Search results for: Mineralogy
14 Reﬂectance Imaging Spectroscopy Data (Hyperspectral) for Mineral Mapping in the Orientale Basin Region on the Moon Surface
Authors: V. Sivakumar, R. Neelakantan
Abstract:Mineral mapping on the Moon surface provides the clue to understand the origin, evolution, stratigraphy and geological history of the Moon. Recently, reflectance imaging spectroscopy plays a significant role in identifying minerals on the planetary surface in the Visible to NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard Chandrayaan-1 provides unprecedented spectral data of lunar surface to study about the Moon surface. Here we used the M3 sensor data (hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy) for analysing mineralogy of Orientale basin region on the Moon surface. Reflectance spectrums were sampled from different locations of the basin and continuum was removed using ENvironment for Visualizing Images (ENVI) software. Reflectance spectra of unknown mineral composition were compared with known Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) spectra for discriminating mineralogy. Minerals like olivine, Low-Ca Pyroxene (LCP), High-Ca Pyroxene (HCP) and plagioclase were identified. In addition to these minerals, an unusual type of spectral signature was identified, which indicates the probable Fe-Mg-spinel lithology in the basin region.
Keywords: Chandrayaan-1, moon mineralogy mapper, orientale basin, moon, spectroscopy, hyperspectral.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2655
13 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace
Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala
Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.
Keywords: Shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1732
12 A Multistage Sulphidisation Flotation Procedure for a Low Grade Malachite Copper Ore
Authors: Tebogo P. Phetla, Edison Muzenda
Abstract:This study was carried out to develop a flotation procedure for an oxide copper ore from a Region in Central Africa for producing an 18% copper concentrate for downstream processing at maximum recovery from a 4% copper feed grade. The copper recoveries achieved from the test work were less than 50% despite changes in reagent conditions (multistage sulphidisation, use of RCA emulsion and mixture, use of AM 2, etc). The poor recoveries were attributed to the mineralogy of the ore from which copper silicates accounted for approximately 70% (mass) of the copper minerals in the ore. These can be complex and difficult to float using conventional flotation methods. Best results were obtained using basic sulphidisation procedures, a high flotation temperature and extended flotation residence time.
Keywords: Froth flotation, Sulphidisation, Copper oxide ore, Mineralogy, RecoveryProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5649
11 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq
Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz
14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.
Keywords: Clay minerals, formation, Mukdadiya mudstone, Shewasoor, XRD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1478
10 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran
Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi
Abstract:Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.
Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1154
9 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials
Authors: J. Ranogajec, O. Rudic, S. Pasalic, S. Vucetic, D. Cjepa
The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.
Keywords: Cultural heritage. Materials compatibility. Pilot production. Self-cleaning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2170
8 Comparative Characterization Study of Malaysian Sand as Proppant
Authors: Dahlila Kamat, Ismail Mohd Saaid, Iskandar Dzulkarnain
Abstract:This paper presents a review on published literature and experimental works on local sands for possible use as proppant, specifically those from Terengganu coastal area. This includes examination on characteristics of sand samples and selection of experiments for proppant testing. Sand samples from identified areas were tested according to particle size distribution, density, roundness and sphericity, turbidity and mineralogy. Results from sand samples were compared against proppant specifications set by API RP 56 and selected commercial proppants. The present study found that the size distribution, sphericity, turbidity and bulk density of Terengganu sands are at par with some of commercial proppants. Nevertheless, Terengganu sand samples do not completely surpass the required roundness for use as proppant.
Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing, Malaysia sand, proppant, wellstimulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2977
7 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area
Authors: Hemant Kumar, R. N. K. Sharma, A. P. Krishna
The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.
Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, sensor, Landsat-8.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 452
6 Engineering Geological Characteristics of Soil Materials, East Nile Delta, Egypt
Authors: A. I. M. Ismail, N. Ryden
Abstract:This paper is concerned with the study of mineralogy and engineering characteristics of soil materials derived from the eastern part of Nile Delta. The clay minerals of the studied soil by using X- ray diffraction are mainly illite (average 72.6 %) and kaolinite (average 2.6 %), expandable portion in illite-smectite mixed layer (average 7 %). Smectite is more abundant in fluviatile clays, whereas kaolinite is more abundant in lagoonal clays. On the other hand, illite and illite-smectite are more abundant in marine clays. The geotechnical results show that the soil under study consists mainly of about 0.3 % gravel, 5 % sand, 51.5 % silt and 42.2 % clay in average. The average shrinkage limit attains 11 % whereas the average value of the plasticity index is 23.4 %. The free swelling ranges from 40 % to 75 % and has a value of 55 % giving an indication about the inadequacy of such soil under foundations. From a construction point of view, the soil under investigation poses many problems even under light foundations due to the swelling and shrinkage. Such swelling and shrinkage is due to the high content of soil materials in the expandable clay minerals of illite and smectite. Based on the results of the present and earlier studies, trial application of soil stabilisation is recommended.
Keywords: Engineering Geological Investigations, Nile Delta, Swelling, ShrinkageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3600
5 Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Serpentinite-Derived Ni-Bearing Laterites from Fars Province, Iran: Implications for the Lateritization Process and Classification of Ni-Laterites
Authors: S. Rasti, M. A. Rajabzadeh
Nickel-bearing laterites occur as two parallel belts along Sedimentary Zagros Orogenic (SZO) and Metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan (MSS) petrostructural zones, Fars Province, south Iran. An undisturbed vertical profile of these laterites includes protolith, saprolite, clay, and oxide horizons from base to top. Highly serpentinized harzburgite with relicts of olivine and orthopyroxene is regarded as the source rock. The laterites are unusual in lacking a significant saprolite zone with little development of Ni-silicates. Hematite, saponite, dolomite, smectite and clinochlore increase, while calcite, olivine, lizardite and chrysotile decrease from saprolite to oxide zones. Smectite and clinochlore with minor calcite are the major minerals in clay zone. Contacts of different horizons in laterite profiles are gradual and characterized by a decrease in Mg concentration ranging from 18.1 to 9.3 wt.% in oxide and saprolite, respectively. The maximum Ni concentration is 0.34 wt.% (NiO) in the base of the oxide zone, and goethite is the major Ni-bearing phase. From saprolite to oxide horizons, Al2O3, K2O, TiO2, and CaO decrease, while SiO2, MnO, NiO, and Fe2O3 increase. Silica content reaches up to 45 wt.% in the upper part of the soil profile. There is a decrease in pH (8.44-8.17) and an increase in organic matter (0.28-0.59 wt.%) from base to top of the soils. The studied laterites are classified in the oxide clans which were derived from ophiolite ultramafic rocks under Mediterranean climate conditions.
Keywords: Iran, laterite, mineralogy, ophiolite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1234
4 Monitoring the Drying and Grinding Process during Production of Celitement through a NIR-Spectroscopy Based Approach
Authors: Carolin Lutz, Jörg Matthes, Patrick Waibel, Ulrich Precht, Krassimir Garbev, Günter Beuchle, Uwe Schweike, Peter Stemmermann, Hubert B. Keller
Abstract:Online measurement of the product quality is a challenging task in cement production, especially in the production of Celitement, a novel environmentally friendly hydraulic binder. The mineralogy and chemical composition of clinker in ordinary Portland cement production is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), where only crystalline constituents can be detected. But only a small part of the Celitement components can be measured via XRD, because most constituents have an amorphous structure. This paper describes the development of algorithms suitable for an on-line monitoring of the final processing step of Celitement based on NIR-data. For calibration intermediate products were dried at different temperatures and ground for variable durations. The products were analyzed using XRD and thermogravimetric analyses together with NIR-spectroscopy to investigate the dependency between the drying and the milling processes on one and the NIR-signal on the other side. As a result, different characteristic parameters have been defined. A short overview of the Celitement process and the challenging tasks of the online measurement and evaluation of the product quality will be presented. Subsequently, methods for systematic development of near-infrared calibration models and the determination of the final calibration model will be introduced. The application of the model on experimental data illustrates that NIR-spectroscopy allows for a quick and sufficiently exact determination of crucial process parameters.
