Search results for: copper
262 A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore
Authors: Tebogo P. Phetla, Edison Muzenda
Abstract:This study was carried out to develop a flotation procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were attributed to the mineralogy of the ore from which copper silicates accounted for approximately 70% (mass) of the copper minerals in the ore. These can be complex and difficult to float using conventional flotation methods. Best results were obtained using basic sulphidisation procedures, a high flotation temperature and extended flotation residence time.
Keywords: Froth flotation, Sulphidisation, Copper oxide ore, Mineralogy, RecoveryProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5662
261 The Optimization of Copper Sulfate and Tincalconite Molar Ratios on the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Borates
Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, S. Piskin
In this research, copper borates are synthesized by the reaction of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) and tincalconite (Na2O4B7.10H2O). The experimental parameters are selected as 80oC reaction temperature and 60 of reaction time. The effect of mole ratio of CuSO4.5H2O to Na2O4B7.5H2O is studied. For the identification analyses X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques are used. At the end of the experiments, synthesized copper borate is matched with the powder diffraction file of “00-001-0472” [Cu(BO2)2] and characteristic vibrations between B and O atoms are seen. The proper crystals are obtained at the mole ratio of 3:1. This study showed that simplified synthesis process is suitable for the production of copper borate minerals.
Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, copper borates, copper sulfate, tincalconite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3364
260 Polyacrylate Modified Copper Nanoparticles with Controlled Size
Authors: Robert Prucek, Aleš Panáček, Jan Filip, Libor Kvítek, Radek Zbořil
The preparation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) through the reduction of copper ions by sodium borohydride in the presence of sodium polyacrylate with a molecular weight of 1200 is reported. Cu NPs were synthesized at a concentration of copper salt equal to 2.5, 5, and 10 mM, and at a molar ratio of copper ions and monomeric unit of polyacrylate equal to 1:2. The as-prepared Cu NPs have diameters of about 2.5–3 nm for copper concentrations of 2.5 and 5 mM, and 6 nm for copper concentration of 10 mM. Depending on the copper salt concentration and concentration of additionally added polyacrylate to Cu particle dispersion, primarily formed NPs grow through the process of aggregation and/or coalescence into clusters and/or particles with a diameter between 20–100 nm. The amount of additionally added sodium polyacrylate influences the stability of Cu particles against air oxidation. The catalytic efficiency of the prepared Cu particles for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol is discussed.
Keywords: Copper, nanoparticles, sodium polyacrylate, catalyst, 4-nitrophenol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3304
259 Synthesis of Bimetallic Fe/Cu Nanoparticles with Different Copper Loading Ratios
Authors: May Thant Zin, Josephine Borja, Hirofumi Hinode, Winarto Kurniawan
Nanotechnology has multiple and enormous advantages for all application. Therefore, this research is carried out to synthesize and characterize bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles. After synthesizing nano zero valent iron by reduction of ferric chloride by sodium borohydride under nitrogen purging environment, bimetallic iron with copper nanoparticles are synthesized by varying different loads of copper chloride. Due to different standard potential (E0) values of copper and iron, copper is coupled with iron at (Cu to Fe ratio of 1:5, 1:6.7, 1:10, 1:20). It is found that the resulted bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are composing phases of iron and copper. According to the diffraction patterns indicating the state of chemical combination of the bimetallic nanoparticles, the particles are well-combined and crystalline sizes are less than 1000Ao (or 100nm). Specifically, particle sizes of synthesized bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles are ranging from 44.583 nm to 85.149 nm.
Keywords: Bimetallic Fe/Cu nanoparticles, Loading ratio, Synthesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5398
258 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptiloliteby Ion-Exchange Process
Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto
Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.
