Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1141

Search results for: fixed ΔT circuit

1141 The Application of Homotopy Method In Solving Electrical Circuit Design Problem

Authors: Talib Hashim Hasan

Abstract:

This paper describes simple implementation of homotopy (also called continuation) algorithm for determining the proper resistance of the resistor to dissipate energy at a specified rate of an electric circuit. Homotopy algorithm can be considered as a developing of the classical methods in numerical computing such as Newton-Raphson and fixed point methods. In homoptopy methods, an embedding parameter is used to control the convergence. The method purposed in this work utilizes a special homotopy called Newton homotopy. Numerical example solved in MATLAB is given to show the effectiveness of the purposed method

Keywords: electrical circuit homotopy, methods, MATLAB, Newton homotopy

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1140 Central Pattern Generator Incorporating the Actuator Dynamics for a Hexapod Robot

Authors: Valeri A. Makarov, Ezequiel Del Rio, Manuel G. Bedia, Manuel G. Velarde, Werner Ebeling

Abstract:

We proposed the use of a Toda-Rayleigh ring as a central pattern generator (CPG) for controlling hexapodal robots. We show that the ring composed of six Toda-Rayleigh units coupled to the limb actuators reproduces the most common hexapodal gaits. We provide an electrical circuit implementation of the CPG and test our theoretical results obtaining fixed gaits. Then we propose a method of incorporation of the actuator (motor) dynamics in the CPG. With this approach we close the loop CPG – environment – CPG, thus obtaining a decentralized model for the leg control that does not require higher level intervention to the CPG during locomotion in a nonhomogeneous environments. The gaits generated by the novel CPG are not fixed, but adapt to the current robot bahvior.

Keywords: Central pattern generator, electrical circuit, hexapod robot

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1139 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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1138 Assessing and Evaluating the Course Outcomes of Electrical Circuit Course for Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Program

Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan, Sher Shermin Azmiri Khan

Abstract:

At present, it is an imperative and stimulating task to grow the concepts and skills of undergraduate students in any course. Educators must build up students' higher-order complex and critical thinking abilities. But many of them find it difficult to assess and evaluate these abilities of students who undertake their courses during undergraduate studies. In this research work, a simple assessment and evaluation process for the electrical circuit course of the undergraduate Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE) program is reported using the Outcome-Based Education (OBE) approach. The methodology of the work, course contents design, course outcomes (COs) preparation and mapping it with program outcomes (POs), question setting following Bloom's taxonomy, assessment strategy of the students, CO and PO evaluation records, statistics, and charts have been reported for a student-cohort of electrical circuit course taken in Spring 2019 Semester at EEE Department of Southeast University (SEU). It is found that the benchmark fixed by the course instructor has been achieved by the students of that course through CO assessment and evaluation. Recommendations of the course teacher for further quality enhancement based on CO achievement are also presented.

Keywords: OBE, COs, POs, assessment and evaluation, electrical circuit course.

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1137 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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1136 A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology

Authors: H. Asiaban, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current, low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE. The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: Current-mode, squarer/divider, low-pass filter, converter, translinear loop, RMS-to-DC.

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1135 Experience-based Learning Program for Electronic Circuit Design

Authors: Koyu Chinen, Haruka Mikamori

Abstract:

A new multi-step comprehensive experience-based learning program was developed and carried out so that the students understood about what was the principle of the circuit function and how the designed circuit was used in actual advanced applications.

Keywords: Electronic circuit education, Experience based learning, Comprehensive education,

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1134 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

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1133 Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit

Authors: Y. Kobori, L. Xing, H. Gao, N.Onozawa, S. Wu, S. N. Mohyar, Z. Nosker, H. Kobayashi, N. Takai, K. Niitsu

Abstract:

This paper proposes two types of non-isolated direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components (three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications. This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for both circuits.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, Buck-boost converter, Buck converter, PFC, BCM PFC circuit.

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1132 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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1131 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: Time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control.

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1130 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

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1129 Feasibility of the Evolutionary Algorithm using Different Behaviours of the Mutation Rate to Design Simple Digital Logic Circuits

Authors: Konstantin Movsovic, Emanuele Stomeo, Tatiana Kalganova

Abstract:

The evolutionary design of electronic circuits, or evolvable hardware, is a discipline that allows the user to automatically obtain the desired circuit design. The circuit configuration is under the control of evolutionary algorithms. Several researchers have used evolvable hardware to design electrical circuits. Every time that one particular algorithm is selected to carry out the evolution, it is necessary that all its parameters, such as mutation rate, population size, selection mechanisms etc. are tuned in order to achieve the best results during the evolution process. This paper investigates the abilities of evolution strategy to evolve digital logic circuits based on programmable logic array structures when different mutation rates are used. Several mutation rates (fixed and variable) are analyzed and compared with each other to outline the most appropriate choice to be used during the evolution of combinational logic circuits. The experimental results outlined in this paper are important as they could be used by every researcher who might need to use the evolutionary algorithm to design digital logic circuits.

Keywords: Evolvable hardware, evolutionary algorithm, digitallogic circuit, mutation rate.

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1128 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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1127 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs

Authors: Jae Hyung Noh, Hang Geun Jeong

Abstract:

The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.

Keywords: Phase-locked loop (PLL), charge-pump, phase/frequency detector (PFD), regulated cascode.

