Search results for: Lake Nasser
87 Physical-Chemical Surface Characterization of Lake Nasser Sediments
Authors: Yousra M. Zakaria Helmy, Edward H. Smith
Abstract:Lake Nasser is one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Over 120 million metric tons of sediments are deposited in its dead storage zone every year. The main objective of the present work was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Nasser sediments. The sample had a relatively low surface area of 2.9 m2/g which increased more than 3-fold upon chemical activation. The main chemical elements of the raw sediments were C, O and Si with some traces of Al, Fe and Ca. The organic functional groups for the tested sample included O-H, C=C, C-H and C-O, with indications of Si-O and other metal-C and/or metal-O bonds normally associated with clayey materials. Potentiometric titration of the sample in different ionic strength backgrounds revealed an alkaline material with very strong positive surface charge at pH values just a little less than the pH of zero charge which is ~9. Surface interactions of the sediments with the background electrolyte were significant. An advanced surface complexation model was able to capture these effects, employing a single-site approach to represent protolysis reactions in aqueous solution, and to determine the significant surface species in the pH range of environmental interest.
Keywords: Lake Nasser, sediments, surface characterizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1793
86 Ecosystems of Lake Sevan Basin-s Rivers in Armenia
Authors: Eugenie A. Kachvoryan, Astghik Z. Pepoyan, Maria V. Harutyunova, Anahit M. Manvelyan
Abstract:Taking into account the importance of Lake Sevan and Lake Sevan basin-s rivers for Armenian economy, the main goals of our investigations were the documentation of water quality and the biodiversity of invertebrates developed in Lake Sevan basin-s rivers and selected tributaries. Moderately satisfied ecological condition for the biodiversity of Lake Sevan basin-s rivers has been established, and the changes in species- composition of zoobenthos in Lake Sevan were detected. A growing tendency of antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates in water resources has been shown.
Keywords: Biodiversity, ecosystem, Lake Sevan, water-quality, zoobenthos.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2959
85 Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran
Authors: Samad Alipour, Khadije Mosavi Onlaghi
Abstract:Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.
Keywords: Urmia Lake, weathering, mineralogy, augite, Iran.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1154
84 The Roles of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors of Ecological State in the Lake Peipsi
Authors: Galya Kapanen, Jaan–Mati Punning, Irina Blinova, Külli Kangur
Abstract:In this paper we discuss the problems of the long-term management policy of Lake Peipsi and the roles of natural and anthropogenic factors in the ecological state of the lake. The reduction of the pollution during the last 15 years could not give significant changes of the chemical composition of the water, what implicates the essential role that natural factors have on the ecological state of lake. One of the most important factors having impact on the hydrochemical cycles and ecological state is the hydrological regime which is clearly expressed in L. Peipsi. The absence on clear interrelations of climate cycles and nutrients suggest that complex abiotic and biotic interactions, which take place in the lake ecosystem, plays a significant role in the matter circulation mechanism within lake.
Keywords: Lake Peipsi, ecosystem, eutrophication, waterfluctuation, NAO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1520
83 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fanworth (Cabombafurcata) from Lake Chini, Malaysia
Authors: Ahmad, A.K., Shuhaimi-Othman, M. Hoon, L.P.
Abstract:Study was conducted to determine the concentration of copper, cadmium, lead and zinc in Cabomba furcata that found abundance in Lake Chini. This aquatic plant was collected randomly within the lake for heavy metal determination. Water quality measurement was undertaken in situ for temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oksigen using portable multi sensor probe YSI model 556. The C. furcata was digested using wet digestion method and heavy metal concentrations were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) Perkin Elmer 4100B (flame method). Result of water quality classify Lake Chini between class II to class III using Malaysian Water Quality Standard. According to this standard, Lake Chini has moderate quality, which normal for natural lake. Heavy metal concentrations in C.furcata were low and found to be lower than the critical toxic value in aquatic plants. Oneway ANOVA test indicated the heavy metal concentrations in C.furcata were significantly differ between sampling location. Water quality and heavy metal concentrations indicates that Lake Chini was not receives anthropogenic load from nearby activities.
