Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Kwang Ryel Ryu

26 Prediction-Based Midterm Operation Planning for Energy Management of Exhibition Hall

Authors: Doseong Eom, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

Large exhibition halls require a lot of energy to maintain comfortable atmosphere for the visitors viewing inside. One way of reducing the energy cost is to have thermal energy storage systems installed so that the thermal energy can be stored in the middle of night when the energy price is low and then used later when the price is high. To minimize the overall energy cost, however, we should be able to decide how much energy to save during which time period exactly. If we can foresee future energy load and the corresponding cost, we will be able to make such decisions reasonably. In this paper, we use machine learning technique to obtain models for predicting weather conditions and the number of visitors on hourly basis for the next day. Based on the energy load thus predicted, we build a cost-optimal daily operation plan for the thermal energy storage systems and cooling and heating facilities through simulation-based optimization.

Keywords: Building energy management, machine learning, simulation-based optimization, operation planning.

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25 Comparison of Different k-NN Models for Speed Prediction in an Urban Traffic Network

Authors: Seyoung Kim, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

A database that records average traffic speeds measured at five-minute intervals for all the links in the traffic network of a metropolitan city. While learning from this data the models that can predict future traffic speed would be beneficial for the applications such as the car navigation system, building predictive models for every link becomes a nontrivial job if the number of links in a given network is huge. An advantage of adopting k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) as predictive models is that it does not require any explicit model building. Instead, k-NN takes a long time to make a prediction because it needs to search for the k-nearest neighbors in the database at prediction time. In this paper, we investigate how much we can speed up k-NN in making traffic speed predictions by reducing the amount of data to be searched for without a significant sacrifice of prediction accuracy. The rationale behind this is that we had a better look at only the recent data because the traffic patterns not only repeat daily or weekly but also change over time. In our experiments, we build several different k-NN models employing different sets of features which are the current and past traffic speeds of the target link and the neighbor links in its up/down-stream. The performances of these models are compared by measuring the average prediction accuracy and the average time taken to make a prediction using various amounts of data.

Keywords: Big data, k-NN, machine learning, traffic speed prediction.

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24 Activity Recognition by Smartphone Accelerometer Data Using Ensemble Learning Methods

Authors: Eu Tteum Ha, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

As smartphones are equipped with various sensors, there have been many studies focused on using these sensors to create valuable applications. Human activity recognition is one such application motivated by various welfare applications, such as the support for the elderly, measurement of calorie consumption, lifestyle and exercise patterns analyses, and so on. One of the challenges one faces when using smartphone sensors for activity recognition is that the number of sensors should be minimized to save battery power. In this paper, we show that a fairly accurate classifier can be built that can distinguish ten different activities by using only a single sensor data, i.e., the smartphone accelerometer data. The approach that we adopt to deal with this twelve-class problem uses various methods. The features used for classifying these activities include not only the magnitude of acceleration vector at each time point, but also the maximum, the minimum, and the standard deviation of vector magnitude within a time window. The experiments compared the performance of four kinds of basic multi-class classifiers and the performance of four kinds of ensemble learning methods based on three kinds of basic multi-class classifiers. The results show that while the method with the highest accuracy is ECOC based on Random forest.

Keywords: Ensemble learning, activity recognition, smartphone accelerometer.

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23 Performance Comparison of Situation-Aware Models for Activating Robot Vacuum Cleaner in a Smart Home

Authors: Seongcheol Kwon, Jeongmin Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

We assume an IoT-based smart-home environment where the on-off status of each of the electrical appliances including the room lights can be recognized in a real time by monitoring and analyzing the smart meter data. At any moment in such an environment, we can recognize what the household or the user is doing by referring to the status data of the appliances. In this paper, we focus on a smart-home service that is to activate a robot vacuum cleaner at right time by recognizing the user situation, which requires a situation-aware model that can distinguish the situations that allow vacuum cleaning (Yes) from those that do not (No). We learn as our candidate models a few classifiers such as naïve Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression that can map the appliance-status data into Yes and No situations. Our training and test data are obtained from simulations of user behaviors, in which a sequence of user situations such as cooking, eating, dish washing, and so on is generated with the status of the relevant appliances changed in accordance with the situation changes. During the simulation, both the situation transition and the resulting appliance status are determined stochastically. To compare the performances of the aforementioned classifiers we obtain their learning curves for different types of users through simulations. The result of our empirical study reveals that naïve Bayes achieves a slightly better classification accuracy than the other compared classifiers.

