Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Bioactive Compounds Content of Citrus Peel as Affected by Drying Processes

Authors: Azza A. Abou-Arab, Marwa H. Mahmoud, Ferial M. Abu-Salem

Abstract:

The present investigation studied the content of bioactive compounds as ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and flavonoids, and the effect of drying methods (microwave, solar, and air oven drying) on its level in citrus peel. These levels were decreased significantly (p <0.05) due to the dried methods. The percentage of ascorbic acid content loss of orange C. Valencia were 46.64, 52.95 and 68.83% with microwave, solar and air oven methods, respectively comparing to fresh samples. Also, the percentages of β- carotene loss of orange C. Valencia were 38.89, 52.42 and 87.14% with microwave, solar and air oven methods, respectively. Total flavonoid content recorded 453.33, 396.67 and 327.50 mg QE/100g dw, with dried by microwave, solar and oven methods, respectively compared with control in orange, C. valencia. These results revealed that microwave drying procedure was the most effective method which maintained citrus bioactive compounds content (ascorbic acid, β-carotene and flavonoid) followed by solar. On the other hand, air oven drying came in the last order due to direct heat treatment.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, β-carotene, flavonoids, microwave, solar, air oven drying.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126375

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1501

References:


[1] K. Ghasemi, Y. Ghasemi, and M.A. Ebrahimzadeh, "Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues," Pak. J Pharm. Sci., vol. 22, no.3, pp.277–281, 2009.
[2] D. Di Majo, M. Giammanco, M. La Guardia, E. Tripoli, S. Giammanco, and E. Finotti, "Flavanones in Citrus fruit: Structure-antioxidant activity relationships," Food Res. Intern., vol. 38, pp.1161-1166, 2005.
[3] O. Benavente-Garcia, and J. Castillo, "Update on uses and properties of citrus flavonoids: New findings in anticancer, cardiovascular, and anti-inflammatory activity," J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, pp.6185–620, 2008.
[4] W. Bors, W. Heller, C. Michel, and M. Saran, "Flavonoids as antioxidants: determination of radical scavenging efficiencies," Methods Enzymol., vol.186, pp. 343-355, 1990.
[5] I. Ignat, I. Volf, and V.I. Popa, "A critical review of methods for characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables," Food Chem., vol.126, pp. 1821-1835, 2011.
[6] M.A. Anagnostopoulou, P. Kefalas, V.P. Papageorgiou, A.N. Assimopoulou, and D. Boskou, "Radical scavenging activity of various extracts and fractions of sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis)," Food Chem., vol. 94, pp.19-25, 2006.
[7] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2010. USDA national nutrient database for standard refernce. Release 23. http://www.ars.usda.gov.
[8] I.M.L.B. Avila, and C.L.M. Silva, "Modeling kinetics of thermal degradation of color in peach puree," J. of Food Eng., vol. 39, pp. 161-166, 1999.
[9] H. Mahmoud Marwa, A. Azza Abou-Arab, and M. Ferial Abu-Salem, "Effect of Some Different Drying Methods on the Chemical Analysis of Citrus By-Products," Research J. of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 6, no.6, pp. 105-116, 2015.
[10] K. Hayat, X. Zhang, U. Farooq, S. Abbas, S. Xia, C. Jia, F. Zhong, and J. Zhang, "Effect of microwave treatment on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of citrus mandarin pomace," Food Chem., vol. 123, pp.423–429, 2010.
[11] T. Ramful, Bahorun, E. Bourdon, E. Tarnus, and O.I. Aruoma, "Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: Potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application," Toxicology, vol.278, pp. 75–87, 2010.
[12] R. Guimaraes, L. Barros, J. C. M Barreira, M. I. Sousa, A. M. Carvalho, and I. C. F. R. Ferreira, "Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: Grapefruit, lemon, Lime and orange," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, pp.99-106, 2010.
[13] M.L. Calabro, V. Galtieri, P. Cutroneo, S. Tommasini, and R. Ficarra, "Study of the extraction procedure by experimental design and validation of a LC method for determination of flavonoids in Citrus bergamia juice," J. Pharm and Biomed Anal., vol. 35, pp. 349-363, 2004.
[14] M.A. Ebrahimzadeh, S.J. Hosseinimehr, A. Hamidinia, and M. Jafari, "Determination of flavanoids in citrus fruit," Pharmacology online, vol.1, pp. 15-18, 2008.
[15] G.W. Snedecor, and W.G. Cochran, “Statistical Methods”, 7th Ed. Oxford and IBIT Public. Co., 1980.
[16] P.S. Nagi, and S. K. Roy, "Effect of blanching and drying methods on beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and chlorophyll retention of leafy vegetables," Lebensm Wiss Technol., vol. 33, pp. 295-298, 2000.
[17] A. Vega-Galvez, K. D. Scala, L. Rodriguez, R. Lemus-Mondca, M. Miranda, J. Lopez, and M. Perez-Won, "Effect of air-drying temperature on physic-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annum, L. var. Hungarian)," Food Chem., vol.117, pp. 647-653, 2009.
[18] J. Ndawula, J.D. Kabasa, and Y.B. Byaruhanga, "Alterations in fruit and vegetable B-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar dryers," African Health Science, vol. 4, no.2, pp.125-130, 2004.
[19] D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya, and M. Kimura, "Harvest plus Handbook for Carotenoid Analysis," Harvest Plus Technical Monograph 2, Washington DC, 2004.
[20] S. Vijayakumar, G. Presannakumar, and N. R. Vijayalakshmi, "Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids, Fitoterapia," vol. 79, pp. 279-282, 2008.
[21] S. A. Van Acker, D. J. Van Den Berg, M. N. Tromp, D. H. Griffioen, W. O. Van Bennekom, W. I. Van der Vijgh, and A. Bast, "Structural aspects of antioxidant activity of flavonoids," Free Radical. Biol. Med., vol.20, no. 3, pp. 331-342, 1996.
[22] A. Bengtson, A. Namutebi, M. Larssonalminger, and U. Svanberg, "Effects of various traditional processing methods on the all-tranbeta-carotene content of orange fleshed sweet potato," J. of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 21, pp. 134-143, 2008.
[23] M.A.F. Ghafar, K. Nagendra, K.K.W. Prasad, and A. Ismail, "Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities from Citrus species," African J. of Biotechnology, vol.9, pp. 326-330, 2010.