Keywords: Cabomba furcata, Heavy metal, Lake Chini, WaterqualityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1787
82 The Effect of Urmia-Lake Water on Tensional Strength Concrete with Various Admixtures
Authors: Hadi Barghlame, M. A. Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mehdi Mohammad Rezaei
In this paper, the effect of admixtures on the tensional strength of concrete in Urmia-lake water have been investigated. We made different types of concretes with the ratio of w/c and replaced different percentages of micro-silica, air-entraining, super plasticizer, corrosion-inhibiting, and caulk with two types of cement I and II as well as investigating in both ordinary water and Urmia-lake water. The tensional strength was investigated on these samples.
Keywords: Urmia-lake water, Tensional strength, Concrete, Admixtures.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1323
81 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey
Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz
Abstract:In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.
Keywords: Chromatography, Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid composition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1265
80 Spatio-Temporal Data Mining with Association Rules for Lake Van
Authors: T. Aydin, M. F. Alaeddinoglu
Abstract:People, throughout the history, have made estimates and inferences about the future by using their past experiences. Developing information technologies and the improvements in the database management systems make it possible to extract useful information from knowledge in hand for the strategic decisions. Therefore, different methods have been developed. Data mining by association rules learning is one of such methods. Apriori algorithm, one of the well-known association rules learning algorithms, is not commonly used in spatio-temporal data sets. However, it is possible to embed time and space features into the data sets and make Apriori algorithm a suitable data mining technique for learning spatiotemporal association rules. Lake Van, the largest lake of Turkey, is a closed basin. This feature causes the volume of the lake to increase or decrease as a result of change in water amount it holds. In this study, evaporation, humidity, lake altitude, amount of rainfall and temperature parameters recorded in Lake Van region throughout the years are used by the Apriori algorithm and a spatio-temporal data mining application is developed to identify overflows and newlyformed soil regions (underflows) occurring in the coastal parts of Lake Van. Identifying possible reasons of overflows and underflows may be used to alert the experts to take precautions and make the necessary investments.
Keywords: Apriori algorithm, association rules, data mining, spatio-temporal data.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1299
79 A Descriptive Preference Analysis on Waterfront Parks Neighboring Lake Shihwa
Authors: J. H. Ahn, J. W. Moon, K. H. Kim, H. K. Kim
As the ecology of Lake Shihwa has been restored significantly nowadays, the urban development is in progress around Lake Shihwa areas. Each development project includes a plan on utilizing waterfront areas, but there exist a difference on waterfront design criteria between experts and users. Therefore, it is significant to analyze preferences in design elements of existing waterfront parks around Lake Shihwa (Ansan Waterfront Park, Shihwa Reed Wetland Park, and T-Light Park) based on users’ perspectives and to reflect the result on upcoming waterfront developments. This study derives design elements on waterfront parks from literature reviews. The survey questionnaires are created based on these classified elements and the surveys are conducted to experts and users with in-depth interviews. For all three parks, several park facilities appear to be not recognized by users. Therefore the circulation path should be introduced in guide maps and information activities and furthermore in disposition of park facilities.
Keywords: Design Elements, Lake Shihwa, Preference, Waterfront Park.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1293
78 Urban Development from the Perspective of Lou Gang Polder System: Taihu Lake, Huzhou as an Example
Authors: Wei Bin Shen
Lou Gang world irrigation project heritage in Taihu Lake is a systematic irrigation project integrating water conservancy, ecology and culture. Through the methods of historical documents and field investigation, this paper deeply analyzes the formation history, connotation and value of Lou Gang polder system: Lou Gang heritage, describes in detail the relationship between Lou Gang polder system in Taihu Lake and the development and evolution of Huzhou City, and initially explores the protection and Utilization Strategies of Lou Gang water conservancy cultural heritage resources in Taihu Lake from the current situation.
