Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 322

Search results for: Contour maps

322 Image Segmentation and Contour Recognition Based on Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Pinaki Pratim Acharjya, Esha Dutta

Abstract:

In image segmentation contour detection is one of the important pre-processing steps in recent days. Contours characterize boundaries and contour detection is one of the most difficult tasks in image processing. Hence it is a problem of fundamental importance in image processing. Contour detection of an image decreases the volume of data considerably and useless information is removed, but the structural properties of the image remain same. In this research, a robust and effective contour detection technique has been proposed using mathematical morphology. Three different contour detection results are obtained by using morphological dilation and erosion. The comparative analyses of three different results also have been done.

Keywords: Image segmentation, contour detection, mathematical morphology.

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321 Study of Aluminum, Copper and Molybdenum Pollution in Groundwater Sources Surrounding (Miduk) Shahr-E- Babak Copper Complex Tailings Dam

Authors: Maryam Kargar, Neamatolah Khorasani, Mahmoud Karami, Gholam-Reza Rafiee, Reza Naseh

Abstract:

Interpolated contour maps drawn for aluminum, copper and molybdenum in downstream monitoring boreholes of water dam in Miduk Copper Complex and the values of pH, redox potential (Eh) and distance from water dam indicate different trends of variation and behavior of these three elements in downward groundwater resources. As these maps exhibit, aluminum is dominant in the most alkaline (pH = 9-11) borehole (MB5) to water dam. The highest concentration of molybdenum is found in the nearest borehole (MB6) to water dam. Main concentration of copper is observed in the most oxidized borehole (MB3 with Eh=293.2mV). The spatial difference among sampling stations can be attributed to the existence of faults and diaclases in the geologic structure of Miduk region which causes the groundwater sampling sites to be impressed by different contamination sources (toe seepage and upper seepage water originated from different zones of tailings dump).

Keywords: Contour maps, Monitoring borehole, Toe seepage, Upper seepage.

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320 Automatically-generated Concept Maps as a Learning Tool

Authors: Xia Lin

Abstract:

Concept maps can be generated manually or automatically. It is important to recognize differences of the two types of concept maps. The automatically generated concept maps are dynamic, interactive, and full of associations between the terms on the maps and the underlying documents. Through a specific concept mapping system, Visual Concept Explorer (VCE), this paper discusses how automatically generated concept maps are different from manually generated concept maps and how different applications and learning opportunities might be created with the automatically generated concept maps. The paper presents several examples of learning strategies that take advantages of the automatically generated concept maps for concept learning and exploration.

Keywords: Concept maps, Dynamic concept representation, learning strategies, visual interface, Visual Concept Explorer.

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319 A General Segmentation Scheme for Contouring Kidney Region in Ultrasound Kidney Images using Improved Higher Order Spline Interpolation

Authors: K. Bommanna Raja, M.Madheswaran, K.Thyagarajah

Abstract:

A higher order spline interpolated contour obtained with up-sampling of homogenously distributed coordinates for segmentation of kidney region in different classes of ultrasound kidney images has been developed and presented in this paper. The performance of the proposed method is measured and compared with modified snake model contour, Markov random field contour and expert outlined contour. The validation of the method is made in correspondence with expert outlined contour using maximum coordinate distance, Hausdorff distance and mean radial distance metrics. The results obtained reveal that proposed scheme provides optimum contour that agrees well with expert outlined contour. Moreover this technique helps to preserve the pixels-of-interest which in specific defines the functional characteristic of kidney. This explores various possibilities in implementing computer-aided diagnosis system exclusively for US kidney images.

Keywords: Ultrasound Kidney Image – Kidney Segmentation –Active Contour – Markov Random Field – Higher Order SplineInterpolation

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318 Realtime Lip Contour Tracking For Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Applications

Authors: Mehran Yazdi, Mehdi Seyfi, Amirhossein Rafati, Meghdad Asadi

Abstract:

Detection and tracking of the lip contour is an important issue in speechreading. While there are solutions for lip tracking once a good contour initialization in the first frame is available, the problem of finding such a good initialization is not yet solved automatically, but done manually. We have developed a new tracking solution for lip contour detection using only few landmarks (15 to 25) and applying the well known Active Shape Models (ASM). The proposed method is a new LMS-like adaptive scheme based on an Auto regressive (AR) model that has been fit on the landmark variations in successive video frames. Moreover, we propose an extra motion compensation model to address more general cases in lip tracking. Computer simulations demonstrate a fair match between the true and the estimated spatial pixels. Significant improvements related to the well known LMS approach has been obtained via a defined Frobenius norm index.