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1126 Realization of Electronically Controllable Current-mode Square-rooting Circuit Based on MO-CFTA

Authors: P. Silapan, C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak

Abstract:

This article proposes a current-mode square-rooting circuit using current follower transconductance amplifier (CTFA). The amplitude of the output current can be electronically controlled via input bias current with wide input dynamic range. The proposed circuit consists of only single CFTA. Without any matching conditions and external passive elements, the circuit is then appropriate for an IC architecture. The magnitude of the output signal is temperature-insensitive. The PSpice simulation results are depicted, and the given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The power consumption is approximately 1.96mW at ±1.5V supply voltages.

Keywords: CFTA, Current-mode, Square-rooting Circuit

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1125 A Low-Voltage Current-Mode Wheatstone Bridge using CMOS Transistors

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new circuit arrangement for a current-mode Wheatstone bridge that is suitable for low-voltage integrated circuits implementation. Compared to the other proposed circuits, this circuit features severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (1V) and low power consumption (<350uW). In addition, the circuit has favorable nonlinearity error (<0.35%), operate with multiple sensors and works by single supply voltage. The circuit employs MOSFET transistors, so it can be used for standard CMOS fabrication. Simulation results by HSPICE show high performance of the circuit and confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.

Keywords: Wheatstone bridge, current-mode, low-voltage, MOS.

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1124 Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic based Full Adder Circuit

Authors: Shipra Upadhyay , R. K. Nagaria, R. A. Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the design and experimental evaluation of complementary energy path adiabatic logic (CEPAL) based 1 bit full adder circuit. A simulative investigation on the proposed full adder has been done using VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of cadence in 0.18μm UMC technology and its performance has been compared with the conventional CMOS full adder circuit. The CEPAL based full adder circuit exhibits the energy saving of 70% to the conventional CMOS full adder circuit, at 100 MHz frequency and 1.8V operating voltage.

Keywords: Adiabatic, CEPAL, full adder, power clock

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1123 Reliability Modeling and Data Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Subject to Random Shocks

Authors: Rafik Medjoudj, Rabah Medjoudj, D. Aissani

Abstract:

The electrical substation components are often subject to degradation due to over-voltage or over-current, caused by a short circuit or a lightning. A particular interest is given to the circuit breaker, regarding the importance of its function and its dangerous failure. This component degrades gradually due to the use, and it is also subject to the shock process resulted from the stress of isolating the fault when a short circuit occurs in the system. In this paper, based on failure mechanisms developments, the wear out of the circuit breaker contacts is modeled. The aim of this work is to evaluate its reliability and consequently its residual lifetime. The shock process is based on two random variables such as: the arrival of shocks and their magnitudes. The arrival of shocks was modeled using homogeneous Poisson process (HPP). By simulation, the dates of short-circuit arrivals were generated accompanied with their magnitudes. The same principle of simulation is applied to the amount of cumulative wear out contacts. The objective reached is to find the formulation of the wear function depending on the number of solicitations of the circuit breaker.

Keywords: reliability, short-circuit, models of shocks.

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1122 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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1121 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Authors: Amod P. Vaze

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.

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1120 The Invariant Properties of Two-Port Circuits

Authors: Alexandr A. Penin

Abstract:

Application of projective geometry to the theory of two-ports and cascade circuits with a load change is considered. The equations linking the input and output of a two-port are interpreted as projective transformations which have the invariant as a cross-ratio of four points. This invariant has place for all regime parameters in all parts of a cascade circuit. This approach allows justifying the definition of a regime and its change, to calculate a circuit without explicitly finding the aparameters, to transmit accurately an analogue signal through the unstable two-port.

Keywords: Circuit regime, geometric circuit theory, projective geometry, two-port.

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1119 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal.

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1118 Determinants of Investment in Fixed Assets in Electric Power Industry - An Econometric Analysis

Authors: S. L. Tulasi Devi, R. N. Rao

Abstract:

This paper focuses attention on specific aspects of entrepreneurial decisions relating to investment, both in the total fixed investments and plant & machinery (separately). Demand and financial factors, internal and external, are considered in the investment analysis. Finally the influence of determinants of fixed investment and investment plans are examined in Electric Power industry in India.

Keywords: Determinants, Electric Power Industry, Fixed Assets, Econometric Analysis.

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1117 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on Instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset In Wheatstone Bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1μv/°c Equivalent drift and 1.58mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. a high speed counter is designed in this work .the proposed circuit is designed and simulated In 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8v power supply.

Keywords: Piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

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1116 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit

Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan

Abstract:

In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

Keywords: Nanoscale, aging, effect, NBTI, HCI.

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1115 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: By-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrode.

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1114 An Investigation of Short Circuit Analysis in Komag Sarawak Operations (KSO) Factory

Authors: M. H. Hairi, H. Zainuddin, M.H.N. Talib, A. Khamis, J. Y. Lichun

Abstract:

Short circuit currents plays a vital role in influencing the design and operation of equipment and power system and could not be avoided despite careful planning and design, good maintenance and thorough operation of the system. This paper discusses the short circuit analysis conducted in KSO briefly comprising of its significances, methods and results. A result sample of the analysis based on a single transformer is detailed in this paper. Furthermore, the results of the analysis and its significances were also discussed and commented.

Keywords: Short circuit currents, Transformer fault current

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1113 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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1112 Thermal Analysis of the Current Path from Circuit Breakers Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Adrian T. Plesca

Abstract:

This paper describes a three-dimensional thermal model of the current path included in the low voltage power circuit breakers. The model can be used to analyse the thermal behaviour of the current path during both steady-state and transient conditions. The current path lengthwise temperature distribution and timecurrent characteristic of the terminal connections of the power circuit breaker have been obtained. The influence of the electric current and voltage drop on main electric contact of the circuit breaker has been investigated. To validate the three-dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done. There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Current path, power circuit breakers, temperature distribution, thermal analysis.

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