Keywords: Lou Gang, protection strategy, urban evolution, water conservancy cultural heritage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 547
77 Changing Geomorphosites in a Changing Lake: How Environmental Changes in Urmia Lake Have Been Driving Vanishing or Creating of Geomorphosites
Authors: D. Mokhtari
Abstract:Any variation in environmental characteristics of geomorphosites would lead to destabilisation of their geotouristic values all around the planet. The Urmia lake, with an area of approximately 5,500 km2 and a catchment area of 51,876 km2, and to which various reasons over time, especially in the last fifty years have seen a sharp decline and have decreased by about 93 % in two recent decades. These variations are not only driving significant changes in the morphology and ecology of the present lake landscape, but at the same time are shaping newly formed morphologies, which vanished some valuable geomorphosites or develop into smaller geomorphosites with significant value from a scientific and cultural point of view. This paper analyses and discusses features and evolution in several representative coastal and island geomorphosites. For this purpose, a total of 23 geomorphosites were studied in two data series (1963 and 2015) and the respective data were compared and analysed. The results showed, the total loss in geomorphosites area in a half century amounted to a loss of more than 90% of the valuable geomorphosites. Moreover, the comparison between the mean yearly value of coastal area lost over the entire period and the yearly average calculated for the shorter period (1998- 2014) clearly indicates a pattern of acceleration. This acceleration in the rate of reduction in lake area was seen in most of the southern half of the lake. In the region as well, the general water-level falling is not only causing the loss of a significant water resource, which is followed by major impact on regional ecosystems, but is also driving the most marked recent (last century) changes in the geotouristic landscapes. In fact, the disappearance of geomorphosites means the loss of tourism phenomenon. In this context attention must be paid to the question of conservation. The action needed to safeguard geomorphosites includes: 1) Preventive action, 2) Corrective action, and 3) Sharing knowledge.
Keywords: Changing lake, environmental changes, geomorphosite, northwest of Iran, Urmia lake.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1588
76 Identification of Aquatic and Semi aquatic Birds of Sattarkhan Lake (East Azerbaijan- Iran)
Authors: Mahbobeh Hajirostamloo
Abstract:Aquatic and semi aquatic birds as a group are suited to feed and breed in environments in which water forms a fundamental part. These birds are biological indicator in aquatic environment, because these birds belong to the top level of food chain in aquatic ecosystems. There are 61 species in 14 families of aquatic and semi aquatic birds in Iran. The birds of the Sattarkhan Lake belong to 16 species in 8 families which include 26.2 percent of total Aquatic and semi aquatic bird species and 57% of Aquatic and semi aquatic bird's family of Iran. Study was carried out monthly at Sattarkhan Lake show the existence of Phalacrocorax carbo, Ardea cinerea, Egretta alba, Egretta garzetta, Bubulcus ibis, Botaurus stellaris, Sterna hirundo, Chlidonias leucopterus, Larus minutus, Larus argentatus, Larus ridibunbus, Alcedo atthis, Ciconia ciconia, Plegadis falcinellus, Circus aeruginosus, Corvus frugilegus
Keywords: Aquatic bird, Sattarkhan Lake, Identification, IranProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1626
75 Treatment of Eutrophic-lake Water by Free Water Surface Wetland
Authors: Haodong Wu, Ping Huang, Junsan Wang
Abstract:In China, with the rapid urbanization and industrialization, and highly accelerated economic development have resulted in degradation of water resource. The water quality deterioration usual result from eutrophication in most cases, so how to dispose this type pollution water higher efficiently is an urgent task. Hower, different with traditional technology, constructed wetlands are effective treatment systems that can be very useful because they are simple technology and low operational cost. A pilot-scale treatment including constructed wetlands was constructed at XingYun Lake, Yuxi, China, and operated as primary treatment measure before eutrophic-lake water draining to riverine landscape. Water quality indices were determined during the experiment, the results indicated that treatment removal efficiencies were high for Nitrate nitrogen, Chlorophyll–a and Algae, the final removal efficiency reached to 95.20%, 93.33% and 99.87% respectively, but the removal efficiency of Total phosphorous and Total nitrogen only reach to 68.83% and 50.00% respectively.
