Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 129

Search results for: Multiplex

129 Clinical Utility of Salivary Cytokines for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Masaki Yamaguchi, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Washizuka

Abstract:

The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of salivary cytokines for the screening of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. We carried out a case-control study, including 19 children with ADHD and 17 healthy children (controls). A multiplex bead array immunoassay was used to conduct a multi-analysis of 27 different salivary cytokines. Six salivary cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL12p70, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) were significantly associated with the presence of ADHD (p < 0.05). An informative salivary cytokine panel was developed using VEGF by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 0.251). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that assessment of a panel using VEGF showed “good” capability for discriminating between ADHD patients and controls (area under the curve: 0.778). ADHD has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex, due to reduced VEGF levels. Our study highlights the possibility of utilizing differential salivary cytokine levels for point-of-care testing (POCT) of biomarkers in children with ADHD.

Keywords: Cytokine, saliva, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, child, biomarker.

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128 Pilot-Assisted Direct-Current Biased Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Visible Light Communication System

Authors: Ayad A. Abdulkafi, Shahir F. Nawaf, Mohammed K. Hussein, Ibrahim K. Sileh, Fouad A. Abdulkafi

Abstract:

Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.

Keywords: Channel estimation, OFDM, pilot-assist, VLC.

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127 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury

Abstract:

Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: Beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO.

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126 An Intelligent Scheme Switching for MIMO Systems Using Fuzzy Logic Technique

Authors: Robert O. Abolade, Olumide O. Ajayi, Zacheaus K. Adeyemo, Solomon A. Adeniran

Abstract:

Link adaptation is an important strategy for achieving robust wireless multimedia communications based on quality of service (QoS) demand. Scheme switching in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is an aspect of link adaptation, and it involves selecting among different MIMO transmission schemes or modes so as to adapt to the varying radio channel conditions for the purpose of achieving QoS delivery. However, finding the most appropriate switching method in MIMO links is still a challenge as existing methods are either computationally complex or not always accurate. This paper presents an intelligent switching method for the MIMO system consisting of two schemes - transmit diversity (TD) and spatial multiplexing (SM) - using fuzzy logic technique. In this method, two channel quality indicators (CQI) namely average received signal-to-noise ratio (RSNR) and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) are measured and are passed as inputs to the fuzzy logic system which then gives a decision – an inference. The switching decision of the fuzzy logic system is fed back to the transmitter to switch between the TD and SM schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed fuzzy logic – based switching technique outperforms conventional static switching technique in terms of bit error rate and spectral efficiency.

Keywords: Channel quality indicator, fuzzy logic, link adaptation, MIMO, spatial multiplexing, transmit diversity.

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125 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.

Keywords: Breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration (FNA).

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124 FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems

Authors: Semih Demir, Anil Celebi

Abstract:

Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

Keywords: Clock recovery on TDMoIP, FPGA, MATLAB reference model, clock synchronization.

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123 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong

Abstract:

Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder Bias Voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain.

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122 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer

Authors: Osama Terra, Hatem Hussein, Adriaan Van Brakel

Abstract:

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Thus, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/ BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.

Keywords: OSA calibration, HCN gas cell, DWDM technology, wavelength measurement.

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121 Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Ahmad Manbohi, Seyyed Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.

Keywords: Multiplex, microfluidic paper-based electrochemical biosensors, biomarkers, biological fluids.

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120 A Unified Approach for Naval Telecommunication Architectures

Authors: Y. Lacroix, J.-F. Malbranque

Abstract:

We present a chronological evolution for naval telecommunication networks. We distinguish periods: with or without multiplexers, with switch systems, with federative systems, with medium switching, and with medium switching with wireless networks. This highlights the introduction of new layers and technology in the architecture. These architectures are presented using layer models of transmission, in a unified way, which enables us to integrate pre-existing models. A ship of a naval fleet has internal communications (i.e. applications' networks of the edge) and external communications (i.e. the use of the means of transmission between edges). We propose architectures, deduced from the layer model, which are the point of convergence between the networks on board and the HF, UHF radio, and satellite resources. This modelling allows to consider end-to-end naval communications, and in a more global way, that is from the user on board towards the user on shore, including transmission and networks on the shore side. The new architectures need take care of quality of services for end-to-end communications, the more remote control develops a lot and will do so in the future. Naval telecommunications will be more and more complex and will use more and more advanced technologies, it will thus be necessary to establish clear global communication schemes to grant consistency of the architectures. Our latest model has been implemented in a military naval situation, and serves as the basic architecture for the RIFAN2 network.

Keywords: Equilibrium beach profile, eastern tombolo of Giens, potential function, erosion.