Keywords: Clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, Ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2505
257 Conductivity and Selection of Copper Clad Steel Wires for Grounding Applications
Authors: George Eduful, Kingsford J. A. Atanga
Copper clad steel wire (CCS) is primarily used for grounding applications to reduce the high incidence of copper ground conductor theft in electrical installations. The cross sectional area of the CCS is selected by relating the diameter equivalence to a copper conductor. The main difficulty is how to use a simple analytical relation to determine the right conductivity of CCS for a particular application. The use of Eddy-Current instrument for measuring conductivity is known but in most cases, the instrument is not readily available. The paper presents a simplified approach on how to size and determine CCS conductivity for a given application.
Keywords: Copper clad steel wire, conductivity, grounding, skin effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 520
256 Leaching Characteristics of Upgraded Copper Flotation Tailings
Authors: Mercy M. Ramakokovhu, Henry Kasaini, Richard K.K. Mbaya
Abstract:The copper flotation tailings from Konkola Copper mine in Nchanga, Zambia were used in the study. The purpose of this study was to determine the leaching characteristics of the tailings material prior and after the physical beneficiation process is employed. The Knelson gravity concentrator (KC-MD3) was used for the beneficiation process. The copper leaching efficiencies and impurity co-extraction percentages in both the upgraded and the raw feed material were determined at different pH levels and temperature. It was observed that the copper extraction increased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH levels. In comparison to the raw feed sample, the upgraded sample reported a maximum copper extraction of 69% which was 9%, higher than raw feed % extractions. The impurity carry over was reduced from 18% to 4 % on the upgraded sample. The reduction in impurity co-extraction was as a result of the removal of the reactive gangue elements during the upgrading process, this minimized the number of side reaction occurring during leaching.
Keywords: Atmospheric leaching, Copper, Iron, Knelson concentratorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2786
255 Synthesizing CuFe2O4 Spinel Powders by a Combustion-Like Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Coatings
Authors: S. N. Hosseini, M. H. Enayati, F. Karimzadeh, N. M. Sammes
Abstract:The synthesis of CuFe2O4 spinel powders by an optimized combustion-like process followed by calcination is described herein. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dilatometry and 4-probe DC methods. Different glycine to nitrate (G/N) ratios of 1 (fuel-deficient), 1.48 (stoichiometric) and 2 (fuel-rich) were employed. Calcining the asprepared powders at 800 and 1000°C for 5 hours showed that the G/N ratio of 2 results in the formation of the desired copper spinel single phase at both calcination temperatures. For G/N=1, formation of CuFe2O4 takes place in three steps. First, iron and copper nitrates decompose to iron oxide and pure copper. Then, copper transforms to copper oxide and finally, copper and iron oxides react with each other to form a copper ferrite spinel phase. The electrical conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sintered pelletized samples were 2 S.cm-1 (800°C) and 11×10-6 °C-1 (25-800°C), respectively.
Keywords: SOFC interconnect coatings, Copper ferrite, Spinels, Electrical conductivity, Glycine–nitrate process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2253
254 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria
Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura
For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.
Keywords: Antimicrobial, copper, gram positive, gram negative.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5237
253 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties
Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutbakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf
Abstract:CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.
Keywords: Thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2995
252 Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid Method
Authors: Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Emil Omurzak, Tsutomu Mashimo
Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were successfully synthesized by the pulsed plasma in liquid method, using two copper rod electrodes submerged in molten sulfur. Low electrical energy and no high temperature were applied for synthesis. Obtained CuS nanoparticles were then analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Low and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron, Raman Spectroscopies and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. XRD analysis revealed peaks for CuS with hexagonal phase composition. TEM and HRTEM studies showed that sizes of CuS nanoparticles ranged between 10-60 nm, with the average size of about 20 nm. Copper sulfide nanoparticles have short nanorod-like structure. Raman spectroscopy found peak for CuS at 474.2cm-1of Raman region.