Keywords: Constructed wetland, Eutrophic-lake water, Nutrientremoval, Removal efficiencyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1694
74 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish
Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb
This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.
Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1397
73 Comparison of Different Techniques for Processing and Preserving fish Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Kenya
Authors: Ayub V. O. Ofulla, Jackson H. O. Onyuka, Samuel Wagai, Douglas Anyona, Gabriel O. Dida, John Gichuki
Abstract:This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and oil frying treatments on enteric bacteria and fungi in Rastrineobola argentea fish from fish landing beaches within L. Victoria basin of western Kenya. Statistical differences in effectiveness of the different treatment methods was determined by single factor ANOVA, and paired two-tail t-Test was performed to compare the differences in moisture contents before and after storage. Oil fried fish recorded the lowest microbial loads, sodium chloride at 10% concentration was the second most effective and chlorinated solution even at 150ppm was the least effective against the bacteria and fungi in fish. Moisture contents of the control and treated fish were significantly lower after storage. These results show that oil frying of fish should be adopted for processing and preserving Rastrineobola argentea which is the most abundant and affordable fish species from Lake Victoria.
Keywords: Fish landing beaches, Lake Victoria, oil frying, preservatives.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2004
72 A Report on Occurrence and Parasite-Host of Ligula intestinalis in Sattarkhan Lake(East Azerbaijan-Iran)
Authors: Mahbobeh Hajirostamloo
Abstract:Ligula intestinalis is a three-host life-cycle Pseudophyllidean Cestode which in its plerocercoid stage infests a range of fresh water species. The objective of the present study was the worm occurrence within planctonic copepods, fishes and piscivorous birds and examine of parasite-hosts samples in the Lake of Sattarkhan Dam (near the city of Ahar, East Azerbaijan, Iran). Fish sample were collected with fyke and gill nets and the abdominal cavity was examined for the presence of ligula. Zooplanktons were captured using a planktonic net and occurrence of parasitic larval form in the body cavity was determined. Piscivorous birds were selected by telescope, they hunted and dissected for presence of parasite eggs in their gut. Results indicated that prevalence of infection was 16% for cyclopid copepoda and majority of infected cyclopid were female Cyclops. Investigation of 310 fishes specimens were indicated to infection of five species of cyprinid fishes. In addition, results indicated to manipulation of six species of migratory aquatic and semi aquatic birds by ligula. Obtained results are in agreement by previous studies. Its definite in this study that all of fishes in Sattarkhan Lake capable to infection, its important for health because they capture by native people and it is documented that ligula can be introduce as a zoonose. It's seemed that to prevent from disperses of parasite and restricted of infection, biological elimination can be effective and it's necessary to inform native people about sanitation.
