Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor
A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132645Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 786
 S. K. Sia, L. J. Kricka, Microfluidics and point-of-care testing, Lab Chip, vol. 8, pp. 1982–1983, 2008.
 C. D. Chin, V. Linder, S. K. Sia, Lab-on-a-chip devices for global health: Past studies and future opportunities, Lab Chip, vol. 7, pp. 41–57, 2007.
 P. Yager, T. Edwards, E. Fu, K. Helton, K. Nelson, M. R. Tam, B. H. Weigl, Microfluidic diagnostic technologies for global public health, Nature, vol. 442, pp. 412–418, 2006.
 W. Dungchaia, O. Chailapakul, C. S. Henry, Use of multiple colorimetric indicators for paper-based microfluidic devices, Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 674 pp. 227–233, 2010.
 X. Mao, M. Baloda, A. S. Gurung, Y. Lin, G. Liu, Multiplex electrochemical immunoassay using gold nanoparticle probes and immunochromatographic strips, Electrochem. Commun., vol. 10, pp. 1636–640, 2008.
 A. W. Martinez, S. T. Phillips, E. Carrilho, S. W. Thomas, H. Sindi, G. M. Whitesides, Simple Telemedicine for Developing Regions: Camera Phones and Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices for Real-Time, Off-Site Diagnosis, Anal. Chem., vol. 80, pp. 3699–3707, 2008.
 A. W. Martinez, S. T. Phillips, M. J. Butte, G. M. Whitesides, Patterned Paper as a Platform for Inexpensive, Low-Volume, Portable Bioassays, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., vol. 46, pp. 1318–1320, 2007.
 W. Dungchai, O. Chailapakul, C. S. Henry, Electrochemical detection for paper-based microfluidics, Anal Chem., vol. 81, pp. 5821–5826, 2009.
 X. Li, J. Tian, T. Nguyen, W. Shen, Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices by Plasma Treatment, Anal. Chem., vol. 80, pp. 9131–9134, 2008.
 One Step Drugs of Abuse Test, Core Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, China, 2009.
 P. Fossati, L. Prencipe, G. Berti, Use of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay of uric acid in serum and urine, Clin. Chem., vol. 26, pp. 227–231, 1980.
 P. R. Santagapita, M. P. Buera, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Delivery Systems for Bioactive Food Components, Food Biophys. vol. 3, pp. 87–93, 2008.
 L. Kreilgaard, S. Frokjaer, J. M. Flink, T. W. Randolph, J. F. Carpenter, Effects of additives on the stability of Humicola lanuginosa lipase during freeze-drying and storage in the dried solid, J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 88, pp. 281–290, 1999.