dynamic loading caused by passing trucks and vehicles. In such situations, asphalt cement shows so different rheological-mechanical behavior. If asphalt cement isn-t compatible enough, asphalt layer will be damaged immediately and expensive repairing procedures should be performed then. To overcome this problem, researchers study on mechanical improved asphalt cement. In this study, bentonite was used in order to modify bitumen characteristics and the modified bitumen's characteristics were investigated by asphalt cement tests. Then, the optimal bitumen content in various compounds was determined and asphalt samples with different contents of additives were prepared and tested. Results show using this kind of additive not only has caused improvement in bitumen mechanical properties, but also improvement in Marshall Parameters was achieved.

Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Bentonite, Modified bitumen, Performance characteristics

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235 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Carbonization of Wood Particle

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoudi, Imen Mejri, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

A numerical study based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is proposed to solve one, two and three dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of thick wood particles. To check the validity of the proposed model, computational results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and thermal boundary conditions, on the evolution of the local temperature and the mass distributions of the wood particle during carbonization

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, pyrolysis conduction, carbonization, Heat and mass transfer.

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234 Hardware Implementation of Stack-Based Replacement Algorithms

Authors: Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Sepideh Mazrouee, Hassan Goldani Moghaddam, Hamid Shojaei, Mohammad Reza Kakoee

Abstract:

Block replacement algorithms to increase hit ratio have been extensively used in cache memory management. Among basic replacement schemes, LRU and FIFO have been shown to be effective replacement algorithms in terms of hit rates. In this paper, we introduce a flexible stack-based circuit which can be employed in hardware implementation of both LRU and FIFO policies. We propose a simple and efficient architecture such that stack-based replacement algorithms can be implemented without the drawbacks of the traditional architectures. The stack is modular and hence, a set of stack rows can be cascaded depending on the number of blocks in each cache set. Our circuit can be implemented in conjunction with the cache controller and static/dynamic memories to form a cache system. Experimental results exhibit that our proposed circuit provides an average value of 26% improvement in storage bits and its maximum operating frequency is increased by a factor of two

Keywords: Cache Memory, Replacement Algorithms, LeastRecently Used Algorithm, First In First Out Algorithm.

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233 Radiation Heat Transfer Effect in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

The radiation effect within the solid anode, electrolyte, and cathode SOFC layers problem has been investigated in this paper. Energy equation is solved by the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Rosseland method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrodes. The Schuster-Schwarzschild method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrolyte. Without radiative effect, the found results are in good agreement with those published. The obtained results show that the radiative effect can be neglected.

Keywords: SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, conduction, radiation.

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232 Surface Phonon Polariton in InAlGaN Quaternary Alloys

Authors: S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan, H. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

III-nitride quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys have experienced considerable interest as potential materials for optoelectronic applications. Despite these interesting applications and the extensive efforts to understand their fundamental properties, research on its fundamental surface property, i.e., surface phonon polariton (SPP) has not yet been reported. In fact, the SPP properties have been shown to provide application for some photonic devices. Hence, there is an absolute need for thorough studies on the SPP properties of this material. In this work, theoretical study on the SPP modes in InAlGaN quaternary alloys are reported. Attention is focus on the wurtzite (α-) structure InxAlyGa1-x-yN semi-crystal with different In composition, x ranging from 0 to 0.10 and constant Al composition, y = 0.06. The SPP modes are obtained through the theoretical simulation by means of anisotropy model. The characteristics of SP dispersion curves are discussed. Accessible results in terms of the experimental point of view are also given. Finally, the results revealed that the SPP mode of α-InxAlyGa1-x-yN semiconductors exhibits two-mode behavior.

Keywords: III-nitride semiconductor, attenuated total reflection, quaternary alloy, surface phonon polariton.

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231 InAlGaN Quaternary Multi-Quantum Wells UVLaser Diode Performance and Characterization

Authors: S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

The InAlGaN alloy has only recently began receiving serious attention into its growth and application. High quality InGaN films have led to the development of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue laser diodes (LDs). The quaternary InAlGaN however, represents a more versatile material since the bandgap and lattice constant can be independently varied. We report an ultraviolet (UV) quaternary InAlGaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) LD study by using the simulation program of Integrated System Engineering (ISE TCAD). Advanced physical models of semiconductor properties were used in order to obtain an optimized structure. The device performance which is affected by piezoelectric and thermal effects was studied via drift-diffusion model for carrier transport, optical gain and loss. The optical performance of the UV LD with different numbers of quantum wells was numerically investigated. The main peak of the emission wavelength for double quantum wells (DQWs) was shifted from 358 to 355.8 nm when the forward current was increased. Preliminary simulated results indicated that better output performance and lower threshold current could be obtained when the quantum number is four, with output power of 130 mW and threshold current of 140 mA.