Keywords: Lip contour, Tracking, LMS-Like

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317 Approximately Jordan Maps and Their Stability

Authors: Nasrin Eghbali

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the approximate Jordan maps and boundedness of these maps. Also we investigate the stability of approximate Jordan maps and prove some stability properties for approximate Jordan maps.

Keywords: Approximate Jordan map, stability.

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316 Complexity of Multivalued Maps

Authors: David Sherwell, Vivien Visaya

Abstract:

We consider the topological entropy of maps that in general, cannot be described by one-dimensional dynamics. In particular, we show that for a multivalued map F generated by singlevalued maps, the topological entropy of any of the single-value map bounds the topological entropy of F from below.

Keywords: Multivalued maps, Topological entropy, Selectors

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315 The Stability of Almost n-multiplicative Maps in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

Authors: E. Ansari-Piri, N. Eghbali

Abstract:

Let A and B be two linear algebras. A linear map ϕ : A → B is called an n-homomorphism if ϕ(a1...an) = ϕ(a1)...ϕ(an) for all a1, ..., an ∈ A. In this note we have a verification on the behavior of almost n-multiplicative linear maps with n > 2 in the fuzzy normed spaces

Keywords: Almost multiplicative maps, n-homomorphism maps, almost n-multiplicative maps, fuzzy normed space, stability.

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314 A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea

Authors: Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

Abstract:

This paper presented two new efficient algorithms for contour approximation. The proposed algorithm is compared with Ramer (good quality), Triangle (faster) and Trapezoid (fastest) in this work; which are briefly described. Cartesian co-ordinates of an input contour are processed in such a manner that finally contours is presented by a set of selected vertices of the edge of the contour. In the paper the main idea of the analyzed procedures for contour compression is performed. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Computational time of analyzed methods is estimated depending on a number of numerical operations. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios, and speed. The main advantages of the analyzed algorithm is small numbers of the arithmetic operations compared to the existing algorithms.

Keywords: Polygonal approximation, Ramer, Triangle and Trapezoid methods.

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313 Active Contours with Prior Corner Detection

Authors: U.A.A. Niroshika, Ravinda G.N. Meegama

Abstract:

Deformable active contours are widely used in computer vision and image processing applications for image segmentation, especially in biomedical image analysis. The active contour or “snake" deforms towards a target object by controlling the internal, image and constraint forces. However, if the contour initialized with a lesser number of control points, there is a high probability of surpassing the sharp corners of the object during deformation of the contour. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to construct the initial contour by incorporating prior knowledge of significant corners of the object detected using the Harris operator. This new reconstructed contour begins to deform, by attracting the snake towards the targeted object, without missing the corners. Experimental results with several synthetic images show the ability of the new technique to deal with sharp corners with a high accuracy than traditional methods.

Keywords: Active Contours, Image Segmentation, Harris Operator, Snakes

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312 Automatic Lip Contour Tracking and Visual Character Recognition for Computerized Lip Reading

Authors: Harshit Mehrotra, Gaurav Agrawal, M.C. Srivastava

Abstract:

Computerized lip reading has been one of the most actively researched areas of computer vision in recent past because of its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. In present work, we propose a solution for automatic lip contour tracking and recognizing letters of English language spoken by speakers using the information available from lip movements. Level set method is used for tracking lip contour using a contour velocity model and a feature vector of lip movements is then obtained. Character recognition is performed using modified k nearest neighbor algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. The proposed system has been found to have accuracy of 73.3% for character recognition with speaker lip movements as the only input and without using any speech recognition system in parallel. The approach used in this work is found to significantly solve the purpose of lip reading when size of database is small.

Keywords: Contour Velocity Model, Lip Contour Tracking, LipReading, Visual Character Recognition.

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311 Contour Estimation in Synthetic and Real Weld Defect Images based on Maximum Likelihood

Authors: M. Tridi, N. Nacereddine, N. Oucief

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel method for automatic estimation of the contours of weld defect in radiography images. Generally, the contour detection is the first operation which we apply in the visual recognition system. Our approach can be described as a region based maximum likelihood formulation of parametric deformable contours. This formulation provides robustness against the poor image quality, and allows simultaneous estimation of the contour parameters together with other parameters of the model. Implementation is performed by a deterministic iterative algorithm with minimal user intervention. Results testify for the very good performance of the approach especially in synthetic weld defect images.