Keywords: Situation-awareness, Smart home, IoT, Machine learning, Classifier.

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22 Virtual Gesture Screen System Based on 3D Visual Information and Multi-Layer Perceptron

Authors: Yang-Keun Ahn, Min-Wook Kim, Young-Choong Park, Kwang-Soon Choi, Woo-Chool Park, Hae-Moon Seo, Kwang-Mo Jung

Abstract:

Active research is underway on virtual touch screens that complement the physical limitations of conventional touch screens. This paper discusses a virtual touch screen that uses a multi-layer perceptron to recognize and control three-dimensional (3D) depth information from a time of flight (TOF) camera. This system extracts an object-s area from the image input and compares it with the trajectory of the object, which is learned in advance, to recognize gestures. The system enables the maneuvering of content in virtual space by utilizing human actions.

Keywords: Gesture Recognition, Depth Sensor, Virtual Touch Screen

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21 Infrared Camera-Based Hand Gesture Space Touch System Implementation of Smart Device Environment

Authors: Yang-Keun Ahn, Kwang-Soon Choi, Young-Choong Park, Kwang-Mo Jung

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method to recognize the tip of a finger and space touch hand gesture using an infrared camera in a smart device environment. The proposed method estimates the tip of a finger with a curvature-based ellipse fitting algorithm, and verifies that the estimated object is indeed a finger with an ellipse fitting rectangular area. The feature extracted from the verified finger tip is used to implement the movement of a mouse and clicking gesture. The proposed algorithm was implemented with an actual smart device to test the proposed method. Empirical parameters were obtained from the keypad software and an image analysis tool for the performance optimization, and a comparative analysis with conventional research showed improved performance with the proposed method.

Keywords: Infrared camera, Hand gesture, Smart device, Space touch.

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20 A Virtual Simulation Environment for a Design and Verification of a GPGPU

Authors: Kwang Y. Lee, Tae R. Park, Jae C. Kwak, Yong S. Koo

Abstract:

When a small H/W IP is designed, we can develop an appropriate verification environment by observing the simulated signal waves, or using the serial test vectors for the fixed output. In the case of design and verification of a massive parallel processor with multiple IPs, it-s difficult to make a verification system with existing common verification environment, and to verify each partial IP. A TestDrive verification environment can build easy and reliable verification system that can produce highly intuitive results by applying Modelsim and SystemVerilog-s DPI. It shows many advantages, for example a high-level design of a GPGPU processor design can be migrate to FPGA board immediately.

Keywords: Virtual Simulation, Verification, IP Design, GPGPU

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19 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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18 Reliable Face Alignment Using Two-Stage AAM

Authors: Sunho Ki, Daehwan Kim, Seongwon Cho, Sun-Tae Chung, Jaemin Kim, Yun-Kwang Hong, Chang Joon Park, Dongmin Kwon, Minhee Kang, Yusung Kim, Younghan Yoon

Abstract:

AAM (active appearance model) has been successfully applied to face and facial feature localization. However, its performance is sensitive to initial parameter values. In this paper, we propose a two-stage AAM for robust face alignment, which first fits an inner face-AAM model to the inner facial feature points of the face and then localizes the whole face and facial features by optimizing the whole face-AAM model parameters. Experiments show that the proposed face alignment method using two-stage AAM is more reliable to the background and the head pose than the standard AAM-based face alignment method.

