Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 115

Search results for: electrodes

115 The Influence of Electrode Heating On the Force Generated On a High Voltage Capacitor with Asymmetrical Electrodes

Authors: Jiří Primas, Michal Malík, Darina Jašíková, Václav Kopecký

Abstract:

When a high DC voltage is applied to a capacitor with strongly asymmetrical electrodes, it generates a mechanical force that affects the whole capacitor. This is caused by the motion of ions generated around the smaller of the two electrodes and their subsequent interaction with the surrounding medium. If one of the electrodes is heated, it changes the conditions around the capacitor and influences the process of ionisation, thus changing the value of the generated force. This paper describes these changes and gives reasons behind them. Further the experimental results are given as proof of the ionic mechanism of the phenomenon.

Keywords: Capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes, Generated force, Heated electrode, High voltage.

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114 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre

Abstract:

In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nanoparticles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes.

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113 Force on a High Voltage Capacitor with Asymmetrical Electrodes

Authors: Jiří Primas, Michal Malík, Darina Jašíková, Václav Kopecký

Abstract:

When a high DC voltage is applied to a capacitor with strongly asymmetrical electrodes, it generates a mechanical force that affects the whole capacitor. This phenomenon is most likely to be caused by the motion of ions generated around the smaller of the two electrodes and their subsequent interaction with the surrounding medium. A method to measure this force has been devised and used. A formula describing the force has also been derived. After comparing the data gained through experiments with those acquired using the theoretical formula, a difference was found above a certain value of current. This paper also gives reasons for this difference.

Keywords: Capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes, Electricalfield, Mechanical force, Motion of ions.

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112 Textronic System to Muscle Electrostimulation

Authors: M. Frydrysiak, J. Zięba, L. Tęsiorowski, M. Tokarska

Abstract:

In the paper the research of flat textile products for use as electrodes was presented. Material-s resistance measurements were carried out to determine the suitability of the textiles. Based on the received results of studies different types of textile electrodes were designed. Textile electrodes tests were carried out on human phantoms. The electro-conductive properties of human forearm phantom were also described. Based on this results special electroconductive hydrogels with electro-conductive particles were feasible. The hydrogel is an important element of the forearm-s phantom model of a survey of electrodes for muscle electrostimulation. The hydrogel is an equivalent human skin and tissue. The hydrogel should have a permanence and recurrence of the electro-conductive properties.

Keywords: Electro-conductive textiles, electrostimulation, forearm phantom, resistance measurement, textile electrodes.

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111 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon

Abstract:

Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: All-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide.

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110 Porous Ni and Ni-Co Electrodeposits for Alkaline Water Electrolysis – Energy Saving

Authors: I. Herraiz-Cardona, C. González-Buch, E. Ortega, V. Pérez-Herranz, J. García-Antón

Abstract:

Hydrogen is considered to be the most promising candidate as a future energy carrier. One of the most used technologies for the electrolytic hydrogen production is alkaline water electrolysis. However, due to the high energy requirements, the cost of hydrogen produced in such a way is high. In continuous search to improve this process using advanced electrocatalytic materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), Ni type Raney and macro-porous Ni-Co electrodes were prepared on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition. The developed electrodes were characterized by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. HER on these electrodes was evaluated in 30 wt.% KOH solution by means of hydrogen discharge curves and galvanostatic tests. Results show that the developed electrodes present a most efficient behaviour for HER when comparing with the smooth Ni cathode. It has been reported a reduction in the energy consumption of the electrolysis cell of about 25% by using the developed coatings as cathodes.

Keywords: Alkaline water electrolysis, energy efficiency, porous nickel electrodes

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109 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: Bio-batteries, electricity, cow dung, electrodes, non-conventional.

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108 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: Electrical stimulation, Neuroprosthesis, Retinal implant, Retinal Prosthesis, Virtual electrode.

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107 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung

Abstract:

The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V·s at 250°C.

Keywords: Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, Thin-film transistor (TFT).

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106 Modeling Studies for Electrocoagulation

Authors: A. Genç, R. Hacıoğlu, B. Bakırcı

Abstract:

Synthetic oily wastewaters were prepared from metal working fluids (MWF). Electrocoagulation experiments were performed under constant voltage application. The current, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were recorded on line at every 5 seconds during the experiments. Effects of applied voltage differences, electrode materials and distance between electrodes on removal efficiency have been investigated. According to the experimental results, the treatment of MWF wastewaters by iron electrodes rather than aluminum and stainless steel was much quicker; and the distance between electrodes should be less than 1cm. The electrocoagulation process was modeled by using block oriented approach and found out that it can be modeled as a single input and multiple output system. Modeling studies indicates that the electrocoagulation process has a nonlinear model structure.