Keywords: Nitride semiconductors, InAlGaN quaternary, UVLD, numerical simulation.

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230 Efficacy of Biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40 KD (Peg INF) in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Authors: Ghias ul Hassan, Bilal Nasir, Israr ul Haque, ShafiqAwan, Ghias Un NabiTayyab, S. Hassan Akhtar Bokhari, Khawar Saeed, Qazi Masroor

Abstract:

Introduction: Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin combination is standard of care in the management of chronic HCV infected patients. Efficacy of the therapy is judged by the ability to achieve biochemical and virological response as judged by RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of newly marketed biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40KD (Peg INF) in chronic HCV patients. Materials and methods: This was observational, prospective multicentre study to evaluate the ability of biosimilar pegylated interferon alfa 2a (40KD) along with Ribavirin (weight based) to achieve SVR. The enrolled patients were separated into Naïve (A), Relapsers (B) and Non Responders(C) based on the previous history of interferon exposure and its response. The RGT was followed on ALT and RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Results:As per protocol analysis estimated SVR for three groups is 86.6% for naïve, 89.4% for relapsers and 52.4% for non-responders to standard interferon. Conclusion: It is concluded that Bio-similar pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40kD) along with Ribavirin has good anti-viral efficacy in Naïve, Relapsers and Non-responders to standard IFN of chronic HCV infected patients requiring treatment.

Keywords: SVR (Sustained virological response), NR (Nonresponders), Pegylated Interferon.

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229 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of MHD Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Cu-Water Nanofluid in a Linearly/Sinusoidally Heated Cavity

Authors: Bouchmel Mliki, Chaouki Ali, Mohamed Ammar Abbassi

Abstract:

In this numerical study, natural convection of Cu–water nanofluid in a cavity submitted to different heating modes on its vertical walls is analyzed. Maxwell-Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models have been utilized for calculating the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluid, respectively. Influences of Rayleigh number (Ra = 103−106), nanoparticle volume concentration (f = 0-0.04) and Hartmann number (Ha = 0-90) on the flow and heat transfer characteristics have been examined. The results indicate that the Hartmann number influences the heat transfer at Ra = 106 more than other Raleigh numbers, as the least effect is observed at Ra = 103. Moreover, the results show that the solid volume fraction has a significant influence on heat transfer, depending on the value of Hartmann, heat generation or absorption coefficient and Rayleigh numbers.

Keywords: Heat transfer, linearly/sinusoidally heated, Lattice Boltzmann Method, natural convection, nanofluid.

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228 Structural and Optical Properties ofInxAlyGa1-x-yN Quaternary Alloys

Authors: N. H. Abd Raof, H. Abu Hassan, S.K. Mohd Bakhori, S. S. Ng, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

Quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN semiconductors have attracted much research interest because the use of this quaternary offer the great flexibility in tailoring their band gap profile while maintaining their lattice-matching and structural integrity. The structural and optical properties of InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presented. The structural quality of InxAlyGa1-x-yN layers was characterized using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The results confirm that the InxAlyGa1-x-yN films had wurtzite structure and without phase separation. As the In composition increases, the Bragg angle of the (0002) InxAlyGa1-x-yN peak gradually decreases, indicating the increase in the lattice constant c of the alloys. FWHM of (0002) InxAlyGa1-x-yN decreases with increasing In composition from 0 to 0.04, that could indicate the decrease of quality of the samples due to point defects leading to non-uniformity of the epilayers. UV-VIS spectroscopy have been used to study the energy band gap of InxAlyGa1-x-yN. As the indium (In) compositions increases, the energy band gap decreases. However, for InxAlyGa1-x-yN with In composition of 0.1, the band gap shows a sudden increase in energy. This is probably due to local alloy compositional fluctuations in the epilayer. The bowing parameter which appears also to be very sensitive on In content is investigated and obtained b = 50.08 for quaternary InxAlyGa1-x-yN alloys. From photoluminescence (PL) measurement, green luminescence (GL) appears at PL spectrum of InxAlyGa1-x-yN, emitted for all x at ~530 nm and it become more pronounced as the In composition (x) increased, which is believed cause by gallium vacancies and related to isolated native defects.

Keywords: HRXRD, nitrides, PL, quaternary, UV-VIS.

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227 Radiation Heat Transfer in Planar SOFC Components: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.

Keywords: SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, conduction, radiation, planar medium.

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226 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of MHD Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure with Non-Uniform Heating on Both Side Walls

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.

 

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, magnetic field, Natural convection, nanofluid, Sinusoidal temperature distribution.

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225 Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled with Water: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from  to  and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.

 

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclination angle, Lattice Boltzmann Method, Nusselt number, Natural convection, Rayleigh number.

