Search results for: Recovery
422 The Service Failure and Recovery in the Information Technology Services
Authors: Jun Luo, Weiguo Zhang., Dabin Qin
Abstract:It is important to retain customer satisfaction in information technology services. When a service failure occurs, companies need to take service recovery action to recover their customer satisfaction. Although companies cannot avoid all problems and complaints, they should try to make up. Therefore, service failure and service recovery have become an important and challenging issue for companies. In this paper, the literature and the problems in the information technology services were reviewed. An integrated model of profit driven for the service failure and service recovery was established in view of the benefit of customer and enterprise. Moreover, the interaction between service failure and service recovery strategy was studied, the result of which verified the matching principles of the service recovery strategy and the type of service failure. In addition, the relationship between the cost of service recovery and customer-s cumulative value of service after recovery was analyzed with the model. The result attributes to managers in deciding on appropriate resource allocations for recovery strategies.
Keywords: service failure, service recovery, informationtechnology servicesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997
421 Recovery of Copper and DCA from Simulated Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF)Waste Stream
Authors: Chuan-Kun Liu, Chi-Wang Li
Abstract:Simultaneous recovery of copper and DCA from simulated MEUF concentrated stream was investigated. Effects of surfactant (DCA) and metal (copper) concentrations, surfactant to metal molar ratio (S/M ratio), electroplating voltage, EDTA concentration, solution pH, and salt concentration on metal recovery and current efficiency were studied. Electric voltage of -0.5 V was shown to be optimum operation condition in terms of Cu recovery, current efficiency, and surfactant recovery. Increasing Cu recovery and current efficiency were observed with increases of Cu concentration while keeping concentration of DCA constant. However, increasing both Cu and DCA concentration while keeping S/M ratio constant at 2.5 showed detrimental effect on Cu recovery at DCA concentration higher than 15 mM. Cu recovery decreases with increasing pH while current efficiency showed an opposite trend. It is believed that conductivity is the main cause for discrepancy of Cu recovery and current efficiency observed at different pH. Finally, it was shown that EDTA had adverse effect on both Cu recovery and current efficiency while addition of NaCl salt had negative impact on current efficiency at concentration higher than 8000 mg/L.
Keywords: metal recovery, MEUF waste, surfactant, electroplating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1461
420 Dielectric Recovery Characteristics of High Voltage Gas Circuit Breakers Operating with CO2 Mixture
Authors: Peng Lu, Branimir Radisavljevic, Martin Seeger, Daniel Over, Torsten Votteler, Bernardo Galletti
CO₂-based gas mixtures exhibit huge potential as the interruption medium for replacing SF₆ in high voltage switchgears. In this paper, the recovery characteristics of dielectric strength of CO₂-O₂ mixture in the post arc phase after the current zero are presented. As representative examples, the dielectric recovery curves under conditions of different gas filling pressures and short-circuit current amplitudes are presented. A series of dielectric recovery measurements suggests that the dielectric recovery rate is proportional to the mass flux of the blowing gas, and the dielectric strength recovers faster in the case of lower short circuit currents.
Keywords: CO2 mixture, high voltage circuit breakers, dielectric recovery rate, short-circuit current, mass flux.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 210
419 Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas
Authors: Kemal Comakli, Meryem Terhan
In this study, the potential of heat recovery from waste flue gas was examined in 60 MW district heating system of a university, and fuel saving was aimed by using the recovered heat in the system as a source again. Various scenarios are intended to make use of waste heat. For this purpose, actual operation data of the system were taken. Besides, the heat recovery units that consist of heat exchangers such as flue gas condensers, economizers or air pre-heaters were designed theoretically for each scenario. Energy analysis of natural gas-fired boiler’s exhaust flue gas in the system, and economic analysis of heat recovery units to predict payback periods were done. According to calculation results, the waste heat loss ratio from boiler flue gas in the system was obtained as average 16%. Thanks to the heat recovery units, thermal efficiency of the system can be increased, and fuel saving can be provided. At the same time, a huge amount of green gas emission can be decreased by installing the heat recovery units.
