Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31824
Biometrical Comparison of Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899 (Crustacea: Anostraca) Cysts between Rainy and Drought Years (1994-2003/4) from Urmia Lake, Iran

Authors: A. Asem, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, P. De Los Rios, R. Manaffar, F. Mohebbi


Nowadays, biometrical characterizations of Artemia cysts are used as one of the most important factors in the study of Artemia populations and intraspecific particularity; meanwhile these characters can be used as economical indices. For example, typically high hatching efficiency is possible due to the small diameter of cysts (high number per gram); therefore small diameter of cysts show someway high quality of cysts. This study was performed during a ten year period, including two different ecological conditions: rainy and drought. It is important from two different aspects because it covers alteration of A. urmiana during ten years also its variation in the best and worst environmental situations in which salinity increased from 173.8 ppt in 1994 to 280.8 ppt in 2003/4. In this study the biometrical raw data of Artemia urmiana cysts at seven stations from the Urmia Lake in 1994 and their seven identical locations at 26 studied stations in 2003/4 were reanalyzed again and compared together. Biometrical comparison of untreated and decapsulated cysts in each of the seven similar stations showed a highly significant variation between 1994 and 2003/4. Based on this study, in whole stations the untreated and decapsulated cysts from 1994 were larger than cysts of 2003/4 without any exception. But there was no logical relationship between salinity and chorion thickness in the Urmia Lake. With regard to PCA analyses the stations of two different studied years certainly have been separated with factor 1 from each other. In conclusion, the interaction between genetic and environmental factors can determine and explain variation in the range of cysts diameter in Artemia.

