Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 294

Search results for: Pulsed plasma

294 2-D Ablated Plasma Production Process for Pulsed Ion Beam-Solid Target Interaction

Authors: Thanat Rungsirathana, Vorathit Rungsetthaphat, Shogo Azuma, Nobuhiro Harada

Abstract:

This paper presents a 2-D hydrodynamic model of the ablated plasma when irradiating a 50 μm Al solid target with a single pulsed ion beam. The Lagrange method is used to solve the moving fluid for the ablated plasma production and formation mechanism. In the calculations, a 10-ns-single-pulsed of ion beam with a total energy density of 120 J/cm2, is used. The results show that the ablated plasma was formed after 2 ns of ion beam irradiation and it started to expand right after 4-6 ns. In addition, the 2-D model give a better understanding of pulsed ion beam-solid target ablated plasma production and expansion process clearer.

Keywords: Ablated plasma, pulse ion beam, thin foil solid target, two-dimensional model

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293 Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Zhazgul Kelgenbaeva, Emil Omurzak, Saadat Sulaimankulova, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).

Keywords: Magnetite, Gold coated magnetite, Nanoparticles, Pulsed Plasma in Liquid, Cytotoxicity.

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292 Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid Method

Authors: Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Emil Omurzak, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were successfully synthesized by the pulsed plasma in liquid method, using two copper rod electrodes submerged in molten sulfur. Low electrical energy and no high temperature were applied for synthesis. Obtained CuS nanoparticles were then analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Low and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron, Raman Spectroscopies and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. XRD analysis revealed peaks for CuS with hexagonal phase composition. TEM and HRTEM studies showed that sizes of CuS nanoparticles ranged between 10-60 nm, with the average size of about 20 nm. Copper sulfide nanoparticles have short nanorod-like structure. Raman spectroscopy found peak for CuS at 474.2cm-1of Raman region.

Keywords: Copper sulfide, Nanoparticles, Pulsed plasma, Synthesis.

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291 Study on Plasma Creation and Propagation in a Pulsed Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster

Authors: Tony Schönherr, Kimiya Komurasaki, Georg Herdrich

Abstract:

The performance and the plasma created by a pulsed magnetoplasmadynamic thruster for small satellite application is studied to understand better the ablation and plasma propagation processes occurring during the short-time discharge. The results can be applied to improve the quality of the thruster in terms of efficiency, and to tune the propulsion system to the needs required by the satellite mission. Therefore, plasma measurements with a high-speed camera and induction probes, and performance measurements of mass bit and impulse bit were conducted. Values for current sheet propagation speed, mean exhaust velocity and thrust efficiency were derived from these experimental data. A maximum in current sheet propagation was found by the high-speed camera measurements for a medium energy input and confirmed by the induction probes. A quasilinear tendency between the mass bit and the energy input, the current action integral respectively, was found, as well as a linear tendency between the created impulse and the discharge energy. The highest mean exhaust velocity and thrust efficiency was found for the highest energy input.

Keywords: electric propulsion, low-density plasma, pulsed magnetoplasmadynamicthruster, space engineering.

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290 Spectroscopic Characterization of Indium-Tin Laser Ablated Plasma

Authors: M. Hanif, M. Salik

Abstract:

In the present research work we present the optical emission studies of the Indium (In) – Tin (Sn) plasma produced by the first (1064 nm) harmonic of an Nd: YAG nanosecond pulsed laser. The experimentally observed line profiles of neutral Indium (In I) and Tin (SnI) are used to extract the electron temperature (Te) using the Boltzmann plot method. Whereas, the electron number density (Ne) has been determined from the Stark broadening line profile method. The Te is calculated by varying the distance from the target surface along the line of propagation of plasma plume and also by varying the laser irradiance. Beside we have studied the variation of Ne as a function of laser irradiance as well as its variation with distance from the target surface.

Keywords: Indium – Tin plasma, laser ablation, optical emission spectroscopy, electron temperature, and electron number density.