Keywords: Heat recovery from flue gas, energy analysis of flue gas, economical analysis, payback period.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2653
418 Influence of Measurement System on Negative Bias Temperature Instability Characterization: Fast BTI vs Conventional BTI vs Fast Wafer Level Reliability
Authors: Vincent King Soon Wong, Hong Seng Ng, Florinna Sim
Abstract:Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is one of the critical degradation mechanisms in semiconductor device reliability that causes shift in the threshold voltage (Vth). However, thorough understanding of this reliability failure mechanism is still unachievable due to a recovery characteristic known as NBTI recovery. This paper will demonstrate the severity of NBTI recovery as well as one of the effective methods used to mitigate, which is the minimization of measurement system delays. Comparison was done in between two measurement systems that have significant differences in measurement delays to show how NBTI recovery causes result deviations and how fast measurement systems can mitigate NBTI recovery. Another method to minimize NBTI recovery without the influence of measurement system known as Fast Wafer Level Reliability (FWLR) NBTI was also done to be used as reference.
Keywords: Fast vs slow BTI, Fast wafer level reliability, Negative bias temperature instability, NBTI measurement system, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, MOSFET, NBTI recovery, reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1071
417 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels
Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang
For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.
Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, CO2 flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 909
416 Simulation of Utility Accrual Scheduling and Recovery Algorithm in Multiprocessor Environment
Authors: A. Idawaty, O. Mohamed, A. Z. Zuriati
This paper presents the development of an event based Discrete Event Simulation (DES) for a recovery algorithm known Backward Recovery Global Preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (BR_GPUAS). This algorithm implements the Backward Recovery (BR) mechanism as a fault recovery solution under the existing Time/Utility Function/ Utility Accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling domain for multiprocessor environment. The BR mechanism attempts to take the faulty tasks back to its initial safe state and then proceeds to re-execute the affected section of the faulty tasks to enable recovery. Considering that faults may occur in the components of any system; a fault tolerance system that can nullify the erroneous effect is necessary to be developed. Current TUF/UA scheduling algorithm uses the abortion recovery mechanism and it simply aborts the erroneous task as their fault recovery solution. None of the existing algorithm in TUF/UA scheduling domain in multiprocessor scheduling environment have considered the transient fault and implement the BR mechanism as a fault recovery mechanism to nullify the erroneous effect and solve the recovery problem in this domain. The developed BR_GPUAS simulator has derived the set of parameter, events and performance metrics according to a detailed analysis of the base model. Simulation results revealed that BR_GPUAS algorithm can saved almost 20-30% of the accumulated utilities making it reliable and efficient for the real-time application in the multiprocessor scheduling environment.
Keywords: Time Utility Function/ Utility Accrual (TUF/UA) scheduling, Real-time system (RTS), Backward Recovery, Multiprocessor, Discrete Event Simulation (DES).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 604
415 Experimental Study of Strength Recovery from Residual Strength on Kaolin Clay
Authors: Deepak R. Bhat, Netra P. Bhandery, Ryuichi Yatabe
Strength recovery effect from the residual-state of shear is not well address in scientific literature. Torsional ring shear strength recovery tests on kaolin clay using rest periods up to 30 days are performed at the effective normal stress 100kN/m2. Test results shows that recovered strength measured in the laboratory is slightly noticeable after rest period of 3 days, but recovered strength lost after very small shear displacement. This paper mainly focused on the strength recovery phenomenon from the residual strength of kaolin clay based on torsional ring shear test results. Mechanisms of recovered strength are also discussed.
Keywords: Kaolin clay, Residual strength, Strength recovery, Torsional ring shear test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2268
414 A Comparative Study of Metal Extraction from Spent Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans
Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Sradhanjali Singh, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee
Abstract:The recovery of metal values and safe disposal of spent catalyst is gaining interest due to both its hazardous nature and increased regulation associated with disposal methods. Prior to the recovery of the valuable metals, removal of entrained deposits limit the diffusion of lixiviate resulting in low recovery of metals must be taken into consideration. Therefore, petroleum refinery spent catalyst was subjected to acetone washing and roasting at 500oC. The treated samples were investigated for metals bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch reactors and the leaching efficiencies were compared. It was found out that acetone washed spent catalysts results in better metal recovery compare to roasted spent. About 83% Ni, 20% Al, 50% Mo and 73% V were leached using the acetone washed spent catalyst. In both the cases, Ni, V and Mo was high compared to Al.