Keywords: Ligula intestinalis, parasite-host, Sattarkhan Lake, Iran.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1707
71 Biometrical Comparison of Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 (Crustacea: Anostraca) Cysts between Rainy and Drought Years (1994-2003/4) from Urmia Lake, Iran
Authors: A. Asem, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, P. De Los Rios, R. Manaffar, F. Mohebbi
Abstract:Nowadays, biometrical characterizations of Artemia cysts are used as one of the most important factors in the study of Artemia populations and intraspecific particularity; meanwhile these characters can be used as economical indices. For example, typically high hatching efficiency is possible due to the small diameter of cysts (high number per gram); therefore small diameter of cysts show someway high quality of cysts. This study was performed during a ten year period, including two different ecological conditions: rainy and drought. It is important from two different aspects because it covers alteration of A. urmiana during ten years also its variation in the best and worst environmental situations in which salinity increased from 173.8 ppt in 1994 to 280.8 ppt in 2003/4. In this study the biometrical raw data of Artemia urmiana cysts at seven stations from the Urmia Lake in 1994 and their seven identical locations at 26 studied stations in 2003/4 were reanalyzed again and compared together. Biometrical comparison of untreated and decapsulated cysts in each of the seven similar stations showed a highly significant variation between 1994 and 2003/4. Based on this study, in whole stations the untreated and decapsulated cysts from 1994 were larger than cysts of 2003/4 without any exception. But there was no logical relationship between salinity and chorion thickness in the Urmia Lake. With regard to PCA analyses the stations of two different studied years certainly have been separated with factor 1 from each other. In conclusion, the interaction between genetic and environmental factors can determine and explain variation in the range of cysts diameter in Artemia.
Keywords: Artemia urmiana, Biometry, Cyst, Urmia LakeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3540
70 Hydrolysis of Eicchornia crassipes and Egeria densa for Ethanol Production by Yeasts Isolated from Colombian Lake Fúquene
Authors: P. Martínez-Nieto, M. Vanegas-Hoyos, M. Zapata-Pineda, J. Robles-Camargo
The aquatic plants are a promising renewable energy resource. Lake Fúquene polluting macrophytes, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.), were saccharifiedby different treatments and fermented to ethanol by native yeasts. Among the tested chemical and biological methods for the saccharification, Pleurotus ostreatus at 10% (m/v) was chosen as the best pre-treatment in both macrophytes (P<0.01). Subsequently 49 yeasts were isolated from Lake Fúquene and nine strains were selected, which presented the highest precipitates characteristic of ethanol in the iodoform test. The fermentations from water hyacinth and Brazilian elodea hydrolysates using these yeasts produced ethanol at a rate between 0.38 to 0.80gL-1h-1 and 0.15 to 0.27gL-1h-1 respectively. The ethanol presence was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The nine yeasts chosen were preliminarily identified as belonging to the genera Candida spp., Brettanomyces sp. and Hansenula spp.
Keywords: Bio-ethanol, Chemical hydrolysis, Invasive aquatic macrophytes, Native yeasts fermenting, P. ostreatusProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6037
69 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Water and Fish in Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya
Authors: Jackson H. O. Onyuka, Rose Kakai, David M. Onyango, Peter F. Arama, John Gichuki, Ayub V.O. Ofulla
Abstract:A cross sectional study design and standard microbiological procedures were used to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from water and two fish species Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus collected from fish landing beaches and markets in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya. Out of 162 samples analyzed, 133 (82.1%) were contaminated, with S. typhimurium as the most prevalent (49.6%), followed by E. coli (46.6%), and lastly V. cholerae (2.8%). All the bacteria isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenical and gentamicin while S. typhimurium isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole. The V. cholerae O1 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin. The high prevalence of drug resistant enteric bacteria in water and fish from the study region needs public health intervention from the local government.
Keywords: Aquatic environments, Antimicrobial resistance, Enteric bacteria, Lake Victoria BasinProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2370
68 Hydrogeological Aspects of Washing Waste Reuse in Quarry Lakes Rehabilitation
Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi
Abstract:According to the European laws, there is the possibility of reusing the washing wastes for the environmental requalification of quarry lakes. The paper deals with the hydrogeological aspects involved in this possibility, as the introduction of finest wastes in the quarry lakes can generate alterations of the hydrogeological setting of the area, and problems for the future accessibility of the zone. To evaluate the hydrogeological compatibility of the washing wastes reuse in quarry lakes a groundwater numerical model was carried out, pointing out both the hydrogeological feasibility of this intervention and some guide lines for its optimization, in terms of inflow point with regard the groundwater flow direction and loss of volume in the quarry lake.