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289 Pulsed Multi-Layered Image Filtering: A VLSI Implementation

Authors: Christian Mayr, Holger Eisenreich, Stephan Henker, René Schüffny

Abstract:

Image convolution similar to the receptive fields found in mammalian visual pathways has long been used in conventional image processing in the form of Gabor masks. However, no VLSI implementation of parallel, multi-layered pulsed processing has been brought forward which would emulate this property. We present a technical realization of such a pulsed image processing scheme. The discussed IC also serves as a general testbed for VLSI-based pulsed information processing, which is of interest especially with regard to the robustness of representing an analog signal in the phase or duration of a pulsed, quasi-digital signal, as well as the possibility of direct digital manipulation of such an analog signal. The network connectivity and processing properties are reconfigurable so as to allow adaptation to various processing tasks.

Keywords: Neural image processing, pulse computation application, pulsed Gabor convolution, VLSI pulse routing.

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288 Partial Oxidation of Methane in the Pulsed Compression Reactor: Experiments and Simulation

Authors: Timo Roestenberg, Maxim Glushenkov, Alexander Kronberg, Anton A. Verbeek, Theo H. vd Meer

Abstract:

The Pulsed Compression Reactor promises to be a compact, economical and energy efficient alternative to conventional chemical reactors. In this article, the production of synthesis gas using the Pulsed Compression Reactor is investigated. This is done experimentally as well as with simulations. The experiments are done by means of a single shot reactor, which replicates a representative, single reciprocation of the Pulsed Compression Reactor with great control over the reactant composition, reactor temperature and pressure and temperature history. Simulations are done with a relatively simple method, which uses different models for the chemistry and thermodynamic properties of the species in the reactor. Simulation results show very good agreement with the experimental data, and give great insight into the reaction processes that occur within the cycle.

Keywords: Chemical reactors, Energy, Pulsed compressionreactor, Simulation

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287 High-Intensity Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field effects on Early Physiological Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Wisuwat Songnuan, Phumin Kirawanich

Abstract:

The influences of pulsed electric fields on early physiological development in Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. Inside a 4-mm electroporation cuvette, pre-germination seeds were subjected to high-intensity, nanosecond electrical pulses generated using laboratory-assembled pulsed electric field system. The field strength was varied from 5 to 20 kV.cm-1 and the pulse width and the pulse number were maintained at 10 ns and 100, respectively, corresponding to the specific treatment energy from 300 J.kg-1 to 4.5 kJ.kg-1. Statistical analyses on the average leaf area 5 and 15 days following pulsed electric field treatment showed that the effects appear significant the second week after treatments with a maximum increase of 80% compared to the control (P < 0.01).

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, full-wave analysis, leaf area, high-intensity nanosecond pulsed electric fields

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286 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: K. Abbas, R. Ahmad, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: Crystallinity, glow discharge, nitriding, sputtering.

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285 Modulational Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for quantum plasma at finite temperature the modulational instability of electron plasma waves is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Amplitude Modulation, Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma.

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284 Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in an Electron-Hole Bounded Quantum Dusty Plasma

Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sailendranath Paul, Sreyasi Banerjee

Abstract:

Using quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) model the linear dispersion relation for the electron plasma waves propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with a dense plasma containing streaming electron, hole and stationary charged dust particles has been derived. It is shown that the effect of finite boundary and stream velocity of electrons and holes make some of the possible modes of propagation linearly unstable. The growth rate of this instability is shown to depend significantly on different plasma parameters.

Keywords: Electron Plasma wave, Quantum plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamical model.

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283 Nonlinear Solitary Structures of Electron Plasma Waves in a Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

Nonlinear solitary structures of electron plasma waves have been investigated by using nonlinear quantum fluid equations for electrons with an arbitrary temperature. It is shown that the electron degeneracy parameter has significant effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves. Depending on its value both compressive and rarefactive solitons can be excited in the model plasma under consideration.

Keywords: Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma, Solitary structure

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282 A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer in Laminar Pulsed Slot Jets Impinging on a Surface

Authors: D. Kim

Abstract:

Numerical simulations are performed for laminar continuous and pulsed jets impinging on a surface in order to investigate the effects of pulsing frequency on the heat transfer characteristics. The time-averaged Nusselt number of pulsed jets is larger in the impinging jet region as compared to the continuous jet, while it is smaller in the outer wall jet region. At the stagnation point, the mean and RMS Nusselt numbers become larger and smaller, respectively, as the pulsing frequency increases. Unsteady behaviors of vortical fluid motions and temperature field are also investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Pulsed slot jet, impingement, pulsing frequency, heat transfer enhancement.