Keywords: Copper sulfide, Nanoparticles, Pulsed plasma, Synthesis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4250
251 Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery
Authors: Turan Çalban, Oral Laçin, Abdüsselam Kurtbas
Experimental production methods of Chevreul’s salt being an intermediate stage product in copper recovery were investigated on this article. Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O, being a mixed valence copper sulphite compound, has been obtained by using different methods and reagents. Chevreul’s salt has an intense brick-red color. It is highly stable and expensive. The production of Chevreul’s salt plays a key role in hydrometallurgy. Thermodynamic tendency on precipitation of Chevreul’s salt is related to pH and temperature. Besides, SO2 gaseous is a versatile reagent for precipitating of copper sulphites, Using of SO2 for selective precipitation can be made by appropriate adjustments of pH and temperature. Chevreul’s salt does not form in acidic solutions if those solutions contains considerable amount of sulfurous acid. It is necessary to maintain between pH 2–4.5, because, solubility of Chevreul’s salt increases with decreasing of pH values. Also, the region which Chevreul’s salt is stable can be seen from the potentialpH diagram.
Keywords: Chevreul’s salt, copper recovery, copper sulphite, stage product.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2701
250 An Investigation of the Cu-Ni Compound Cathode Materials Affecting on Transient Recovery Voltage
Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W, Tanitteerapan T, Mungkung N., Yuji T.
The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the instability of a contact surface between Copper and Nickel an alloy cathode in vacuum, the different ratio of Copper and Copper were conducted at 1%, 2% and 4% by using the cathode spot model. The transient recovery voltage is predicted. The cathode spot region is recognized as the collisionless space charge sheath connected with singly ionized collisional plasma. It was found that the transient voltage is decreased with increasing the percentage of an amount of Nickel in cathode materials.
Keywords: Vacuum arc, Instability, Low current, Cathode spot, copper, Nickel, Transient Recovery Voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1289
249 The Investigation of Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s Salt
Authors: Turan Çalban, Fatih Sevim, Oral Laçin
Abstract:In this study, the precipitation conditions of Chevreul’s salt were evaluated. The structure of Chevreul’s salt was examined by considering the previous studies. Thermodynamically, the most important precipitation parameters were pH, temperature, and sulphite-copper(II) ratio. The amount of Chevreul’s salt increased with increasing the temperature and sulphite-copper(II) ratio at the certain range, while it increased with decreasing the pH value at the chosen range. The best solution medium for recovery of Chevreul’s salt is sulphur dioxide gas-water system. Moreover, the soluble sulphite salts are used as efficient precipitating reagents. Chevreul’s salt is generally used to produce the highly pure copper powders from synthetic copper sulphate solutions and impure leach solutions. When the pH of the initial ammoniacal solution is greater than 8.5, ammonia in the medium is not free, and Chevreul’s salt from solution does not precipitate. In contrast, copper ammonium sulphide is precipitated. The pH of the initial solution containing ammonia for precipitating of Chevreul’s salt must be less than 8.5.
Keywords: Chevreul’s salt, copper sulphites, mixed-valence sulphite compounds, precipitating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1389
248 Influence of the Field Type (Mountain and Plain) on the Cupric Status of Lambs
Authors: Mouna Mallem, Majid Tlidjane
The study realized on alive lambs in two different areas mountain and plain in Batna region, aims to demonstrate the possible effect of field type on cupric status of lambs, through evaluation of copper contents in the chain: soil – plant – animal by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This comparative study also allowed the investigation of the influence of the age and the season. The results obtained show that contents of copper in the soil, forage in the same way as in the plasma of lambs are higher in the plain than in the mountainous area; however, the difference is significant only between the values of feed.