Keywords: Electrocoagulation, oily wastewater, SIMO systems.

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105 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: Impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode.

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104 Design and Implementation of an Intelligent System for Detection of Hazardous Gases using PbPc Sensor Array

Authors: Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani, Nidal F. Shilbayeh

Abstract:

The voltage/current characteristics and the effect of NO2 gas on the electrical conductivity of a PbPc gas sensor array is investigated. The gas sensor is manufactured using vacuum deposition of gold electrodes on sapphire substrate with the leadphathalocyanine vacuum sublimed on the top of the gold electrodes. Two versions of the PbPc gas sensor array are investigated. The tested types differ in the gap sizes between the deposited gold electrodes. The sensors are tested at different temperatures to account for conductivity changes as the molecular adsorption/desorption rate is affected by heat. The obtained results found to be encouraging as the sensors shoed stability and sensitivity towards low concentration of applied NO2 gas.

Keywords: Intelligent System, PbPc, Gas Sensor, Hardware, Software, Neural.

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103 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: Brain-computer interface, speech recognition, electroencephalography EEG, Wernicke area, artificial neural network.

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102 Design of a Carbon Silicon Electrode for Iontophoresis Treatment towards Alopecia

Authors: Q. Wei, D. G. Hwang, Z. Mohy-Udin, D. H. Shin, J. H. Park, M. Y. Kang, J. H. Cho

Abstract:

This study presents design of a carbon silicon electrode for iontophorsis treatment towards alopecia. The alopecia is a medical description means loss of hair from the body. For solving this problem, the drug need to be delivered into the scalp, therefore, the iontophoresis was chosen to use in this treatment. However, almost common electrodes of iontophoresis device are made with metal material, the electrodes could give patients hurt when they using it, and it is hard to avoid the hair for attaching the hair. For this reason, an electrode is made with silicon material to decrease the hurt from the electrodes, and the carbon material is mixed in it for increasing conductance. The several cones with stainless material on the electrode make the electrode is able to void hair to attach the affected part. According to the results of a vivo-experiment, the carbon silicon electrode showed a good performance and in treatment comfortably.

Keywords: Carbon silicon, drug delivery system, iontophoresis

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101 Modified Poly(pyrrole) Film Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan

Abstract:

In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly(Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Phenol biosensor, Polypyrrole, Poly(glutaraldehyde).

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100 A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bharat Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Raj Kumar Rajak

Abstract:

The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.

Keywords: Substrates, electrodes, membranes, microbial fuel cells, voltage.

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99 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750oC analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry.

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98 Spiral Cuff for Fiber-Diameter Selective VNS

Authors: P. Pečlin, J. Rozman

Abstract:

In this paper we present the modeling, design, and experimental testing of a nerve cuff multi-electrode system for diameter-selective vagus nerve stimulation. The multi-electrode system contained ninety-nine platinum electrodes embedded within a self-curling spiral silicone sheet. The electrodes were organized in a matrix having nine parallel groups, each containing eleven electrodes. Preliminary testing of the nerve cuff was performed in an isolated segment of a swinish left cervical vagus nerve. For selective vagus nerve stimulation, precisely defined current quasitrapezoidal, asymmetric and biphasic stimulating pulses were applied to preselected locations along the left vagus segment via appointed group of three electrodes within the cuff. Selective stimulation was obtained by anodal block. However, these pulses may not be safe for a long-term application because of a frequently used high imbalance between the cathodic and anodic part of the stimulating pulse. Preliminary results show that the cuff was capable of exciting A and B-fibres, and, that for a certain range of parameters used in stimulating pulses, the contribution of A-fibres to the CAP was slightly reduced and the contribution of B-fibres was slightly larger. Results also showed that measured CAPs are not greatly influenced by the imbalance between a charge Qc injected in cathodic and Qa in anodic phase of quasitrapezoidal, asymmetric and biphasic pulses.

Keywords: Vagus nerve stimulation, multi-electrode nerve cuff.

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97 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova

Abstract:

The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: Electrolyze, gas condensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis.

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96 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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95 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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94 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi

Abstract:

One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Kernel growth, optically accessible engine, spark-ignition engine, spark plug orientation.

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93 Extension of a Smart Piezoelectric Ceramic Rod

Authors: Ali Reza Pouladkhan, Jalil Emadi, Hamed Habibolahiyan

Abstract:

This paper presents an exact solution and a finite element method (FEM) for a Piezoceramic Rod under static load. The cylindrical rod is made from polarized ceramics (piezoceramics) with axial poling. The lateral surface of the rod is traction-free and is unelectroded. The two end faces are under a uniform normal traction. Electrically, the two end faces are electroded with a circuit between the electrodes, which can be switched on or off. Two cases of open and shorted electrodes (short circuit and open circuit) will be considered. Finally, a finite element model will be used to compare the results with an exact solution. The study uses ABAQUS (v.6.7) software to derive the finite element model of the ceramic rod.