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281 Water Vapor Plasma Torch: Design, Characteristics and Applications

Authors: A. Tamošiūnas, P. Valatkevičius, V. Grigaitiene, V. Valinčius

Abstract:

The atmospheric pressure plasma torch with a direct current arc discharge stabilized by water vapor vortex was experimentally investigated. Overheated up to 450K water vapor was used as plasma forming gas. Plasma torch design is one of the most important factors leading to a stable operation of the device. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the plasma torch were determined during the experimental investigations. The design and the basic characteristics of the water vapor plasma torch are presented in the paper. Plasma torches with the electric arc stabilized by water vapor vortex provide special performance characteristics in some plasma processing applications such as thermal plasma neutralization and destruction of organic wastes enabling to extract high caloric value synthesis gas as by-product of the process. Syngas could be used as a surrogate fuel partly replacing the dependence on the fossil fuels or used as a feedstock for hydrogen, methanol production.

Keywords: Arc discharge, atmospheric pressure thermal plasma, plasma torch, water vapor.

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280 Atmospheric Plasma Innovative Roll-to-Roll Machine for Continuous Materials

Authors: I. Kulyk, M. Stefan

Abstract:

Atmospheric plasma is emerging as a promising technology for many industrial sectors, because of its ecological and economic advantages respect to the traditional production processes. For textile industry, atmospheric plasma is becoming a valid alternative to the conventional wet processes, but the plasma machines realized so far do not allow the treatment of fibrous mechanically weak material. Novel atmospheric plasma machine for industrial applications, developed by VenetoNanotech SCpA in collaboration with Italian producer of corona equipment ME.RO SpA is presented. The main feature of this pre-industrial scale machine is the possibility of the inline plasma treatment of delicate fibrous substrates such as fibre sleeves, for example wool tops, cotton fibres, polymeric tows, mineral fibers and so on, avoiding burnings and disruption of the faint materials.

Keywords: Atmospheric plasma, industrial machine, fibrous materials.

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279 An Analysis of the Optimization Condition of Plasma Generator for Air Conditioner System

Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W , Tanitteerapan T , Mungkung N., Yuji T.

Abstract:

This research aimed to develop plasma system used in air conditioners. This developed plasma system could be installed in the air conditioners - all split type. The quality of air could be improved to be equal to present plasma system. Development processes were as follows: 1) to study the plasma system used in the air conditioners, 2) to design a plasma generator, 3) to develop the plasma generator, and 4) to test its performance in many types of the air conditioners. This plasma system was developed by AC high voltage – 14 kv with a frequency of 50 kHz. Carbon was a conductor to generate arc in air purifier system. The research was tested by installing the plasma generator in the air conditioners - wall type. Whereas, there were 3 types of installations: air flow out, air flow in, and room center. The result of the plasma generator installed in the air conditioners, split type, revealed that the air flow out installation provided the highest average of o-zone at 223 mg/h. This type of installation provided the highest efficiency of air quality improvement. Moreover, the air flow in installation and the room center installation provided the average of the o-zone at 163 mg/h and 64 mg/h, respectively.

Keywords: Air Conditioner, Plasma generator, High voltage, Optimization, Installation position.

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278 A Unification and Relativistic Correction for Boltzmann’s Law

Authors: Lloyd G. Allred

Abstract:

The distribution of velocities of particles in plasma is a well understood discipline of plasma physics. Boltzmann’s law and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describe the distribution of velocity of a particle in plasma as a function of mass and temperature. Particles with the same mass tend to have the same velocity. By expressing the same law in terms of energy alone, the author obtains a distribution independent of mass. In summary, for particles in plasma, the energies tend to equalize, independent of the masses of the individual particles. For high-energy plasma, the original law predicts velocities greater than the speed of light. If one uses Einstein’s formula for energy (E=mc2), then a relativistic correction is not required.

Keywords: Cosmology, EMP, Euclidean, plasma physics, relativity.