Keywords: Groundwater numerical modeling, hydrogeologicalalteration, quarry lake, silty-clay wastes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1642
67 Analysis on the Feasibility of Landsat 8 Imagery for Water Quality Parameters Assessment in an Oligotrophic Mediterranean Lake
Authors: V. Markogianni, D. Kalivas, G. Petropoulos, E. Dimitriou
Abstract:Lake water quality monitoring in combination with the use of earth observation products constitutes a major component in many water quality monitoring programs. Landsat 8 images of Trichonis Lake (Greece) acquired on 30/10/2013 and 30/08/2014 were used in order to explore the possibility of Landsat 8 to estimate water quality parameters and particularly CDOM absorption at specific wavelengths, chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations in this oligotrophic freshwater body, characterized by inexistent quantitative, temporal and spatial variability. Water samples have been collected at 22 different stations, on late August of 2014 and the satellite image of the same date was used to statistically correlate the in-situ measurements with various combinations of Landsat 8 bands in order to develop algorithms that best describe those relationships and calculate accurately the aforementioned water quality components. Optimal models were applied to the image of late October of 2013 and the validation of the results was conducted through their comparison with the respective available in-situ data of 2013. Initial results indicated the limited ability of the Landsat 8 sensor to accurately estimate water quality components in an oligotrophic waterbody. As resulted by the validation process, ammonium concentrations were proved to be the most accurately estimated component (R = 0.7), followed by chl-a concentration (R = 0.5) and the CDOM absorption at 420 nm (R = 0.3). In-situ nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations of 2014 were measured as lower than the detection limit of the instrument used, hence no statistical elaboration was conducted. On the other hand, multiple linear regression among reflectance measures and total phosphorus concentrations resulted in low and statistical insignificant correlations. Our results were concurrent with other studies in international literature, indicating that estimations for eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes are more accurate than oligotrophic, owing to the lack of suspended particles that are detectable by satellite sensors. Nevertheless, although those predictive models, developed and applied to Trichonis oligotrophic lake are less accurate, may still be useful indicators of its water quality deterioration.
Keywords: Landsat 8, oligotrophic lake, remote sensing, water quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1358
66 Research on Landscape Pattern Revolution of Land Use in Fuxian Lake Basin Based on RS and GIS
Based on the remote image data of land use in the four periods of 1980, 1995, 2005 and 2015, this study quantitatively analyzed the dynamic variation of landscape transfer and landscape pattern in the Fuxian Lake basin by constructing a land use dynamic variation model and using ArcGIS 10.5 and Fragstats 4.2. The results indicate that: (1) From the perspective of land use landscape transfer, the intensity of land use is slowly rising from 1980 to 2015, and the main reduction landscape type is farmland and its net amount of transfer-out is the most among all transfer-outs, which is to 788.85 hm2, the main added landscape type is construction land and its net amount of transfer-in is the most, which is to 475.23 hm2. Meanwhile, the land use landscape variation in the stage of 2005-2015 showed the most severe among three periods when compared with other two stages. (2) From the perspective of land use landscape variation, significant spatial differences are shown, the changes in the north of the basin are significantly higher than that in the south, the west coast are apparently higher than the east. (3) From the perspective of landscape pattern index, the number of plaques is on the increase in the periods of 35 years in the basin, and there is little mutual interference between landscape patterns because the plaques are relatively discrete. Cultivated land showed a trend of fragmentation but constructive land showed trend of relative concentration. The sustainable development and biodiversity in this basin are under threat for the fragmented landscape pattern and the poorer connectivity.
Keywords: Land use, landscape pattern evolution, landscape pattern index, Fuxian Lake basin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 400
65 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System
Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber EL Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda
The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected form the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L Alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56% respectively.