Keywords: Finite element method, Ceramic rod; Axial poling, Normal traction, Short circuit, Open circuit.

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92 Electrolytic Dissolutions of UO2 and SIMFUEL in Carbonate Solutions at Several pHs

Authors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Geun-Il Park, Eil-Hee Lee, Kune-Woo Lee, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Electrolytic dissolution characteristics of UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes were studied at several potentials in carbonate solutions of a high concentration at several pHs. The electrolytic uranium dissolution was much affected by a corrosion product of UO2CO3 generated at the electrode during the dissolution in carbonate solution. The corrosion product distorted the voltammogram at UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes in the potential region of oxygen evolution and increased the overpotential of oxygen evolution at the electrode. The effective dissolution in a carbonate solution could be obtained at an applied potential such as +4 V (vs SSE) or more which had an overpotential of oxygen evolution high enough to rupture the corrosion product on the electrode surface.

Keywords: Anodic, Electrolytic, Dissolution, SIMFUEL, Uranium dioxide, Carbonate

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91 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: Bio-batteries, cow’s urine, electrodes, non-conventional.

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90 Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Processes and Water Resources Management

Authors: Walid K. M. Bani Salameh, Hesham Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Shannag

Abstract:

In Jordan having deficit atmospheric precipitation, an increase in water demand occurs during summer months. Jordan can be regarded with a relatively high potential for wastewater recycling and reuse. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill wastewater (OMW) by electrocoagulation (EC) process. In the combination of electrocoagulation by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes, the optimum working pH was found to be around 6. Results indicated that the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD of about 82.5% and 47.5%, respectively at 45 mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. It was demonstrated that the maximum TSS and COD removals were obtained at some optimum experimental parameters for current density, pH, and reaction time.

Keywords: Olive Mill Wastewater, Electrode, Electrocoagulation (EC), TSS, COD.

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89 Design and Simulation of Electromagnetic Flow Meter for Circular Pipe Type

Authors: M. Karamifard, M. Kazeminejad, A. Maghsoodloo

Abstract:

Electromagnetic flow meter by measuring the varying of magnetic flux, which is related to the velocity of conductive flow, can measure the rate of fluids very carefully and precisely. Electromagnetic flow meter operation is based on famous Faraday's second Law. In these equipments, the constant magnetostatic field is produced by electromagnet (winding around the tube) outside of pipe and inducting voltage that is due to conductive liquid flow is measured by electrodes located on two end side of the pipe wall. In this research, we consider to 2-dimensional mathematical model that can be solved by numerical finite difference (FD) solution approach to calculate induction potential between electrodes. The fundamental concept to design the electromagnetic flow meter, exciting winding and simulations are come out by using MATLAB and PDE-Tool software. In the last stage, simulations results will be shown for improvement and accuracy of technical provision.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Flow Meter, Induction Voltage, Finite Difference

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88 Fabrication of Cylindrical Silicon Nanowire-Embedded Field Effect Transistor Using Al2O3 Transfer Layer

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Tae Il Lee, Su Jeong Lee, Jae Min Myoung

Abstract:

In order to manufacture short gap single Si nanowire (NW) field effect transistor (FET) by imprinting and transferring method, we introduce the method using Al2O3 sacrificial layer. The diameters of cylindrical Si NW addressed between Au electrodes by dielectrophoretic (DEP) alignment method are controlled to 106, 128, and 148 nm. After imprinting and transfer process, cylindrical Si NW is embedded in PVP adhesive and dielectric layer. By curing transferred cylindrical Si NW and Au electrodes on PVP-coated p++ Si substrate with 200nm-thick SiO2, 3μm gap Si NW FET fabrication was completed. As the diameter of embedded Si NW increases, the mobility of FET increases from 80.51 to 121.24 cm2/V·s and the threshold voltage moves from –7.17 to –2.44 V because the ratio of surface to volume gets reduced.

Keywords: Al2O3 Sacrificial transfer layer, cylindrical silicon nanowires, Dielectrophorestic alignment, Field effect transistor.

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87 Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Ahmad Manbohi, Seyyed Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.

Keywords: Multiplex, microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensors, biomarkers, biological fluids.

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86 Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

Authors: Yusmeeraz Yusof, Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato

Abstract:

We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrical double-layer, impedance spectroscopy, label free DNA.

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