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119 Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique

Authors: Atif Elahi, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Mehreen Atif, Noor Gul

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, cancellation carriers, generalized sidelobe canceller, out-of-band radiation, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

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118 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: Access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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117 Peak Data Rate Enhancement Using Switched Micro-Macro Diversity in Cellular Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois, Yvette Antar

Abstract:

With the exponential growth of cellular users, a new generation of cellular networks is needed to enhance the required peak data rates. The co-channel interference between neighboring base stations inhibits peak data rate increase. To overcome this interference, multi-cell cooperation known as coordinated multipoint transmission is proposed. Such a solution makes use of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems under two different structures: Micro- and macro-diversity. In this paper, we study the capacity and bit error rate in cellular networks using MIMO technology. We analyse both micro- and macro-diversity schemes and develop a hybrid model that switches between macro- and micro-diversity in the case of hard handoff based on a cut-off range of signal-to-noise ratio values. We conclude that our hybrid switched micro-macro MIMO system outperforms classical MIMO systems at the cost of increased hardware and software complexity.

Keywords: Cooperative multipoint transmission, ergodic capacity, hard handoff, macro-diversity, micro-diversity, multiple-input-multiple-output systems, MIMO, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, OFDM.

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116 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino

Abstract:

In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: Bit error rate, crest factor reduction, OFDM, physical layer simulation.

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115 Improved Multi–Objective Firefly Algorithms to Find Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences for Optimal Golomb Ruler Channel Allocation

Authors: Shonak Bansal, Prince Jain, Arun Kumar Singh, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

Recently nature–inspired algorithms have widespread use throughout the tough and time consuming multi–objective scientific and engineering design optimization problems. In this paper, we present extended forms of firefly algorithm to find optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences. The OGRs have their one of the major application as unequally spaced channel–allocation algorithm in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in order to minimize the adverse four–wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effect. The simulation results conclude that the proposed optimization algorithm has superior performance compared to the existing conventional computing and nature–inspired optimization algorithms to find OGRs in terms of ruler length, total optical channel bandwidth and computation time.

Keywords: Channel allocation, conventional computing, four–wave mixing, nature–inspired algorithm, optimal Golomb ruler, Lévy flight distribution, optimization, improved multi–objective Firefly algorithms, Pareto optimal.

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114 Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.

Keywords: CCDF, Clipping, OFDM, PAPR, SLM.

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113 Multi-Objective Optimization Contingent on Subcarrier-Wise Beamforming for Multiuser MIMO-OFDM Interference Channels

Authors: R. Vedhapriya Vadhana, Ruba Soundar, K. G. Jothi Shalini

Abstract:

We address the problem of interference over all the channels in multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems. This paper contributes three beamforming strategies designed for multiuser multiple-input and multiple-output by way of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, in which the transmit and receive beamformers are acquired repetitious by secure-form stages. In the principal case, the transmit (TX) beamformers remain fixed then the receive (RX) beamformers are computed. This eradicates one interference span for every user by means of extruding the transmit beamformers into a null space of relevant channels. Formerly, by gratifying the orthogonality condition to exclude the residual interferences in RX beamformer for every user is done by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The second case comprises mutually optimizing the TX and RX beamformers from controlled SNR maximization. The outcomes of first case is used here. The third case also includes combined optimization of TX-RX beamformers; however, uses the both controlled SNR and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio maximization (SINR). By the standardized channel model for IEEE 802.11n, the proposed simulation experiments offer rapid beamforming and enhanced error performance.

Keywords: Beamforming, interference channels, MIMO-OFDM, multi-objective optimization.

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112 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput.

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111 Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing

Authors: Navdeep Goel, Salvador Gabarda

Abstract:

Digital images are widely used in computer applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing signals together whose representations are compact in the working domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4 × 4 pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than 4 × 4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares + gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR), compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two chirps per 4 × 4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.

Keywords: Chirp signals, Image multiplexing, Image transformation, Linear canonical transform, Polynomial approximation.

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110 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3- coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two-soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: Optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM.

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109 Performance Analysis of a Combined Ordered Successive and Interference Cancellation Using Zero-Forcing Detection over Rayleigh Fading Channels in MIMO Systems

Authors: Jamal R. Elbergali

Abstract:

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems are wireless systems with multiple antenna elements at both ends of the link. Wireless communication systems demand high data rate and spectral efficiency with increased reliability. MIMO systems have been popular techniques to achieve these goals because increased data rate is possible through spatial multiplexing scheme and diversity. Spatial Multiplexing (SM) is used to achieve higher possible throughput than diversity. In this paper, we propose a Zero- Forcing (ZF) detection using a combination of Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation (OSIC) and Zero Forcing using Interference Cancellation (ZF-IC). The proposed method used an OSIC based on Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) ordering to get the estimation of last symbol, then the estimated last symbol is considered to be an input to the ZF-IC. We analyze the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the proposed MIMO system over Rayleigh Fading Channel, using Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation scheme. The results show better performance than the previous methods.