Keywords: Copper, Forage, Lambs, Plasma copper.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1576
247 Copper Content in Daily Food Rations Planned and Served to Students from Selected Military Academies and Soldiers Doing Compulsory Military Service in the Polish Army
Authors: J. Bertrandt, A. Kłos, R. Waszkowski, T. Nowicki, R. Pytlak, E. Stęzycka, A. Gazdzinska
The aim of the work was estimation of copper intake with the daily food rations used for alimentation of students of military high schools and soldiers doing compulsory military service in the Polish Army. An average planned copper content in daily food rations used for alimentation of students and soldiers amounted to 2.49±0.35 mg, and 2.44±0.25 mg respectively. The copper content in the daily food ration given for consumption to students amounted from 1.81±0.14 mg to 2.58±0.44 mg while daily food rations served to soldiers delivered from 2.06±0.45 mg to 2.13±0.33 mg. The copper content in the rations planned for students and soldiers alimentation was within the limits of the norms obligatory in Poland. Daily food rations given for consumption, except rations served for students, were within the limits of the recommended norms, but food rations really eaten by examined men didn’t cover the requirements for copper.
Keywords: Copper, daily food ration, military service.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1344
246 Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloy
Authors: Dhananjayulu Avula, Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh, D.K.Dwivedi, N.K.Mehta
This study demonstrates the feasibility of joining the commercial pure copper plates by friction stir welding (FSW). Microstructure, microhardness and tensile properties in terms of the joint efficiency were found 94.03 % compare to as receive base material (BM). The average hardness at the top was higher than bottom. Hardness of weld zone was higher than the base material. Different microstructure zones were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stirred zone (SZ) exhibited primary two phases namely, recrystallized grains and fine precipitates in matrix of copper.
Keywords: Welding; FSW, Commercial Copper, Mechanical propertiesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4394
245 The Impact of Copper and Zinc Deficiency on Milk Production Performances of Intensively Grazed Dairy Cows on the North-East of Romania
Authors: Alina Anton, Gheorghe Solcan, Carmen Solcan
The influence of copper and zinc supplements on milk production performances and health indicators was tested in a 20- week feeding trial, with 40 Holstein-Friesian lactating cows, devided in four groups (copper, zinc, copper-zinc and control). Correlations of the Cu and Zn plasma values with some animal performance criteria of health (body condition score and somatic cell counts) and production (milk yield, peak milk yield, fat and crude protein content) were done. During the 140 days of the experiment, the two added minerals caused a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) of their plasma values after the peak of the cows’ lactations. It was also observed that subjects that have received copper and zinc supplements had the lowest number of somatic cell counts in milk. The Pearson correlation test showed a positive corellation (p = 0.007, r = + 0.851) between the plasma Zn and the milk production. The improvement of the nutritional status improved the milk production performances of the cows as well as their health performances.
Keywords: Copper, dairy cows, health, milk production, zincProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3133
244 Transport and Fate of Copper in Soils
Authors: S K Sharma, N S Sehkon, S Deswal, Siby John
Abstract:The presence of toxic heavy metals in industrial effluents is one of the serious threats to the environment. Heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Mercury, Copper, Arsenic are found in the effluents of industries such as foundries, electroplating, petrochemical, battery manufacturing, tanneries, fertilizer, dying, textiles, metallurgical and metal finishing. Tremendous increase of industrial copper usage and its presence in industrial effluents has lead to a growing concern about the fate and effects of Copper in the environment. Percolation of industrial effluents through soils leads to contamination of ground water and soils. The transport of heavy metals and their diffusion into the soils has therefore, drawn the attention of the researchers. In this study, an attempt has been made to delineate the mechanisms of transport and fate of copper in terrestrial environment. Column studies were conducted using perplex glass square column of dimension side 15 cm and 1.35 m long. The soil samples were collected from a natural drain near Mohali (India). The soil was characterized to be poorly graded sandy loam. The soil was compacted to the field dry density level of about 1.6 g/cm3. Break through curves for different depths of the column were plotted. The results of the column study indicated that the copper has high tendency to flow in the soils and fewer tendencies to get absorbed on the soil particles. The t1/2 estimates obtained from the studies can be used for design copper laden wastewater disposal systems.
Keywords: Column study, copper, soil, transport.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2990
243 In-Situ EBSD Observations of Bending for Single-Crystalline Pure Copper
Authors: Takashi Sakai, Saori Yoshikawa, Hideo Morimoto
To understand the material characteristics of singleand poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A bending test is performed in a SEM apparatus and while its behaviors are observed in situ. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from EBSD analyses.