Keywords: Industrial wastewater, Activated sludge, BOD5, Lead, Alum salt.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2384
64 Natural Disaster Impact on Annual Visitors of Recreation Area: The Taiwan Case
Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi
This paper aims to quantify the impact of natural disaster on tourism by the change of annual visitors to scenic spots. The data of visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake, Sitou and Palace Museum in Taiwan during 1986 to 2012 year is collected, and the trend analysis is used to predict the annual visitors to these scenic spots. The findings show that 1999 Taiwan earthquake had significant effect on the visitors to Alishan, Sun Moon Lake and Sitou with an average impact of 55.75% during 1999 to 2000 year except for Palace Museum. The impact was greater as closer epicenter of 1999 earthquake. And the discovery period of visitors is about 2 to 9 years. Further, the impact of heavy rainfall on Alishan, Taiwan is estimated. As the accumulative rainfall reaches to 500 mm, the impact on visitors can be predicted.
Keywords: Impact, Natural disaster, tourism, visitors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1897
63 Rural Tourism Planning from the Perspective of Water Resource Protection and Regional Integration: Taking Villages along Tongji Lake as an Example
Authors: Pianpian Zhang, Qingping Luo
Currently, there is a great tendency that more and more villages in China are trying to increase income by development of tourism. Especially in Zhejiang Province, 'Beautiful Rural Construction' provides an excellent opportunity for the development of tourism. In this context, development orientation, transportation routes and tourism service facilities are analyzed under the perspective of water resources protection and regional integration based on the development tourism industry of the six villages in Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province as a research object. In the program, the biggest issue is the contradiction between the ecological protection of the water and the development of economy. How to deal with the relationship between protection and development is the key to the design of this case. Furthermore, the six villages are regarded as a whole, connecting to each other by the system of five-path and the landscape along the lake. Every village has its own features, but cannot develop without one another. The article is actively exploring for suggestions and countermeasures to promote the development premised on protection and based on a regional view.
Keywords: Development, integration, protection, rural tourism.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 745
62 Dynamics and Driving Forces of the Alpine Wetlands in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of Tibet, China
Authors: Weishou Shen, Dong Liu, Di Ji, Haoyun Shen, Naifeng Lin
Abstract:Based on the field investigation and long term remote sensing data, the dynamics of the alpine wetland in the river basin and their response to climate change were studied. Results showed the alpine wetlands accounted for 3.73% of total basin in 2010. Lake and river appeared an increasing trend in the past 30 years, with an increase of 34.36 % and 24.57%. However, swamp exhibited a tendency of decreasing with 233.74 km2. Annual average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation in the river basin all exhibited an increasing trend, whereas relative humidity exhibited a decreasing trend. Ice and snow melting are main reasons of lake and river area enhancement and swamp area descend. There existed 91.78%-97.86% of reduced swamp converted into lakes on the basis of remote sensing image interpretation. China-s government policy of implementing development in the river basin is the major driving force of artificial wetland growth.
Keywords: alpine wetland dynamics, climate change, Yarlung Zangbo River basinProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1547
61 Exploiting Two Intelligent Models to Predict Water Level: A Field Study of Urmia Lake, Iran
Authors: Shahab Kavehkar, Mohammad Ali Ghorbani, Valeriy Khokhlov, Afshin Ashrafzadeh, Sabereh Darbandi
Water level forecasting using records of past time series is of importance in water resources engineering and management. For example, water level affects groundwater tables in low-lying coastal areas, as well as hydrological regimes of some coastal rivers. Then, a reliable prediction of sea-level variations is required in coastal engineering and hydrologic studies. During the past two decades, the approaches based on the Genetic Programming (GP) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were developed. In the present study, the GP is used to forecast daily water level variations for a set of time intervals using observed water levels. The measurements from a single tide gauge at Urmia Lake, Northwest Iran, were used to train and validate the GP approach for the period from January 1997 to July 2008. Statistics, the root mean square error and correlation coefficient, are used to verify model by comparing with a corresponding outputs from Artificial Neural Network model. The results show that both these artificial intelligence methodologies are satisfactory and can be considered as alternatives to the conventional harmonic analysis.