Keywords: SNR, BER, BPSK, MIMO, Modulation, Zero forcing (ZF), OSIC, ZF-IC, Spatial Multiplexing (SM).

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108 FWM Aware Fuzzy Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment in Transparent Optical Networks

Authors: Debajyoti Mishra, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel fuzzy approach is developed while solving the Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment (DRWA) problem in optical networks with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). In this work, the effect of nonlinear and linear impairments such as Four Wave Mixing (FWM) and amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE) noise are incorporated respectively. The novel algorithm incorporates fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to reduce the effect of FWM noise and ASE noise on a requested lightpath referred in this work as FWM aware fuzzy dynamic routing and wavelength assignment algorithm. The FWM crosstalk products and the static FWM noise power per link are pre computed in order to reduce the set up time of a requested lightpath, and stored in an offline database. These are retrieved during the setting up of a lightpath and evaluated online taking the dynamic parameters like cost of the links into consideration.

Keywords: Amplifier spontaneous emission (ASE), Dynamic routing and wavelength assignment, Four wave mixing (FWM), Fuzzy rule based system (FRBS).

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107 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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106 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.

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105 New Approach for Minimizing Wavelength Fragmentation in Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks

Authors: Sami Baraketi, Jean-Marie Garcia, Olivier Brun

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is the dominant transport technology used in numerous high capacity backbone networks, based on optical infrastructures. Given the importance of costs (CapEx and OpEx) associated to these networks, resource management is becoming increasingly important, especially how the optical circuits, called “lightpaths”, are routed throughout the network. This requires the use of efficient algorithms which provide routing strategies with the lowest cost. We focus on the lightpath routing and wavelength assignment problem, known as the RWA problem, while optimizing wavelength fragmentation over the network. Wavelength fragmentation poses a serious challenge for network operators since it leads to the misuse of the wavelength spectrum, and then to the refusal of new lightpath requests. In this paper, we first establish a new Integer Linear Program (ILP) for the problem based on a node-link formulation. This formulation is based on a multilayer approach where the original network is decomposed into several network layers, each corresponding to a wavelength. Furthermore, we propose an efficient heuristic for the problem based on a greedy algorithm followed by a post-treatment procedure. The obtained results show that the optimal solution is often reached. We also compare our results with those of other RWA heuristic methods

Keywords: WDM, lightpath, RWA, wavelength fragmentation, optimization, linear programming, heuristic

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104 Reduction of Impulsive Noise in OFDM System Using Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Alina Mirza, Sumrin M. Kabir, Shahzad A. Sheikh

Abstract:

The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with high data rate, high spectral efficiency and its ability to mitigate the effects of multipath makes them most suitable in wireless application. Impulsive noise distorts the OFDM transmission and therefore methods must be investigated to suppress this noise. In this paper, a State Space Recursive Least Square (SSRLS) algorithm based adaptive impulsive noise suppressor for OFDM communication system is proposed. And a comparison with another adaptive algorithm is conducted. The state space model-dependent recursive parameters of proposed scheme enables to achieve steady state mean squared error (MSE), low bit error rate (BER), and faster convergence than that of some of existing algorithm.

Keywords: OFDM, Impulsive Noise, SSRLS, BER.

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103 CMOS Solid-State Nanopore DNA System-Level Sequencing Techniques Enhancement

Authors: Syed Islam, Yiyun Huang, Sebastian Magierowski, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents system level CMOS solid-state nanopore techniques enhancement for speedup next generation molecular recording and high throughput channels. This discussion also considers optimum number of base-pair (bp) measurements through channel as an important role to enhance potential read accuracy. Effective power consumption estimation offered suitable range of multi-channel configuration. Nanopore bp extraction model in statistical method could contribute higher read accuracy with longer read-length (200 < read-length). Nanopore ionic current switching with Time Multiplexing (TM) based multichannel readout system contributed hardware savings.

Keywords: DNA, Nanopore, Amplifier, ADC, Multichannel.

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102 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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101 Security over OFDM Fading Channels with Friendly Jammer

Authors: Munnujahan Ara

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels. We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading. The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated. Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations. We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading channels in the presence of friendly jammers.

Keywords: Fading parallel channels, Wire-tap channel, OFDM, Secrecy capacity, Power allocation.

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100 A New IFO Estimation Scheme for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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