Keywords: Acetone wash, At. ferrooxidans, Bioleaching, Calcined, Metal recovery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2466
413 Investigating Different Options for Reheating the First Converter Inlet Stream of Sulfur Recovery Units (SRUs)
Authors: H. Ganji, H. R. Mahdipoor, J. Ahmadpanah, H. Naderi
Abstract:The modified Claus process is the major technology for the recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide. The chemical reactions that can occur in the reaction furnace are numerous and many byproducts such as carbon disulfide and carbon carbonyl sulfide are produced. These compounds can often contribute from 20 to 50% of the pollutants and therefore, should be hydrolyzed in the catalytic converter. The inlet temperature of the first catalytic reactor should be maintained over than 250 °C, to hydrolyze COS and CS2. In this paper, the various configurations for the first converter reheating of sulfur recovery unit are investigated. As a result, the performance of each method is presented for a typical clause unit. The results show that the hot gas method seems to be better than the other methods.
Keywords: Sulfur recovery unit, reaction converter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2219
412 Adjusting the Furnace and Converter Temperature of the Sulfur Recovery Units
Authors: Hamid Reza Mahdipoor, Hamid Ganji, Hamed Naderi, Hajar Yousefian, Hooman Javaherizadeh
Abstract:The modified Claus process is commonly used in oil refining and gas processing to recover sulfur and destroy contaminants formed in upstream processing. A Claus furnace feed containing a relatively low concentration of H2S may be incapable of producing a stable flame. Also, incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in the feed can lead to deterioration of the catalyst in the reactors due to soot or carbon deposition. Therefore, special consideration is necessary to achieve the appropriate overall sulfur recovery. In this paper, some configurations available to treat lean acid gas streams are described and the most appropriate ones are studied to overcome low H2S concentration problems. As a result, overall sulfur recovery is investigated for feed preheating and hot gas configurations.
Keywords: Sulfur recovery unit, Low H2S contentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4476
411 Ultrasound Assisted Cooling Crystallization of Lactose Monohydrate
Authors: Sanjaykumar R. Patel, Parth R. Kayastha
α-lactose monohydrate is widely used in the pharmaceutical industries as an inactive substance that acts as a vehicle or a medium for a drug or other active substance. It is a byproduct of dairy industries, and the recovery of lactose from whey not only boosts the improvement of the economics of whey utilization but also causes a reduction in pollution as lactose recovery can reduce the BOD of whey by more than 80%. In the present study, levels of process parameters were kept as initial lactose concentration (30-50% w/w), sonication amplitude (20-40%), sonication time (2-6 hours), and crystallization temperature (10-20 oC) for the recovery of lactose in ultrasound assisted cooling crystallization. In comparison with cooling crystallization, the use of ultrasound enhanced the lactose recovery by 39.17% (w/w). The parameters were optimized for the lactose recovery using Taguchi Method. The optimum conditions found were initial lactose concentration at level 3 (50% w/w), amplitude of sonication at level 2 (40%), the sonication time at level 3 (6 hours), and crystallization temperature at level 1 (10 °C). The maximum recovery was found to be 85.85% at the optimum conditions. Sonication time and the initial lactose concentration were found to be significant parameters for the lactose recovery.
Keywords: Crystallization, Taguchi method, ultrasound, lactose.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 839
410 Gas Injection Transport Mechanism for Shale Oil Recovery
Authors: Chinedu Ejike
The United States is now energy self-sufficient due to the production of shale oil reserves. With more than half of it being tapped daily in the United States, these unconventional reserves are massive and provide immense potential for future energy demands. Drilling horizontal wells and fracking are the primary methods for developing these reserves. Regrettably, recovery efficiency is rarely greater than 10%. Gas injection enhanced oil recovery offers a significant benefit in optimizing recovery of shale oil. This could be either through huff and puff, gas flooding, and cyclic gas injection. Methane, nitrogen, and carbon (IV) oxide, among other high-pressure gases, can be injected. Operators use Darcy's law to assess a reservoir's productive capacity, but they are unaware that the law may not apply to shale oil reserves. This is due to the fact that, unlike pressure differences alone, diffusion, concentration, and gas selection all play a role in the flow of gas injected into the wellbore. The reservoir drainage and oil sweep efficiency rates are determined by the transport method. This research evaluates the parameters that influence gas injection transport mechanism. Understanding the process could accelerate recovery by two to three times.