Keywords: Pure Copper, Bending, Single Crystal, SEM-EBSD Analysis, Texture, MicrostructureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1741
242 Leaching of Flotation Concentrate of Oxide Copper Ore from Sepon Mine, Lao PDR
Authors: C. Rattanakawin, S. Vasailor
Abstract:Acid leaching of flotation concentrate of oxide copper ore containing mainly of malachite was performed in a standard agitation tank with various parameters. The effects of solid to liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, agitation speed, leaching temperature and time were examined to get proper conditions. The best conditions are 1:8 solid to liquid ratio, 10% concentration by weight, 250 rev/min, 30 oC and 5-min leaching time in respect. About 20% Cu grade assayed by atomic absorption technique with 98% copper recovery was obtained from these combined optimum conditions. Dissolution kinetics of the concentrate was approximated as a logarithmic function. As a result, the first-order reaction rate is suggested from this leaching study.
Keywords: Agitation leaching, dissolution kinetics, flotation concentrate, oxide copper ore, sulfuric acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 543
241 Study of Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum Pollution in Groundwater Sources Surrounding (Miduk) Shahr-E- Babak Copper Complex Tailings Dam
Authors: Maryam Kargar, Neamatolah Khorasani, Mahmoud Karami, Gholam-Reza Rafiee, Reza Naseh
Abstract:Interpolated contour maps drawn for aluminum, copper and molybdenum in downstream monitoring boreholes of water dam in Miduk Copper Complex and the values of pH, redox potential (Eh) and distance from water dam indicate different trends of variation and behavior of these three elements in downward groundwater resources. As these maps exhibit, aluminum is dominant in the most alkaline (pH = 9-11) borehole (MB5) to water dam. The highest concentration of molybdenum is found in the nearest borehole (MB6) to water dam. Main concentration of copper is observed in the most oxidized borehole (MB3 with Eh=293.2mV). The spatial difference among sampling stations can be attributed to the existence of faults and diaclases in the geologic structure of Miduk region which causes the groundwater sampling sites to be impressed by different contamination sources (toe seepage and upper seepage water originated from different zones of tailings dump).
Keywords: Contour maps, Monitoring borehole, Toe seepage, Upper seepage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2060
240 Effect of Copper on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Construction Steel
Authors: Olatunde I. Sekunowo, Stephen I. Durowaye, Oluwashina P. Gbenebor
Copper being one of the major intrinsic residual impurities in steel possesses the tendency to induce severe microstructural distortions if not controlled within certain limits. Hence, this paper investigates the effect of this element on the mechanical properties of construction steel with a view to ascertain its safe limits for effective control. The experiment entails collection of statistically scheduled samples of hot rolled profiles with varied copper concentrations in the range of 0.12-0.39 wt. %. From these samples were prepared standard test specimens subjected to tensile, impact, hardness and microstructural analyses. Results show a rather huge compromise in mechanical properties as the specimens demonstrated 54.3%, 74.2% and 64.9% reduction in tensile strength, impact energy and hardness respectively as copper content increases from 0.12 wt. % to 0.39 wt. %. The steel’s abysmal performance is due to the severe distortion of the microstructure occasioned by the development of incoherent complex compounds which weaken the pearlite reinforcing phase. It is concluded that the presence of copper above 0.22 wt. % is deleterious to construction steel performance.
Keywords: Construction steel, mechanical properties, processing method, trace elements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5472
239 Experimental Study of the Extraction of Copper(II) from Sulphuric Acid by Means of Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDT)
Authors: S.Touati, A.H. Meniai
Abstract:The present work presents the extraction of copper(II) from sulphuric acid solutions with Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDT), and six different organic diluents: Dichloromethane, Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride, Toluene, xylene and Cyclohexane, were tested. The pair SDDT/Chloroform showed to be the most selective in removing the copper cations, and hence was considered throughout the experimental study. The effects of operating parameters such as the initial concentration of the extracting agent, the agitation time, the agitation speed and the acid concentration were considered. For an initial concentration of Cu (II) of 63 ppm in a 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution, both with a mass of the extracting agent of 20 mg, an extraction percentage of about 97.8 % and a distribution coefficient of 44.42 were obtained, respectively, confirming the performance of the SDDT-Chloroform pair.