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224 Large Eddy Simulation of Compartment Fire with Gas Combustible

Authors: Mliki Bouchmel, Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Kamel Geudri, Chrigui Mouldi, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to use the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to investigate the behavior of a kerosene small-scale fire. FDS is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool developed specifically for fire applications. Throughout its development, FDS is used for the resolution of practical problems in fire protection engineering. At the same time FDS is used to study fundamental fire dynamics and combustion. Predictions are based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a Smagorinsky turbulence model. LES directly computes the large-scale eddies and the sub-grid scale dissipative processes are modeled. This technique is the default turbulence model which was used in this study. The validation of the numerical prediction is done using a direct comparison of combustion output variables to experimental measurements. Effect of the mesh size on the temperature evolutions is investigated and optimum grid size is suggested. Effect of width openings is investigated. Temperature distribution and species flow are presented for different operating conditions. The effect of the composition of the used fuel on atmospheric pollution is also a focus point within this work. Good predictions are obtained where the size of the computational cells within the fire compartment is less than 1/10th of the characteristic fire diameter.

Keywords: Large eddy simulation, Radiation, Turbulence, combustion, pollution.

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223 Factors Affecting Students’ Performance in Chemistry: Case Study in Zanzibar Secondary Schools

Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Hassan I. Ali, Abdallah A. Salum, Asia M. Kassim, Yussuf N. Elmoge, Ali A. Amour

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of chemistry in Zanzibar Secondary Schools. It was conducted in all regions of Zanzibar in public and private secondary schools and Ministry of Education officials. The objective of the study included finding out causes of poor performance in chemistry. Views, opinions, and suggestions of teachers and students to improve performance of chemistry and a descriptive survey was adopted for the study. 45 teachers and 200 students were randomly sampled from 15 secondary schools in Zanzibar and ten Ministry of Education officials were purposively sampled for the study. Questionnaires and open-ended interview schedules were the main instruments used in obtaining relevant data from respondents. Data collected from the field was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative analysis involved content analysis of the responses obtained through interviews and quantitative analysis involved generation of tables, frequencies and percentages. The results revealed that there were shortages of trained teachers, lack of proficiency in the language of instruction (English) and major facilities like laboratories and books. These led to poor delivery of subject matter and consequently resulting in poor performance. Based on the findings, this study recommends that provision of trained, competent, and effective teachers as vital aspects to be considered. Government through Ministry of Education should put effort to stalk libraries and equip laboratories with modern books and instruments. In addition, the ministry should strengthen teachers’ training and encourage use of instructional media in class and make conducive learning environment to both teachers and students.

Keywords: Zanzibar, secondary schools, chemistry, science, performance and factors.

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222 Microstructure Parameters of a Super-Ionic Sample (Csag2i3)

Authors: Samir Osman M., Mohammed Hassan S.

Abstract:

Sample of CsAg2I3 was prepared by solid state reaction. Then, microstructure parameters of this sample have been determined using wide angle X-ray scattering WAXS method. As well as, Cell parameters of crystal structure have been refined using CHEKCELL program. This analysis states that the lattice intrinsic strainof the sample is so small and the crystal size is on the order of 559Å.

Keywords: WAXS, Microstructure parameters, super-ionic conductor.

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221 Some Applications of Gröbner bases

Authors: Hassan Noori, Abdolali Basiri, Sajjad Rahmany

Abstract:

In this paper we will introduce a brief introduction to theory of Gr¨obner bases and some applications of Gr¨obner bases to graph coloring problem, automatic geometric theorem proving and cryptography.

Keywords: Gr¨obner bases, Application of Gr¨obner bases, Automatic Geometric Theorem Proving, Graph Coloring, Cryptography.

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220 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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219 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Saudi Goats

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek

Abstract:

Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are extremely diverse species and principal animal genetic resource of the developing world. These facilitate a persistent supply of meat, milk, fibre, and skin and are considered as important revenue generators in small pastoral environments. This study aimed to fingerprint β-LG gene at PCR-RFLP level in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi and Harri) in an attempt to have a preliminary image of β-LG genotypic patterns in Saudi breeds as compared to other foreign breeds such as Indian and Egyptian. Also, the Phylogenetic analysis was done to investigate evolutionary trends and similarities among the caprine β-LG gene with that of the other domestic specie, viz. cow, buffalo and sheep. Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted. A fragment of the β-LG gene (427bp) was amplified using specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed a general trend that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus. However, the origin of sheep which is the most closely related from the evolutionary point of view, was located some distance away.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, Phylogenetic analysis.