Keywords: Contour, gaussian, likelihood, rayleigh.

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310 Image Enhancement Algorithm of Photoacoustic Tomography Using Active Contour Filtering

Authors: Prasannakumar Palaniappan, Dong Ho Shin, Chul Gyu Song

Abstract:

The photoacoustic images are obtained from a custom developed linear array photoacoustic tomography system. The biological specimens are imitated by conducting phantom tests in order to retrieve a fully functional photoacoustic image. The acquired image undergoes the active region based contour filtering to remove the noise and accurately segment the object area for further processing. The universal back projection method is used as the image reconstruction algorithm. The active contour filtering is analyzed by evaluating the signal to noise ratio and comparing it with the other filtering methods.

Keywords: Contour filtering, linear array, photoacoustic tomography, universal back projection.

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309 Investigation of Some Methodologies in Providing Erosion Maps of Surface, Rill and Gully and Erosion Features

Authors: A. Mohammadi Torkashvand, N. Haghighat

Abstract:

Some methodologies were compared in providing erosion maps of surface, rill and gully and erosion features, in research which took place in the Varamin sub-basin, north-east Tehran, Iran. A photomorphic unit map was produced from processed satellite images, and four other maps were prepared by the integration of different data layers, including slope, plant cover, geology, land use, rocks erodibility and land units. Comparison of ground truth maps of erosion types and working unit maps indicated that the integration of land use, land units and rocks erodibility layers with satellite image photomorphic units maps provide the best methods in producing erosion types maps.

Keywords: Erosion Features, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing.

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308 AGV Guidance System: An Application of Simple Active Contour for Visual Tracking

Authors: M.Asif, M.R.Arshad, P.A.Wilson

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple active contour based visual tracking algorithm is presented for outdoor AGV application which is currently under development at the USM robotic research group (URRG) lab. The presented algorithm is computationally low cost and able to track road boundaries in an image sequence and can easily be implemented on available low cost hardware. The proposed algorithm used an active shape modeling using the B-spline deformable template and recursive curve fitting method to track the current orientation of the road.

Keywords: Active contour, B-spline, recursive curve fitting.

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307 Assessing the Impact of Contour Strips of Perennial Grass with Bio-fuel Potentials on Aquatic Environment

Authors: Roy R. Gu, Mahesh Sahu

Abstract:

The use of contour strips of perennial vegetation with bio-fuel potential can improve surface water quality by reducing NO3-N and sediment outflow from cropland to surface water-bodies. It also has economic benefits of producing ethanol. In this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to a watershed in Iowa, USA to examine the effectiveness of contour strips of switch grass in reducing the NO3-N outflows from crop fields to rivers or lakes. Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and to examine the effects of strip size on NO3-N reduction under various meteorological conditions, i.e. dry, average and wet years. Useful information was obtained for the evaluation of economic feasibility of growing switch grass for bio-fuel in contour strips. The results can assist in cost-benefit analysis and decisionmaking in best management practices for environmental protection.

Keywords: ethanol, modeling, water quality, NO3-N, watershed.

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306 Probabilistic Bhattacharya Based Active Contour Model in Structure Tensor Space

Authors: Hiren Mewada, Suprava Patnaik

Abstract:

Object identification and segmentation application requires extraction of object in foreground from the background. In this paper the Bhattacharya distance based probabilistic approach is utilized with an active contour model (ACM) to segment an object from the background. In the proposed approach, the Bhattacharya histogram is calculated on non-linear structure tensor space. Based on the histogram, new formulation of active contour model is proposed to segment images. The results are tested on both color and gray images from the Berkeley image database. The experimental results show that the proposed model is applicable to both color and gray images as well as both texture images and natural images. Again in comparing to the Bhattacharya based ACM in ICA space, the proposed model is able to segment multiple object too.

Keywords: Active Contour, Bhattacharya Histogram, Structure tensor, Image segmentation.

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305 Big Bang – Big Crunch Learning Method for Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Engin Yesil, Leon Urbas

Abstract:

Modeling of complex dynamic systems, which are very complicated to establish mathematical models, requires new and modern methodologies that will exploit the existing expert knowledge, human experience and historical data. Fuzzy cognitive maps are very suitable, simple, and powerful tools for simulation and analysis of these kinds of dynamic systems. However, human experts are subjective and can handle only relatively simple fuzzy cognitive maps; therefore, there is a need of developing new approaches for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps using historical data. In this study, a new learning algorithm, which is called Big Bang-Big Crunch, is proposed for the first time in literature for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps from data. Two real-world examples; namely a process control system and radiation therapy process, and one synthetic model are used to emphasize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization, Dynamic Systems, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Learning.