Keywords: Calibration model, celitement, cementitious material, NIR spectroscopy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
3 Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India
Authors: K. F. Khan, Samsuddin Khan
The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.
Keywords: Petro-mineralogy, phosphorites, sallopat, apatite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1497
2 An Approach to Correlate the Statistical-Based Lorenz Method, as a Way of Measuring Heterogeneity, with Kozeny-Carman Equation
Authors: H. Khanfari, M. Johari Fard
Dealing with carbonate reservoirs can be mind-boggling for the reservoir engineers due to various digenetic processes that cause a variety of properties through the reservoir. A good estimation of the reservoir heterogeneity which is defined as the quality of variation in rock properties with location in a reservoir or formation, can better help modeling the reservoir and thus can offer better understanding of the behavior of that reservoir. Most of reservoirs are heterogeneous formations whose mineralogy, organic content, natural fractures, and other properties vary from place to place. Over years, reservoir engineers have tried to establish methods to describe the heterogeneity, because heterogeneity is important in modeling the reservoir flow and in well testing. Geological methods are used to describe the variations in the rock properties because of the similarities of environments in which different beds have deposited in. To illustrate the heterogeneity of a reservoir vertically, two methods are generally used in petroleum work: Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V) and Lorenz coefficient (L) that are reviewed briefly in this paper. The concept of Lorenz is based on statistics and has been used in petroleum from that point of view. In this paper, we correlated the statistical-based Lorenz method to a petroleum concept, i.e. Kozeny-Carman equation and derived the straight line plot of Lorenz graph for a homogeneous system. Finally, we applied the two methods on a heterogeneous field in South Iran and discussed each, separately, with numbers and figures. As expected, these methods show great departure from homogeneity. Therefore, for future investment, the reservoir needs to be treated carefully.
Keywords: Carbonate reservoirs, heterogeneity, homogeneous system, Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V), Lorenz coefficient (L).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1380
1 Jatropha curcas L. Oil Selectivity in Froth Flotation
Authors: André C. Silva, Izabela L. A. Moraes, Elenice M. S. Silva, Carlos M. Silva Filho
In Brazil, most soils are acidic and low in essential nutrients required for the growth and development of plants, making fertilizers essential for agriculture. As the biggest producer of soy in the world and a major producer of coffee, sugar cane and citrus fruits, Brazil is a large consumer of phosphate. Brazilian’s phosphate ores are predominantly from igneous rocks showing a complex mineralogy, associated with carbonites and oxides, typically iron, silicon and barium. The adopted industrial concentration circuit for this type of ore is a mix between magnetic separation (both low and high field) to remove the magnetic fraction and a froth flotation circuit composed by a reverse flotation of apatite (barite’s flotation) followed by direct flotation circuit (rougher, cleaner and scavenger circuit). Since the 70’s fatty acids obtained from vegetable oils are widely used as lower-cost collectors in apatite froth flotation. This is a very effective approach to the apatite family of minerals, being that this type of collector is both selective and efficient (high recovery). This paper presents Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCO) as a renewable and sustainable source of fatty acids with high selectivity in froth flotation of apatite. JCO is considerably rich in fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid. The experimental campaign involved 216 tests using a modified Hallimond tube and two different minerals (apatite and quartz). In order to be used as a collector, the oil was saponified. The results found were compared with the synthetic collector, Fotigam 5806 produced by Clariant, which is composed mainly by soy oil. JCO showed the highest selectivity for apatite flotation with cold saponification at pH 8 and concentration of 2.5 mg/L. In this case, the mineral recovery was around 95%.
Keywords: Froth flotation, Jatropha curcas L., microflotation, selectivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1026