Keywords: Copper (II), Distribution coefficient, Extraction, SDDT, Sulphuric acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1715
238 Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Conventional Leaching for Extraction of Copper from Chalcopyrite Concentrate
Authors: Ayfer Kilicarslan, Kubra Onol, Sercan Basit, Muhlis Nezihi Saridede
Abstract:Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is the most common primary mineral used for the commercial production of copper. The low dissolution efficiency of chalcopyrite in sulfate media has prevented an efficient industrial leaching of this mineral in sulfate media. Ferric ions, bacteria, oxygen and other oxidants have been used as oxidizing agents in the leaching of chalcopyrite in sulfate and chloride media under atmospheric or pressure leaching conditions. Two leaching methods were studied to evaluate chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) dissolution in acid media. First, the conventional oxidative acid leaching method was carried out using sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) as oxidant at atmospheric pressure. Second, microwave-assisted acid leaching was performed using the microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) for same reaction media. Parameters affecting the copper extraction such as leaching time, leaching temperature, concentration of H2SO4 and concentration of K2Cr2O7 were investigated. The results of conventional acid leaching experiments were compared to the microwave leaching method. It was found that the copper extraction obtained under high temperature and high concentrations of oxidant with microwave leaching is higher than those obtained conventionally. 81% copper extraction was obtained by the conventional oxidative acid leaching method in 180 min, with the concentration of 0.3 mol/L K2Cr2O7 in 0.5M H2SO4 at 50 ºC, while 93.5% copper extraction was obtained in 60 min with microwave leaching method under same conditions.
Keywords: Extraction, copper, microwave-assisted leaching, chalcopyrite, potassium dichromate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2646
237 Preparation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles by Reduction of Copper Ions in Aqueous Solution and Their Metal-Metal Bonding Properties
Authors: Y. Kobayashi, T. Shirochi, Y. Yasuda, T. Morita
This paper describes a method for preparing metallic Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution, and a metal-metal bonding technique using the Cu particles.Preparation of the Cu particle colloid solution was performed in water at room temperature in air using a copper source (0.01 M Cu(NO3)2), a reducing reagent (0.2 - 1.0 M hydrazine), and stabilizers (0.5×10-3 M citric acid and 5.0×10-3 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide). The metallic Cu nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 60nm were prepared at all the hydrazine concentrations examined. A stage and a plate of metallic Cu were successfully bonded under annealing at 400oC and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5min in H2 gas with help of the metallic Cu particles. A shear strength required for separating the bonded Cu substrates reached the maximum value at a hydrazine concentration of 0.8M, and it decreased beyond the concentration. Consequently, the largest shear strength of 22.9 MPa was achieved at the 0.8 M hydrazine concentration.
Keywords: Aqueous solution, Bonding, Colloid, Copper, Nanoparticle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5439
236 Performance Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluid with Aqueous Solution of n-Butanol
Authors: Senthilkumar R, Vaidyanathan S, Sivaraman B
Abstract:This study presents the improvement of thermal performance of heat pipe using copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol. The nanofluids kept in the suspension of conventional fluids have the potential of superior heat transfer capability than the conventional fluids due to their improved thermal conductivity. In this work, the copper nanofluid which has a 40 nm size with a concentration of 100 mg/lit is kept in the suspension of the de-ionized (DI) water and an aqueous solution of n-Butanol and these fluids are used as a working medium in the heat pipe. The study discusses about the effect of heat pipe inclination, type of working fluid and heat input on the thermal efficiency and thermal resistance. The experimental results are evaluated in terms of its performance metrics and are compared with that of DI water.