Keywords: Water-Level variation, forecasting, artificial neural networks, genetic programming, comparative analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2177
60 The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Growth and Carotenogenesis of Three Dunaliella Species (Dunaliella sp. Lake Isolate, D. salina CCAP 19/18, and D. bardawil LB 2538) Cultivated under Laboratory Conditions
Authors: Imen Hamed, Burcu Ak, Oya Işık, Leyla Uslu, Kubilay Kazım Vursavuş
In this study, 3 species of Dunaliella (Dunaliella sp. Salt Lake isoalte (Tuz Gölü), Dunaliella salina CCAP19/18, and Dunaliella bardawil LB 2538) and their optical density, dry matter, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch system. The aim of this research was to compare carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch those 3 species. Therefore 2 stress factors were used: 2 different temperatures (20°C and 30°C) and 2 different salinities (30‰, and 60‰) were tested over a 17-day study. The highest growth and chlorophyll a was reported for Dunaliella sp. under 20°C/30‰ and 20°C/60‰ conditions respectively followed by D. bardawil and D. salina. Significant differences were noticed (p<0.05) for the other 3 species. The growth decreased as temperature and salinity increased since the lowest growth was noticed for the 30°C/60‰ group. The chlorophyll a content decreased also as temperature increased however when the NaCl concentration increased an augmentation of the content was noticed . In the 17th day of experiment the highest carotenoids concentration was reported for D. bardawil 20°C/30‰ (65,639±0,400 μg.mL−1) and the most important β carotene concentration was for D. salina 20°C/60‰ (8,98E-07±0,013 mol/L).
Keywords: Dunaliella sp., Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawil, stress factors, pigments, growth.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 786
59 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction
Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar
Using cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant effect on reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percentages of EGR and for determining optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, dimension, expenditures, sediment and also optimum performance by using gasoil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.
Keywords: Cold EGR, NOX, Cooler.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3651
58 Biomass and Productivity Studies of Up-Land and Low-Land Vegetation in the Neglected Margin of a Tropical Lake
Authors: Mayank Singh, O. P. Singh ‘Vatsa’, M. P. Singh
Present paper deals with an evaluation of magnitude of changes in biomass and net primary productivity at ‘Gujar Tal’ sloppy lake margin at Jaunpur in tropical semi-arid region of eastern U.P. (India). The study site abandoned or neglected lands (50 ×125 m) was divided into two zones, i.e. upper zone (up-land) and lower zone (low-land). Maximum biomass in the upper zone of dominant weed Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf. was 207.47 g m-2 and ‘rest weeds’ was 457.45 g m-2 both in the month of September. In contrast, the peak biomass value in the lower zone of dominant weed Oryza rufipogon Griff. was 1571.44 g m-2 in October and ‘rest weeds’ 270.65 g m-2 in February. Among the two zones, the peak total community biomass was observed 1655.62 g m-2 (October) in the lower zone while its peak value for the upper zone 457.45 g m-2 (September) was comparatively low. Maximum percentage contribution of dominant weeds (D. bipinnata and O. rufipogon) in the respective upper and lower zones and ‘rest weeds’ in both the zones varied in different months in the total community biomass. The peak net primary productivity of dominant weed (D. bipinnata) was 2.09g m-2 day-1 (September) and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.37 g m-2 day-1 (August) in the upper zone, while the lower zone for O. rufipogon was 5.25 g m-2 day-1 (June) as this zone was inundated later and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.08 g m-2 day-1 (January, 2009). The annual net production of total community at site I was highest, 409.58 g m-2 yr-1 in the upper zone followed by 395.58 g m-2 per eight month in the lower zone as this zone was flooded with water during rainy season. The site significance of variations in biomass in relation to plant species was tested by analysis of variance. It was significant between months in all the two zones (p<0.01 and p<0.05).
Keywords: Biomass, Neglected Lake Margin, Productivity, Vegetation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1564