Keywords: Artemia urmiana, Biometry, Cyst, Urmia Lake

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3501


[1] F. Hontoria, F. Amat, Morphological characterization of adult Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) from different geographical origins. American populations. J. of Pla. Res. 1992. 14: pp.1461-1471.
[2] G. Van Stappen, Zoogeography. In: Abatzopoulos, T.J., Beardmore, J.A., Clegg, J.S., Sorgeloos, P. (Eds.), Artemia basic and applied biology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002. pp. 171-224.
[3] F.J. Post, and N.N. Youssef, A prokaryotic intracellular symbiont of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp Artemia salina (L.). Cana. J. of Micr. 1977.23: pp.1232-1236.
[4] G. Persoone, and P. Sorgeloos, General aspects of the ecology and biogeography of Artemia. In: Persoone, G., Sorgeloos, P., Roels O., Jaspers E., (Eds.), The Brine Shrimp Artemia, vol. 3. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium, 1980. pp. 3-24.
[5] A. Asem, Historical record on brine shrimp Artemia more than one thousand years ago from Urmia Lake, Iran . J. of Bio. Res. 2008. 9: pp. 113-114.
[6] R.T. G├╝nther, Contributions to the geography of Lake Urmi and its neighbourhood. The Geo. J. 1899a. 14: pp. 504-523.
[7] R.T. G├╝nther, Contributions to the natural history of Lake Urmi, N. W. Persia and its neighborhood. J. of the Lin. Soc. (Zoology). 1899b. 27: pp. 375-453.
[8] L.S. Clark, and S.T. Bowen, The genetics of Artemia salina. VII. Reproductive isolation. The J. of Here. 1976. 67: pp: 385-388.
[9] K. Kelts, and M. Shahrabi, Holocene sedimentalogy of hypersaline Lake Urmia, northwestern Iran. Paleogeography, Paleo. and Paleo. 1986. 54: pp105-130.
[10] A. Eimanifar and F. Mohebbi, Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review. Saline Systems. 2007. 3:5
[11] G.V. Triantaphyllidis, K. Poulopoulou, T.J. Abatzopoulos, C.A.P. Perez, and P. Sorgeloos, International study on Artemia XLIX. Salinity effects on survival, maturity, growth, biometrics, reproductive and lifespan characteristics of a bisexual and a parthenogenetic population of Artemia. Hydrobio. 1995. 302: pp 215-227.
[12] R.A. Browne, and G. Wanigasekera, Combined effects of salinity and temperature on survival and reproduction of five species of Artemia. J. of Exp. Mar. Bio. and Eco. 2000. 244: pp. 29-44.
[13] T.J. Abatzopoulos, N. El-Bermawi, C. Vasdekis, A.D. Baxevanis, and P. Sorgeloos, Effects of salinity and temperature on reproductive and life span characteristics of clonal Artemia. (International Study of Artemia. LXVI). Hydrobio. 2003. 492: pp. 191-199.
[14] A.D. Baxevanis, N. El-Bermawi, T.J. Abatzopoulos, and P. Sorgeloos, International Study on Artemia. LXVIII. Salinity effects on maturation, reproductive and life span characteristics of four Egyptian Artemia populations. Hydrobi. 2004. 513: pp 87-100.
[15] A.D. Baxevanis, and T.J. Abatzopoulos, The phenotypic response of ME2 (M. Embolon, Greece) Artemia clone to salinity and temperature. J. of Bio. Res. 2004. 1: pp. 107- 114.
[16] N. El-Bermawi, A.D.Baxevanis, T.J. Abatzopoulos, G. Van Stappen, and P. Sorgeloos, International Study on Artemia. LXVII. Salinity effects on survival, growth and morphometry of four Egyptian Artemia populations. Hydrobio. 2004. 523: pp. 175-188.
[17] S.T. Bowen, E.A. Fogarino, K.N. Hitchner, G.L. Chow, M.R. Buoncristiani, and J.R. Carl, Ecological isolation in Artemia: population differences in tolerance of anion concentrations. J of Crus Bio. 1985. 5: pp. 106-129.
[18] S.T. Bowen, M.R. Buoncristiani, and J.R. Carl, Artemia habitats: ion concentrations tolerated by one superspecies. Hydrobio. 1988. 158: pp. 201-214.
[19] A. Eimanifar, S. Rezvani, J. Carapetian, Genetic differentiation of Artemia urmiana from various ecological populations of Urmia Lake assessed by PCR amplified RFLP analysis. J. of Expe Mar. Bio. and Eco. 2006. 333(2): pp. 275-285.
[20] A. Asem, and N. Rastegar-Pouyani, Morphological differentiation of Artemia urmiana G├╝nther, 1899 (Crustacea: Anostraca) in different geographical stations from the Urmia Lake-Iran. Res. J. of Bio.l Sci. 2008. 3(2): pp. 222-228.
[21] T.J. Abatzopoulos, A.D. Baxevanis, G.V. Triantaphyllidis, G. Criel, E.L. Pador, G. Van Stappen, and P. Sorgeloos, Quality evaluation of Artemia urmiana G├╝nther (Urmia Lake, Iran) with special emphasis on its particular cyst characteristics (International Study on Artemia LXIX). Aquac. 2006a. 254: pp. 442-454.
[22] A. Asem, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, and Agh, N. Biometrical study of Artemia urmiana (Anostraca: Artemiidae) cysts harvested from Lake Urmia (West Azerbaijan, Iran). Turk. J. of Zoo. 2007. 31: pp. 171-180.
[23] P. Vanhaecke, and P. Sorgeloos, International study on Artemia IV, The Biometrics of Artemia strains from different geographical origin. In: Persoone, G., Sorgeloos, P., Roels, O., Jaspers, E. (Eds.) The brine shrimp Artemia. Vol. 3. Universa press, Wettern, Belgium, 1980. pp. 393- 405.
[24] F. Hontoria, Caractrizacion de tres poblacionrs originarias del area levantina Espanola del crustaceo branquiopoda Artemia. Aplicacion en acuicultura, Ph.D. thesis, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, 1990. 326pp.
[25] P. Zhenqiu, S. Jianhua, L. Mingren, and B. Bozhong, The biometry of Artemia parthenogenetica from different localities in Shandong and Xinjiang. Oceanol. Limnol. 1991. 2: pp. 62-69.
[26] G.V. Triantaphyllidis, T.J. Abatzopoulos, E. Miasa, and P. Sorgeloos, International study on Artemia population from Namibia and Madagascar; cytogenetics. biometry, hatchin characteristics and fatty acid profiles. Hydrobio. 1996. 335: pp. 97-106.
[27] R.G. Cohen, F. Amat, F. Hontoria, and J.C. Navarro, Preliminary characterization of some Argentinean Artemia population from La Pampa and Buenos Aires provinces. Int. J. of sal. La. Res. 1999. 8: pp. 329-340.
[28] A. Asem, B. Atashbar, N. Rastegar-Pouyani, and N. Agh, Biometric comparison of two parthenogenetic populations of Artemia Leach, 1819 from the Urmia Lake basin, Iran (Anostraca: Artemiidae), Zoology in the Middle East. 2009.47: pp. 117-120.
[29] T.J. Abatzopoulos, B. Zhang, and P. Sorgeloos, International study on Artemia: 59. Artemia tibetiana: preliminary characterization of a new Artemia species found in Tibet (People's Republic of China). Int. J. of Sal. Lak. Res. 1998. 7: pp. 41-44.
[30] E.J.S. Pilla, and J.A. Beardmore, Genetic and morphometric differentiation in Old World bisexual species of Artemia (the brine shrimp). Here. 1994. 73: pp. 47-56.
[31] T.B. Castro, G. Gajardo, J.M. Castro, and G.M. Castro, A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile, Sal. Syst. 2006. 2:13.
[32] T.J. Abatzopoulos, N. Agh, G. Van Stappen, S.M. Razavi Rouhani, and P. Sorgeloos, Artemia sites in Iran. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK. 2006b. 86: pp. 299-307.
[33] P. Sorgeloos, Lake Urmia cooperation project - contract item A, Report on the 'Resource assessment of Urmiah Lake Artemia cysts and biomass. Faculty of agriculture and applied biological science, Laboratory of aquaculture And Artemia reference center, Gent University, Belgium, 1997.106p.
[34] W.N. Camargo, G.C. Durán, O.C. Rada, L.C. Hernández. J.G. Linero, I.M. Muelle, and P. Sorgeloos, Determination of biological and physicochemical parameters of Artemia franciscana strains in hypersaline environments for aquaculture in the Colombian Caribbean. Sal. Syst. 2005. 1: 9.
[35] P. Sorgeloos, G. Persoone, M. Baeza-Mesa, E. Bossuyt, and E. Bruggeman, The use of Artemia cysts in aquaculture: the concept of "hatching efficiency" and description of a new method for cyst processing. In: Avault, J.W. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting. World Mariculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1978. pp. 715-721.