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304 An Automatic Gridding and Contour Based Segmentation Approach Applied to DNA Microarray Image Analysis

Authors: Alexandra Oliveros, Miguel Sotaquirá

Abstract:

DNA microarray technology is widely used by geneticists to diagnose or treat diseases through gene expression. This technology is based on the hybridization of a tissue-s DNA sequence into a substrate and the further analysis of the image formed by the thousands of genes in the DNA as green, red or yellow spots. The process of DNA microarray image analysis involves finding the location of the spots and the quantification of the expression level of these. In this paper, a tool to perform DNA microarray image analysis is presented, including a spot addressing method based on the image projections, the spot segmentation through contour based segmentation and the extraction of relevant information due to gene expression.

Keywords: Contour segmentation, DNA microarrays, edge detection, image processing, segmentation, spot addressing.

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303 A Comparative Study on Seismic Provisions Made in UBC-1997 and Saudi Building Code for RC Buildings

Authors: S. Nazar, M. A. Ismaeil

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study of static analysis procedure for seismic performance based on UBC-1997 and SBC-301-2007(Saudi Arabia). These building codes define different ductility classes and corresponding response reduction factors based on material, configuration and detailing of reinforcements. Codes differ significantly in specifying the procedures to estimate base shear, drift and effective stiffness of structural members. One of the major improvements made in new SBC (based on IBC-2003) is ground motion parameters used for seismic design. In old SBC (based on UBC) maps have been based on seismic zones. However new SBC provide contour maps giving spectral response quantities. In this approach, a case study of RC frame building located in two different cities and with different ductility classes has been performed. Moreover, equivalent static method based on SBC-301 and UBC-1997 is used to explore the variation in results based on two codes, particularly design base shear, lateral loads and story drifts.

Keywords: Ductility Classes, Equivalent Static method, RC Frames, SBC-301-2007, Story drifts, UBC-1997.

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302 Efficient Variants of Square Contour Algorithm for Blind Equalization of QAM Signals

Authors: Ahmad Tariq Sheikh, Shahzad Amin Sheikh

Abstract:

A new distance-adjusted approach is proposed in which static square contours are defined around an estimated symbol in a QAM constellation, which create regions that correspond to fixed step sizes and weighting factors. As a result, the equalizer tap adjustment consists of a linearly weighted sum of adaptation criteria that is scaled by a variable step size. This approach is the basis of two new algorithms: the Variable step size Square Contour Algorithm (VSCA) and the Variable step size Square Contour Decision-Directed Algorithm (VSDA). The proposed schemes are compared with existing blind equalization algorithms in the SCA family in terms of convergence speed, constellation eye opening and residual ISI suppression. Simulation results for 64-QAM signaling over empirically derived microwave radio channels confirm the efficacy of the proposed algorithms. An RTL implementation of the blind adaptive equalizer based on the proposed schemes is presented and the system is configured to operate in VSCA error signal mode, for square QAM signals up to 64-QAM.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering, Blind Equalization, Square Contour Algorithm.

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301 The Automated Selective Acquisition System

Authors: Atisthan Wuttimanop, Suchada Rianmora

Abstract:

To support design process for launching the product on time, reverse engineering (RE) process has been introduced for quickly generating 3D CAD model from its physical object. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model depends upon the data acquisition technique selected, contact or non-contact methods. In order to reduce times used for acquiring surface and eliminating noises, the automated selective acquisition system has been developed and presented in this research as the alternative channel for non-contact acquisition technique where the data is selectively and locally scanned contour by contour without performing data reduction process. The results present as the organized contour points which are directly used to generate 3D virtual model. The comparison between the proposed technique and another non-contact scanning technique has been presented and discussed.

Keywords: Automated selective acquisition system, Non-contact acquisition, Reverse engineering, 3D scanners.

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300 Application of Geographic Information Systems(GIS) in the History of Cartography

Authors: Bangbo Hu

Abstract:

This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in the field of the history of cartography by examples, including assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps. GIS provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition, several historical geographical information systems are introduced. These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems (CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic information related to production of early maps is also discussed in this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals value of GIS applications in this field.