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, gas injection, shale oil, transport mechanism, unconventional reservoirProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 356
409 Energy Recovery from Swell with a Height Inferior to 1.5 m
Authors: A. Errasti, F. Doffagne, O. Foucrier, S. Kao, A. Meigne, H. Pellae, T. Rouland
Renewable energy recovery is an important domain of research in past few years in view of protection of our ecosystem. Several industrial companies are setting up widespread recovery systems to exploit wave energy. Most of them have a large size, are implanted near the shores and exploit current flows. However, as oceans represent 70% of Earth surface, a huge space is still unexploited to produce energy. Present analysis focuses on surface small scale wave energy recovery. The principle is exactly the opposite of wheel damper for a car on a road. Instead of maintaining the car body as non-oscillatory as possible by adapted control, a system is designed so that its oscillation amplitude under wave action will be maximized with respect to a boat carrying it in view of differential potential energy recuperation. From parametric analysis of system equations, interesting domains have been selected and expected energy output has been evaluated.
Keywords: Small scale wave, potential energy, optimized energy recovery, auto-adaptive system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 938
408 Reversible Medical Image Watermarking For Tamper Detection And Recovery With Run Length Encoding Compression
Authors: Siau-Chuin Liew, Siau-Way Liew, Jasni Mohd Zain
Abstract:Digital watermarking in medical images can ensure the authenticity and integrity of the image. This design paper reviews some existing watermarking schemes and proposes a reversible tamper detection and recovery watermarking scheme. Watermark data from ROI (Region Of Interest) are stored in RONI (Region Of Non Interest). The embedded watermark allows tampering detection and tampered image recovery. The watermark is also reversible and data compression technique was used to allow higher embedding capacity.
Keywords: data compression, medical image, reversible, tamperdetection and recovery, watermark.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1934
407 Simultaneous HPAM/SDS Injection in Heterogeneous/Layered Models
Authors: M. H. Sedaghat, A. Zamani, S. Morshedi, R. Janamiri, M. Safdari, I. Mahdavi, A. Hosseini, A. Hatampour
Although lots of experiments have been done in enhanced oil recovery, the number of experiments which consider the effects of local and global heterogeneity on efficiency of enhanced oil recovery based on the polymer-surfactant flooding is low and rarely done. In this research, we have done numerous experiments of water flooding and polymer-surfactant flooding on a five spot glass micromodel in different conditions such as different positions of layers. In these experiments, five different micromodels with three different pore structures are designed. Three models with different layer orientation, one homogenous model and one heterogeneous model are designed. In order to import the effect of heterogeneity of porous media, three types of pore structures are distributed accidentally and with equal ratio throughout heterogeneous micromodel network according to random normal distribution. The results show that maximum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the layers are orthogonal to the path of mainstream and the minimum EOR recovery factor will happen in a situation where the model is heterogeneous. This experiments show that in polymer-surfactant flooding, with increase of angles of layers the EOR recovery factor will increase and this recovery factor is strongly affected by local heterogeneity around the injection zone.
Keywords: Layered Reservoir, Micromodel, Local Heterogeneity, Polymer-Surfactant Flooding, Enhanced Oil Recovery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2088
406 A 3.125Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery Circuit Using 1/4-Rate Technique
Authors: Il-Do Jeong, Hang-Geun Jeong
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a clock and data recovery circuit (CDR). We propose a new clock and data recovery which is based on a 1/4-rate frequency detector (QRFD). The proposed frequency detector helps reduce the VCO frequency and is thus advantageous for high speed application. The proposed frequency detector can achieve low jitter operation and extend the pull-in range without using the reference clock. The proposed CDR was implemented using a 1/4-rate bang-bang type phase detector (PD) and a ring voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). The CDR circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.18 CMOS technology. It occupies an active area of 1 x 1 and consumes 90 mW from a single 1.8V supply.