Keywords: copper nanofluid with aqueous solution of n-Butanol, heat pipe, thermal efficiency, thermal resistanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3292
235 Wear and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Iron Modified with Copper
Authors: J. Ramos, V. Gil, A. F. Torres
In this research (using induction furnace process) nodular iron with three different percentages of copper (residual, 0.5% and 1,2%) was obtained. Chemical analysis was performed by mass spectrometry and microstructures were characterized by Optical Microscopy (ASTM E3) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The study of mechanical behavior was carried out in a mechanical test machine (ASTM E8) and a Pin on disk tribometer (ASTM G99) was used to assess wear resistance. It is observed that the dissolution of copper in crystal lattice increases the pearlite structure improving the wear and hardness behavior, but producing a contrary effect on the energy absorption.
Keywords: Ferritic and perlite structure, mechanical properties, nodular iron, wear.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1956
234 Ohmic Quality Factor and Efficiency Estimation for a Gyrotron Cavity
Authors: R. K. Singh, P.K.Jain
Abstract:Operating a device at high power and high frequency is a major problem because wall losses greatly reduce the efficiency of the device. In the present communication, authors analytically analyzed the dependence of ohmic/RF efficiency, the fraction of output power with respect to the total power generated, of gyrotron cavity structure on the conductivity of copper for the second harmonic TE0,6 mode. This study shows a rapid fall in the RF efficiency as the quality (conductivity) of copper degrades. Starting with an RF efficiency near 40% at the conductivity of ideal copper (5.8 x 107 S/m), the RF efficiency decreases (upto 8%) as the copper quality degrades. Assuming conductivity half that of ideal copper the RF efficiency as a function of diffractive quality factor, Qdiff, has been studied. Here the RF efficiency decreases rapidly with increasing diffractive Q. Ohmic wall losses as a function of frequency for 460 GHz gyrotron cavity excited in TE0,6 mode has also been analyzed. For 460 GHz cavity, the extracted power is reduced to 32% of the generated power due to ohmic losses in the walls of the cavity.
Keywords: Diffractive quality factor, Gyrotron, Ohmic wall losses, Open cavity resonator, RF Efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2134
233 Hybrid Recovery of Copper and Silver from PV Ribbon and Ag Finger of EOL Solar Panels
Authors: T. Patcharawit, C. Kansomket, N. Wongnaree, W. Kritsrikan, T. Yingnakorn, S. Khumkoa
Recovery of pure copper and silver from end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) panels was investigated in this paper using an effective hybrid pyro-hydrometallurgical process. In the first step of waste treatment, solar panel waste was first dismantled to obtain a PV sheet to be cut and calcined at 500 °C, to separate out PV ribbon from glass cullet, ash, and volatile while the silicon wafer containing silver finger was collected for recovery. In the second step of metal recovery, copper recovery from PV ribbon was via 1-3 M HCl leaching with SnCl₂ and H₂O₂ additions in order to remove the tin-lead coating on the ribbon. The leached copper band was cleaned and subsequently melted as an anode for the next step of electrorefining. Stainless steel was set as the cathode with CuSO₄ as an electrolyte, and at a potential of 0.2 V, high purity copper of 99.93% was obtained at 96.11% recovery after 24 hours. For silver recovery, the silicon wafer containing silver finger was leached using HNO₃ at 1-4 M in an ultrasonic bath. In the next step of precipitation, silver chloride was then obtained and subsequently reduced by sucrose and NaOH to give silver powder prior to oxy-acetylene melting to finally obtain pure silver metal. The integrated recycling process is considered to be economical, providing effective recovery of high purity metals such as copper and silver while other materials such as aluminum, copper wire, glass cullet can also be recovered to be reused commercially. Compounds such as PbCl₂ and SnO₂ obtained can also be recovered to enter the market.
Keywords: Electrorefining, leaching, calcination, PV ribbon, silver finger, solar panel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 221