Keywords: Cartography, GIS, history, maps.

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299 Constraint Active Contour Model with Application to Automated Three-Dimensional Airway Wall Segmentation

Authors: Kuo-Lung Lor, Chi-Hsuan Tsou, Yeun-Chung Chang, Chung-Ming Chen

Abstract:

For evaluating the severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), one is interested in inspecting the airway wall thickening due to inflammation. Although airway segmentations have being well developed to reconstruct in high order, airway wall segmentation remains a challenge task. While tackling such problem as a multi-surface segmentation, the interrelation within surfaces needs to be considered. We propose a new method for three-dimensional airway wall segmentation using spring structural active contour model. The method incorporates the gravitational field of the image and repelling force field of the inner lumen as the soft constraint and the geometric spring structure of active contour as the hard constraint to approximate a three-dimensional coupled surface readily for thickness measurements. The results show the preservation of topology constraints of coupled surfaces. In conclusion, our springy, soft-tissue-like structure ensures the globally optimal solution and waives the shortness following by the inevitable improper inner surface constraint.

Keywords: active contour model, airway wall, COPD, geometric spring structure

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298 Integration of Seismic and Seismological Data Interpretation for Subsurface Structure Identification

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmed Satti, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

The structural interpretation of a part of eastern Potwar (Missa Keswal) has been carried out with available seismological, seismic and well data. Seismological data contains both the source parameters and fault plane solution (FPS) parameters and seismic data contains ten seismic lines that were re-interpreted by using well data. Structural interpretation depicts two broad types of fault sets namely, thrust and back thrust faults. These faults together give rise to pop up structures in the study area and also responsible for many structural traps and seismicity. Seismic interpretation includes time and depth contour maps of Chorgali Formation while seismological interpretation includes focal mechanism solution (FMS), depth, frequency, magnitude bar graphs and renewal of Seismotectonic map. The Focal Mechanism Solutions (FMS) that surrounds the study area are correlated with the different geological and structural maps of the area for the determination of the nature of subsurface faults. Results of structural interpretation from both seismic and seismological data show good correlation. It is hoped that the present work will help in better understanding of the variations in the subsurface structure and can be a useful tool for earthquake prediction, planning of oil field and reservoir monitoring.

Keywords: Focal mechanism solution (FMS), Fault plane solution (FPS), Reservoir monitoring, earthquake prediction.

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297 Automatic Segmentation of Retina Vessels by Using Zhang Method

Authors: Ehsan Saghapour, Somayeh Zandian

Abstract:

Image segmentation is an important step in image processing. Major developments in medical imaging allow physicians to use potent and non-invasive methods in order to evaluate structures, performance and to diagnose human diseases. In this study, an active contour was used to extract vessel networks from color retina images. Automatic analysis of retina vessels facilitates calculation of arterial index which is required to diagnose some certain retinopathies.

Keywords: Active contour, retinal vessel segmentation, image processing.

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296 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani

Abstract:

In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: Video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network.

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295 Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking

Authors: T. K. Tee, M. N. A. Azman, S. Mohamed, Muhammad, M., M. M. Mohamad, J. Md Yunos, M. H. Yee, W. Othman

Abstract:

Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Buzan Mind Mapping, note-taking technique, hand-drawn mind maps.

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294 Globally Convergent Edge-preserving Reconstruction with Contour-line Smoothing

Authors: Marc C. Robini, Pierre-Jean Viverge, Yuemin Zhu, Jianhua Luo

Abstract:

The standard approach to image reconstruction is to stabilize the problem by including an edge-preserving roughness penalty in addition to faithfulness to the data. However, this methodology produces noisy object boundaries and creates a staircase effect. The existing attempts to favor the formation of smooth contour lines take the edge field explicitly into account; they either are computationally expensive or produce disappointing results. In this paper, we propose to incorporate the smoothness of the edge field in an implicit way by means of an additional penalty term defined in the wavelet domain. We also derive an efficient half-quadratic algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem, including the case when the data fidelity term is non-quadratic and the cost function is nonconvex. Numerical experiments show that our technique preserves edge sharpness while smoothing contour lines; it produces visually pleasing reconstructions which are quantitatively better than those obtained without wavelet-domain constraints.

Keywords:

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293 A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Authors: M. Hamdi, R. Rhouma, S. Belghith

Abstract:

Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Keywords: Chaotic map, Cryptography, Random Numbers, Statistical tests, S-box.

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