Keywords: Clock and data recovery, 1/4-rate frequency detector, 1/4-rate phase detector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2776
405 A Pairing-based Blind Signature Scheme with Message Recovery
Authors: Song Han, Elizabeth Chang
Blind signatures enable users to obtain valid signatures for a message without revealing its content to the signer. This paper presents a new blind signature scheme, i.e. identity-based blind signature scheme with message recovery. Due to the message recovery property, the new scheme requires less bandwidth than the identitybased blind signatures with similar constructions. The scheme is based on modified Weil/Tate pairings over elliptic curves, and thus requires smaller key sizes for the same level of security compared to previous approaches not utilizing bilinear pairings. Security and efficiency analysis for the scheme is provided in this paper.
Keywords: Blind Signature, Message Recovery, Pairings, Elliptic Curves, BlindnessProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1933
404 Studies on Lucrative Design of Waste Heat Recovery System for Air Conditioners
Authors: Ashwin Bala, K. Panthalaraja Kumaran, S. Prithviraj, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar, S. Ajith
Abstract:In this paper comprehensive studies have been carried out for the design optimization of a waste heat recovery system for effectively utilizing the domestic air conditioner heat energy for producing hot water. Numerical studies have been carried for the geometry optimization of a waste heat recovery system for domestic air conditioners. Numerical computations have been carried out using a validated 2d pressure based, unsteady, 2nd-order implicit, SST k-ω turbulence model. In the numerical study, a fully implicit finite volume scheme of the compressible, Reynolds-Averaged, Navier- Stokes equations is employed. At identical inflow and boundary conditions various geometries were tried and effort has been taken for proposing the best design criteria. Several combinations of pipe line shapes viz., straight and spiral with different number of coils for the radiator have been attempted and accordingly the design criteria has been proposed for the waste heat recovery system design. We have concluded that, within the given envelope, the geometry optimization is a meaningful objective for getting better performance of waste heat recovery system for air conditioners.
Keywords: Air-conditioning system, Energy conversion system, Hot water production from waste heat, Waste heat recovery system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2312
403 Arterial CO2 Pressure Drives Ventilation with a Time Delay during Recovery from an Impulse-like Exercise without Metabolic Acidosis
Authors: R. Afroundeh, T. Arimitsu, R. Yamanaka, C. S. Lian, T. Yunoki, T. Yano, K. Shirakawa
We investigated this hypothesis that arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) drives ventilation (V.E) with a time delay duringrecovery from short impulse-like exercise (10 s) with work load of 200 watts. V.E and end tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery periods. PaCO2 was predicted (PaCO2 pre) from PETCO2 and tidal volume (VT). PETCO2 and PaCO2 pre peaked at 20 s of recovery. V.E increased and peaked at the end of exercise and then decreased during recovery; however, it peaked again at 30 s of recovery, which was 10 s later than the peak of PaCO2 pre. The relationship between V. E and PaCO2pre was not significant by using data of them obtained at the same time but was significant by using data of V.E obtained 10 s later for data of PaCO2 pre. The results support our hypothesis that PaCO2 drives V.E with a time delay.
Keywords: Arterial CO2 pressure, impulse-like exercise, time delay, ventilation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1291
402 Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore
Authors: Edison Muzenda, Ayo S Afolabi
Abstract:This study investigated the effect of oxygen and micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation will render these minerals more susceptible to react with potassium amyl xanthate collectors, resulting in a higher recovery of nickel and hinder the recovery of other undesired minerals contained in the ore. Higher nickel recoveries were obtained when pure oxygen was used as a bubbling gas rather than the conventional air. Microwave cracking favored the recovery of nickel.