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277 Optical Characterization of a Microwave Plasma Torch for Hydrogen Production

Authors: Babajide O. Ogungbesan, Rajneesh Kumar, Mohamed Sassi

Abstract:

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very toxic gas that is produced in very large quantities in the oil and gas industry. It cannot be flared to the atmosphere and Claus process based gas plants are used to recover the sulfur and convert the hydrogen to water. In this paper, we present optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch for H2S dissociation into hydrogen and sulfur. The torch is operated at 2.45 GHz with power up to 2 kW. Three different gases can simultaneously be injected in the plasma torch. Visual imaging and optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma for varying gas flow rates and microwave power. The plasma length, emission spectra and temperature are presented. The obtained experimental results validate our earlier published simulation results of plasma torch.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, gas dissociation, optical emission spectroscopy.

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276 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated and characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia.

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275 Effect of Pre-Plasma Potential on Laser Ion Acceleration

Authors: Djemai Bara, Mohamed Faouzi Mahboub, Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz

Abstract:

In this work, the role of the preformed plasma created on the front face of a target, irradiated by a high intensity short pulse laser, in the framework of ion acceleration process, modeled by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, is studied. This plasma is composed of cold ions governed by fluid equations and non-thermal & trapped with densities represented by a "Cairns-Gurevich" equation. The self-similar solution of the equations shows that electronic trapping and the presence of non-thermal electrons in the pre-plasma are both responsible in ion acceleration as long as the proportion of energetic electrons is not too high. In the case where the majority of electrons are energetic, the electrons are accelerated directly by the ponderomotive force of the laser without the intermediate of an accelerating plasma wave.

Keywords: Cairns-Gurevich Equation, ion acceleration, plasma expansion, pre-plasma.

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274 Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves in Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma Half-Space

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Parthasona Maji, Basudev Ghosh

Abstract:

The nonlinear self-interaction of an electrostatic surface wave on a semibounded quantum plasma with relativistic degeneracy is investigated by using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and the Poisson’s equation with appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that a part of the second harmonic generated through self-interaction does not have a true surface wave character but propagates obliquely away from the plasma-vacuum interface into the bulk of plasma.

Keywords: Harmonic Generation, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model, Relativistic Degeneracy, Surface waves.

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273 Shear-Layer Instabilities of a Pulsed Stack-Issued Transverse Jet

Authors: Ching M. Hsu, Rong F. Huang, Michael E. Loretero

Abstract:

Shear-layer instabilities of a pulsed stack-issued transverse jet were studied experimentally in a wind tunnel. Jet pulsations were induced by means of acoustic excitation. Streak pictures of the smoke-flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median plane were recorded with a high-speed digital camera. Instantaneous velocities of the shear-layer instabilities in the flow were digitized by a hot-wire anemometer. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke-flow visualization, three characteristic flow modes, synchronized flapping jet, transition, and synchronized shear-layer vortices, are identified in the shear layer of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet at various excitation Strouhal numbers. The shear-layer instabilities of the pulsed stack-issued transverse jet are synchronized by acoustic excitation except for transition mode. In transition flow mode, the shear-layer vortices would exhibit a frequency that would be twice as great as the acoustic excitation frequency.

Keywords: Acoustic excitation, jet in crossflow, shear-layer instability.

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272 Characterization of a Pure Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposited by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Camilla G. Goncalves, Benedito Christ, Walter Miyakawa, Antonio J. Abdalla

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.

Keywords: Characterization, diamond-like carbon, DLC, mechanical properties, pulsed laser deposition.

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271 Process Parameters Optimization for Pulsed TIG Welding of 70/30 Cu-Ni Alloy Welds Using Taguchi Technique

Authors: M. P. Chakravarthy, N. Ramanaiah, B. S. K.Sundara Siva Rao

Abstract:

Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of pulse TIG welded 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as pulse frequency, peak current, base current and welding speed on tensile strength of Pulsed current TIG welded 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy of 5 mm thickness, Taguchi parametric design and optimization approach was used. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the Pulse frequency, peak current, welding speed and base current are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal values of tensile strength of Pulsed current Gas tungsten arc welding (PC GTAW) of 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy welds are 368.8MPa.