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218 The Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Discontinued Problems Arising in Nanotechnology

Authors: Hassan Saberi-Nik, Mahin Golchaman

Abstract:

This paper applies the homotopy analysis method method to a nonlinear differential-difference equation arising in nanotechnology. Continuum hypothesis on nanoscales is invalid, and a differential-difference model is considered as an alternative approach to describing discontinued problems. Comparison of the approximate solution with the exact one reveals that the method is very effective.

Keywords: Homotopy analysis method, differential-difference, nanotechnology.

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217 The Importance of Changing the Traditional Mode of Higher Education in Bangladesh: Creating Huge Job Opportunities for Home and Abroad

Authors: M. M. Shahidul Hassan, Omiya Hassan

Abstract:

Bangladesh has set its goal to reach upper middle-income country status by 2024. To attain this status, the country must satisfy the World Bank requirement of achieving minimum Gross National Income (GNI). Number of youth job seekers in the country is increasing. University graduates are looking for decent jobs. So, the vital issue of this country is to understand how the GNI and jobs can be increased. The objective of this paper is to address these issues and find ways to create more job opportunities for youths at home and abroad which will increase the country’s GNI. The paper studies proportion of different goods Bangladesh exported, and also the percentage of employment in different sectors. The data used here for the purpose of analysis have been collected from the available literature. These data are then plotted and analyzed. Through these studies, it is concluded that growth in sectors like agricultural, ready-made garments (RMG), jute industries and fisheries are declining and the business community is not interested in setting up capital-intensive industries. Under this situation, the country needs to explore other business opportunities for a higher economic growth rate. Knowledge can substitute the physical resource. Since the country consists of the large youth population, higher education will play a key role in economic development. It now needs graduates with higher-order skills with innovative quality. Such dispositions demand changes in a university’s curriculum, teaching and assessment method which will function young generations as active learners and creators. By bringing these changes in higher education, a knowledge-based society can be created. The application of such knowledge and creativity will then become the commodity of Bangladesh which will help to reach its goal as an upper middle-income country.

Keywords: Bangladesh, economic sectors, economic growth, higher education, knowledge-based economy, massifcation of higher education, teaching and learning, universities’ role in society.

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216 Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer of Cu–Water Nanofluid Mixed Convection in a Cavity

Authors: Mliki Bouchmel, Belgacem Nabil, Abbassi Mohamed Ammar, Geudri Kamel, Omri Ahmed

Abstract:

In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number, the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The present results are validated by favorable comparisons with previously published results. The results of the problem are presented in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.

Keywords: Entropy generation, mixed convection, nanofluid, lattice Boltzmann method.

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215 Production of Biodiesel from Different Edible Oils

Authors: Amir Shafeeq, Ayyaz Muhammad, Noman Hassan, Rofice Dickson

Abstract:

Different vegetable oil based biodiesel (FAMES) were prepared by alkaline transesterification using refined oils as well as waste frying oil (WFO). Methanol and sodium hydroxide are used as catalyst under similar reaction conditions. To ensure the quality of biodiesel produced, a series of different ASTM Standard tests were carried out. In this context, various testwere done including viscosity, carbon residue, specific gravity, corrosion test, flash point, cloud point and pour point. Results revealed that characteristics of biodiesel depend on the feedstock and it is far better than petroleum diesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Edible oils, Separation.

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214 An Agent Oriented Architecture to Supply Multilanguage in EPR Systems

Authors: Hassan Haghighi, Seyedeh Zahra Hosseini, Seyedeh Elahe Jalambadani

Abstract:

ERP systems are often supposed to be implemented and deployed in multi-national companies. On the other hand, an ERP developer may plan to market and sale its product in various countries. Therefore, an EPR system should have the ability to communicate with its users, who usually have different languages and cultures, in a suitable way. EPR support of Multilanguage capability is a solution to achieve this objective. In this paper, an agent oriented architecture including several independent but cooperative agents has been suggested that helps to implement Multilanguage EPR systems.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, Multilanguage, software architecture, agent oriented architecture, intelligence, learning, translation.

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213 Description and Analysis of Embedded Firewall Techniques

Authors: Ahmed Abou Elfarag, A. Baith M., Hassan H. Alkhishali

Abstract:

With the turn of this century, many researchers started showing interest in Embedded Firewall (EF) implementations. These are not the usual firewalls that are used as checkpoints at network gateways. They are, rather, applied near those hosts that need protection. Hence by using them, individual or grouped network components can be protected from the inside as well as from external attacks. This paper presents a study of EF-s, looking at their architecture and problems. A comparative study assesses how practical each kind is. It particularly focuses on the architecture, weak points, and portability of each kind. A look at their use by different categories of users is also presented.

Keywords: Embedded Firewall (EF), Network Interface Card (NIC), Virtual Machine Software (VMware), Virtual Firewall (VF).

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