Keywords: Flotation, Conventional air, Oven micro-cracking, Recovery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2091
401 Hybrid Recovery of Copper and Silver from PV Ribbon and Ag Finger of EOL Solar Panels
Authors: T. Patcharawit, C. Kansomket, N. Wongnaree, W. Kritsrikan, T. Yingnakorn, S. Khumkoa
Recovery of pure copper and silver from end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) panels was investigated in this paper using an effective hybrid pyro-hydrometallurgical process. In the first step of waste treatment, solar panel waste was first dismantled to obtain a PV sheet to be cut and calcined at 500 °C, to separate out PV ribbon from glass cullet, ash, and volatile while the silicon wafer containing silver finger was collected for recovery. In the second step of metal recovery, copper recovery from PV ribbon was via 1-3 M HCl leaching with SnCl₂ and H₂O₂ additions in order to remove the tin-lead coating on the ribbon. The leached copper band was cleaned and subsequently melted as an anode for the next step of electrorefining. Stainless steel was set as the cathode with CuSO₄ as an electrolyte, and at a potential of 0.2 V, high purity copper of 99.93% was obtained at 96.11% recovery after 24 hours. For silver recovery, the silicon wafer containing silver finger was leached using HNO₃ at 1-4 M in an ultrasonic bath. In the next step of precipitation, silver chloride was then obtained and subsequently reduced by sucrose and NaOH to give silver powder prior to oxy-acetylene melting to finally obtain pure silver metal. The integrated recycling process is considered to be economical, providing effective recovery of high purity metals such as copper and silver while other materials such as aluminum, copper wire, glass cullet can also be recovered to be reused commercially. Compounds such as PbCl₂ and SnO₂ obtained can also be recovered to enter the market.
Keywords: Electrorefining, leaching, calcination, PV ribbon, silver finger, solar panel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 168
400 Mathematical Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation: A Review
Authors: Josefina Barnachea Janier, Radzuan B. Razali, Afza Shafie, Brahim Belhaouari Samir
In the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method, use of Carbon dioxide flooding whereby CO2 is injected into an oil reservoir to increase output when extracting oil resulted significant recovery worldwide. The carbon dioxide function as a pressurizing agent when mixed into the underground crude oil will reduce its viscosity and will enable a rapid oil flow. Despite the CO2’s advantage in the oil recovery, it may result to asphaltene precipitation a problem that will cause the reduction of oil produced from oil wells. In severe cases, asphaltene precipitation can cause costly blockages in oil pipes and machinery. This paper presents reviews of several studies done on mathematical modeling of asphaltene precipitation. The synthesized result from several researches done on this topic can be used as guide in order to better understand asphaltene precipitation. Likewise, this can be used as initial reference for students, and new researchers doing study on asphaltene precipitation.
Keywords: Asphaltene precipitation, crude oil, carbon dioxide flooding, enhanced oil recovery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3872
399 A Physics-Based Model for Fast Recovery Diodes with Lifetime Control and Emitter Efficiency Reduction
Authors: Chengjie Wang, Li Yin, Chuanmin Wang
Abstract:This paper presents a physics-based model for the high-voltage fast recovery diodes. The model provides a good trade-off between reverse recovery time and forward voltage drop realized through a combination of lifetime control and emitter efficiency reduction techniques. The minority carrier lifetime can be extracted from the reverse recovery transient response and forward characteristics. This paper also shows that decreasing the amount of the excess carriers stored in the drift region will result in softer characteristics which can be achieved using a lower doping level. The developed model is verified by experiment and the measurement data agrees well with the model.
Keywords: Emitter efficiency, lifetime control, P-i-N diode, physics-based modelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3650
398 Bio-Surfactant Production and Its Application in Microbial EOR
Authors: A. Rajesh Kanna, G. Suresh Kumar, Sathyanaryana N. Gummadi
There are various sources of energies available worldwide and among them, crude oil plays a vital role. Oil recovery is achieved using conventional primary and secondary recovery methods. In-order to recover the remaining residual oil, technologies like Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) are utilized which is also known as tertiary recovery. Among EOR, Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technique which enables the improvement of oil recovery by injection of bio-surfactant produced by microorganisms. Bio-surfactant can retrieve unrecoverable oil from the cap rock which is held by high capillary force. Bio-surfactant is a surface active agent which can reduce the interfacial tension and reduce viscosity of oil and thereby oil can be recovered to the surface as the mobility of the oil is increased. Research in this area has shown promising results besides the method is echo-friendly and cost effective compared with other EOR techniques. In our research, on laboratory scale we produced bio-surfactant using the strain Pseudomonas putida (MTCC 2467) and injected into designed simple sand packed column which resembles actual petroleum reservoir. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the efficiency of produced bio-surfactant in oil recovery. The column was made of plastic material with 10 cm in length. The diameter was 2.5 cm. The column was packed with fine sand material. Sand was saturated with brine initially followed by oil saturation. Water flooding followed by bio-surfactant injection was done to determine the amount of oil recovered. Further, the injection of bio-surfactant volume was varied and checked how effectively oil recovery can be achieved. A comparative study was also done by injecting Triton X 100 which is one of the chemical surfactant. Since, bio-surfactant reduced surface and interfacial tension oil can be easily recovered from the porous sand packed column.
