Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30172
Physical-Chemical Surface Characterization of Lake Nasser Sediments

Authors: Yousra M. Zakaria Helmy, Edward H. Smith

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Over 120 million metric tons of sediments are deposited in its dead storage zone every year. The main objective of the present work was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Nasser sediments. The sample had a relatively low surface area of 2.9 m2/g which increased more than 3-fold upon chemical activation. The main chemical elements of the raw sediments were C, O and Si with some traces of Al, Fe and Ca. The organic functional groups for the tested sample included O-H, C=C, C-H and C-O, with indications of Si-O and other metal-C and/or metal-O bonds normally associated with clayey materials. Potentiometric titration of the sample in different ionic strength backgrounds revealed an alkaline material with very strong positive surface charge at pH values just a little less than the pH of zero charge which is ~9. Surface interactions of the sediments with the background electrolyte were significant. An advanced surface complexation model was able to capture these effects, employing a single-site approach to represent protolysis reactions in aqueous solution, and to determine the significant surface species in the pH range of environmental interest.

Keywords: Lake Nasser, sediments, surface characterization

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1061182

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1485

References:


[1] A. A Mageed and M. T Heikal, "Factors affecting seasonal patterns in epilimnion zooplankton community in one of the largest man-made lakes in Africa (Lake Nasser, Egypt)," Limnologica, vol. 36, pp.91-97, Nov. 2005.
[2] A. El Gamal, S. Nasr, and A. El-Taher, "Study of the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity in the upper Egypt Nile River sediments," Radiation measurements, vol. 42,,pp. 457-465, Feb. 2007.
[3] S. Shalash "Effects of sedimentation on the storage capacity of the High Aswan Dam reservoir," Hydrobiologia, vol. 91-92, pp. 623-639. July 1982.
[4] M. M. Ali and M. A. Soltan," Expansion of Myriophyllum spicatum (Eurasian water milfoil) into Lake Nasser, Egypt: Invasive capacity and habitat stability," Aquatic Botany, vol. 84, pp. 239-244, Nov. 2005.
[5] M. F. Sadek, M.M. Shahin and C.J. Stigter, "Evaporation from the reservoir of the High Aswan Dam, Egypt: A new comparison of relevant methods with limited data," Theor. Appl. Climatol., vol. 56, pp. 57-66, Mar. 1997.
[6] G. M. El-Shabrawy, "Lake Nasser-Nubia" in The Nile: Origin, Environments, Limnology and Human Use, vol.89, H. J. Dumont, Ed. 2009, pp. 125-131.
[7] K. M. Hafiz, "Some quality studies on the sediments of Lake Nasser," M.Sc thesis, Dep. Eng, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, 1977.
[8] K. G. Bhattacharyya and S. S. Gupta, "Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: A review," Advances Coll. Interface Sci., vol. 140, pp.114-131, Aug. 2008.
[9] J. Coates, "Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach," in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R.A. Meyers, Ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 10815-10837.
[10] A. A. El Hendawy, Personal Communication, March 2010.
[11] E. H. Smith, "Surface complexation modeling of metal removal by recycled iron sorbent," J. Environ. Engrg. (ASCE) vol. 124, pp. 913-920, Oct. 1998.
[12] J. A. Davis and D. B. Kent, "Surface complexation modeling in aqueous geochemistry," in Reviews in Mineralogy - vol. 23: Mineral-water interface chemistry, M. F. Hochella, Jr. and A. F. White, Eds. Washington D.C.: Mineral. Soc. America, 1990, pp. 177-260.
[13] W. Lu and E. H. Smith, "Modeling potentiometric titration behavior of glauconite," Geochim.. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 60, no. 18, pp. 3363-3373, 1996.
[14] P. W. Schindler and W. Stumm, "The surface chemistry of oxides, hydroxides, and oxide minerals," in Aquatic Surface Chemistry, W. Stumm, Ed. New Yorki: John Wiley & Sons, 1987, pp. 83-110.
[15] A. L. Herbelin and J. C. Westall, "FITEQL-version 3.1: A program for the determination of chemical equilibrium constants from experimental data," Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR, Report 94-01, Jan. 1994.
[16] D. A. Dzombak and F. M. M. Morel, Surface Complexation Modeling, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1990.
[17] E.H. Smith, W. Lu, T. Vengris, and R. Binkiene, "Sorption of heavy metals on Lithuanian glauconite," Wat. Res., vol. 30, no. 10, 2882-2892, Oct. 1996.