Keywords: 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy, pulsed current GTAW, mechanical properties, Taguchi technique, analysis of variance.

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270 Plasma Properties Effect on Fluorescent Tube Plasma Antenna Performance

Authors: A. N. Dagang, E. I. Ismail, Z. Zakaria

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis on the performance of monopole antenna with fluorescent tubes. In this research, the simulation and experimental approach is conducted. The fluorescent tube with different length and size is designed using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and the characteristics of antenna parameter are simulated throughout the software. CST was used to simulate antenna parameters such as return loss, resonant frequency, gain and directivity. Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) was used to measure the return loss of plasma antenna in order to validate the simulation results. In the simulation and experiment, the supply frequency is set starting from 1 GHz to 10 GHz. The results show that the return loss of plasma antenna changes when size of fluorescent tubes is varied, correspond to the different plasma properties. It shows that different values of plasma properties such as plasma frequency and collision frequency gives difference result of return loss, gain and directivity. For the gain, the values range from 2.14 dB to 2.36 dB. The return loss of plasma antenna offers higher value range from -22.187 dB to -32.903 dB. The higher the values of plasma frequency and collision frequency, the higher return loss can be obtained. The values obtained are comparative to the conventional type of metal antenna.

Keywords: Plasma antenna, fluorescent tube, computer simulation technology, plasma parameters.

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269 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition

Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.

Keywords: NDT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.

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268 Plasma Density Distribution in Asymmetric Geometry Capacitive Coupled Plasma Discharge System

Authors: Yinchang Du, Yangfang Li

Abstract:

In this work, we used the single Langmuir probe to measure the plasma density distribution in an geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma discharge system. Because of the frame structure of powered electrode, the plasma density was not homogeneous in the discharge volume. It was higher under the frame, but lower in the centre. Finite element simulation results showed a good agreement with the experiment results. To increase the electron density in the central volume and improve the homogeneity of the plasma, we added an auxiliary electrode, powered by DC voltage, in the simulation geometry. The simulation results showed that the auxiliary electrode could alter the potential distribution and improve the density homogeneity effectively.

Keywords: Capacitive coupled discharge, asymmetric discharge, homogeneous plasma.

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267 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour

Abstract:

In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, cold nitrogen plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, electronic scanning microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye.

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266 Design and Performance Analysis of a Supersonic Diffuser for Plasma Wing Tunnel

Authors: R.S Pugazenthi, Andy C. McIntosh

Abstract:

Plasma Wind Tunnels (PWT) are extensively used for screening and qualification of re-entry Thermel Protection System (TPS) materials. Proper design of a supersonic diffuser for plasma wind tunnel is of importance for achieving good pressurerecovery (thereby reducing vacuum pumping requirement & run time costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuations from propagating costs) and isolating downstream stream fluctuationnts the details of a rapid design methodology successfully employed for designing supersonic diffuser for high power (several megawatts)plasma wind tunnels and numerical performance analysis of a diffuser configuration designed for one megawatt power rated plasma wind tunnel(enthalpy ~ 30 MJ/kg) using FLUENT 6.3® solver for different diffuser operating sub-atmospheric back-pressures.

Keywords: Compressible flow, plasma wind tunnel, re-entry, supersonic diffuser

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265 A Review of Methanol Production from Methane Oxidation via Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor

Authors: M. Khoshtinat, N. A. S. Amin, I. Noshadi

Abstract:

Direct conversion of methane to methanol by partial oxidation in a thermal reactor has a poor yield of about 2% which is less than the expected economical yield of about 10%. Conventional thermal catalytic reactors have been proposed to be superseded by plasma reactors as a promising approach, due to strength of the electrical energy which can break C-H bonds of methane. Among the plasma techniques, non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma chemical process is one of the most future promising technologies in synthesizing methanol. The purpose of this paper is presenting a brief review of CH4 oxidation with O2 in DBD plasma reactors based on the recent investigations. For this reason, the effect of various parameters of reactor configuration, feed ratio, applied voltage, residence time (gas flow rate), type of applied catalyst, pressure and reactor wall temperature on methane conversion and methanol selectivity are discussed.

Keywords: Dielectric barrier discharge, methane, methanol, partial oxidation, Plasma.

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