Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria
For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing in Escherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference in loss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1099692Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5108
 Grass, G., and C. Rensing. 2001. Genes involved in copper homeostasis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 183:2145-2147.
 Kim, B. E., T. Nevitt, and D. J. Thiele. 2008. Mechanisms for copper acquisition, distribution and regulation. Nat Chem Biol 4:176-185.
 Linder, M. C., and M. Hazegh-Azam. 1996. Copper biochemistry and molecular biology. Am J Clin Nutr 63:797S-811S.
 Catala, A. 2006. An overview of lipid peroxidation with emphasis in outer segments of photoreceptors and the chemiluminescence assay. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38:1482-1495.
 Cervantes, C., and F. Gutierrez-Corona. 1994. Copper resistance mechanisms in bacteria and fungi. FEMS Microbiol Rev 14:121-137.
 Wilks, S. A., H. Michels, and C. W. Keevil. 2005. The survival of Escherichia coli O157 on a range of metal surfaces. Int J Food Microbiol 105:445-454.
 Hong R, Kang TY, Michels CA, Gadura N. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Mar; 78(6): 1776-84.
 Rael, L. T., G. W. Thomas, M. L. Craun, C. G. Curtis, R. Bar-Or, and D. Bar-Or. 2004. Lipid peroxidation and the Thiobarbituric acid assay: standardization of the assay when using saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. J Biochem Mol Biol 37:749-752.R. W. Lucky, “Automatic equalization for digital communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 547–588, Apr. 1965.
 Michels, H. T., J. O. Noyce, and C. W. Keevil. 2009. Effects of temperature and humidity on the efficacy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus challenged antimicrobial materials containing silver and copper. Lett Appl Microbiol 49:191-195.
 Weaver, L., J. O. Noyce, H. T. Michels, and C. W. Keevil. 2010. Potential action of copper surfaces on meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Appl Microbiol 109:2200-2205.
 Wilks, S. A., H. T. Michels, and C. W. Keevil. 2006. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A on metal surfaces: implications for crosscontamination. Int J Food Microbiol 111:93-98.
 Espirito Santo, C., E. W. Lam, C. G. Elowsky, D. Quaranta, D. W. Domaille, C. J.
 Chang, and G. Grass. 2011. Bacterial killing by dry metallic copper surfaces. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:794-802.