Keywords: Bio-surfactant, Bacteria, Interfacial tension, Sand column.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2664
397 Effects of Polymers and Alkaline on Recovery Improvement from Fractured Models
Authors: Payam Parvasi, Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Reza Janamiri, Amir Hatampour
Abstract:In this work, several ASP solutions were flooded into fractured models initially saturated with heavy oil at a constant flow rate and different geometrical characteristics of fracture. The ASP solutions are constituted from 2 polymers i.e. a synthetic polymer, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide as well as a biopolymer, a surfactant and 2types of alkaline. The results showed that using synthetic hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer increases ultimate oil recovery; however, type of alkaline does not play a significant rule on oil recovery. In addition, position of the injection well respect to the fracture system has remarkable effects on ASP flooding. For instance increasing angle of fractures with mean flow direction causes more oil recovery and delays breakthrough time. This work can be accounted as a comprehensive survey on ASP flooding which considers most of effective factors in this chemical EOR method.
Keywords: ASP Flooding, Fractured System, Displacement, Heavy Oil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1701
396 Trustworthy Link Failure Recovery Algorithm for Highly Dynamic Mobile Adhoc Networks
Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram
Abstract:The Trustworthy link failure recovery algorithm is introduced in this paper, to provide the forwarding continuity even with compound link failures. The ephemeral failures are common in IP networks and it also has some proposals based on local rerouting. To ensure forwarding continuity, we are introducing the compound link failure recovery algorithm, even with compound link failures. For forwarding the information, each packet carries a blacklist, which is a min set of failed links encountered along its path, and the next hop is chosen by excluding the blacklisted links. Our proposed method describes how it can be applied to ensure forwarding to all reachable destinations in case of any two or more link or node failures in the network. After simulating with NS2 contains lot of samples proved that the proposed protocol achieves exceptional concert even under elevated node mobility using Trustworthy link Failure Recovery Algorithm.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Predistribution Scheme, Cryptographic Techniques.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1610
395 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery
Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez
Abstract:Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.
Keywords: Internal combustion engine, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1109
394 An Investigation of the Cu-Ni Compound Cathode Materials Affecting on Transient Recovery Voltage
Authors: Arunrungrusmi S, Chaokamnerd W, Tanitteerapan T, Mungkung N., Yuji T.
The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the instability of a contact surface between Copper and Nickel an alloy cathode in vacuum, the different ratio of Copper and Copper were conducted at 1%, 2% and 4% by using the cathode spot model. The transient recovery voltage is predicted. The cathode spot region is recognized as the collisionless space charge sheath connected with singly ionized collisional plasma. It was found that the transient voltage is decreased with increasing the percentage of an amount of Nickel in cathode materials.
Keywords: Vacuum arc, Instability, Low current, Cathode spot, copper, Nickel, Transient Recovery Voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1273
393 WDM-Based Storage Area Network (SAN) for Disaster Recovery Operations
Authors: Sandeep P. Abhang, Girish V. Chowdhay
Abstract:This paper proposes a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology based Storage Area Network (SAN) for all type of Disaster recovery operation. It considers recovery when all paths failure in the network as well as the main SAN site failure also the all backup sites failure by the effect of natural disasters such as earthquakes, fires and floods, power outage, and terrorist attacks, as initially SAN were designed to work within distance limited environments. Paper also presents a NEW PATH algorithm when path failure occurs. The simulation result and analysis is presented for the proposed architecture with performance consideration.
Keywords: SAN, WDM, FC, Ring, IP, network load, iSCSI, miles, disaster.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1813