Keywords: AAM, Face Alignment, Feature Extraction, PCA

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17 Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel

Authors: Geun-Il Park, Jae-Won Lee, Dou-Youn Lee, Jung-Won Lee, Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process. Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from 27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.

Keywords: Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX, Powder, Chemical analysis

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16 Internal Node Stabilization for Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Multi-Channel Systems

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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15 Wideband Tunable RF Filters for Channel Selection in Crowded Spectral Bands

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn, Hyeon-Woo Lee

Abstract:

It is very effective way to utilize a very wide tunable filter in co-existing multi-standards wireless communications environment. Especially, as the long term evolution (LTE) communication era has come, the multi-band coverage is one of the important features required for the RF components. In this paper, we present the frequency conversion technique, and so generate two types of RF filters which are specially designed for the superb tunable ability to support multiple wireless communication standards. With the help of a complex mixing structure, the inherent image signal is suppressed. The RF band-pass filter (BPF) and notch filter achieve 1.8dB and 1.6dB insertion losses and 18 dB and 17 dB attenuations, respectively. The quality factor show greater than 30.

Keywords: RF filters, interference, wideband, tunable, channel selection, complex mixing, balanced mixer.

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14 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: Voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, and biasing circuits.

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13 Electrolytic Dissolutions of UO2 and SIMFUEL in Carbonate Solutions at Several pHs

Authors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Geun-Il Park, Eil-Hee Lee, Kune-Woo Lee, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Electrolytic dissolution characteristics of UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes were studied at several potentials in carbonate solutions of a high concentration at several pHs. The electrolytic uranium dissolution was much affected by a corrosion product of UO2CO3 generated at the electrode during the dissolution in carbonate solution. The corrosion product distorted the voltammogram at UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes in the potential region of oxygen evolution and increased the overpotential of oxygen evolution at the electrode. The effective dissolution in a carbonate solution could be obtained at an applied potential such as +4 V (vs SSE) or more which had an overpotential of oxygen evolution high enough to rupture the corrosion product on the electrode surface.

Keywords: Anodic, Electrolytic, Dissolution, SIMFUEL, Uranium dioxide, Carbonate

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12 Streamflow Modeling for a Small Watershed Using Limited Hydrological Data

Authors: S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

This research was conducted in the Pua Watershed whereas located in the Upper Nan River Basin in Nan province, Thailand. Nan River basin originated in Nan province that comprises of many tributary streams to produce as inflow to the Sirikit dam provided huge reservoir with the storage capacity of 9510 million cubic meters. The common problems of most watersheds were found i.e. shortage water supply for consumption and agriculture utilizations, deteriorate of water quality, flood and landslide including debris flow, and unstable of riverbank. The Pua Watershed is one of several small river basins that flow through the Nan River Basin. The watershed includes 404 km2 representing the Pua District, the Upper Nan Basin, or the whole Nan River Basin, of 61.5%, 18.2% or 1.2% respectively. The Pua River is a main stream producing all year streamflow supplying the Pua District and an inflow to the Upper Nan Basin. Its length approximately 56.3 kilometers with an average slope of the channel by 1.9% measured. A diversion weir namely Pua weir bound the plain and mountainous areas with a very steep slope of the riverbed to 2.9% and drainage area of 149 km2 as upstream watershed while a mild slope of the riverbed to 0.2% found in a river reach of 20.3 km downstream of this weir, which considered as a gauged basin. However, the major branch streams of the Pua River are ungauged catchments namely: Nam Kwang and Nam Koon with the drainage area of 86 and 35 km2 respectively. These upstream watersheds produce runoff through the 3-streams downstream of Pua weir, Jao weir, and Kang weir, with an averaged annual runoff of 578 million cubic meters. They were analyzed using both statistical data at Pua weir and simulated data resulted from the hydrologic modeling system (HEC–HMS) which applied for the remaining ungauged basins. Since the Kwang and Koon catchments were limited with lack of hydrological data included streamflow and rainfall. Therefore, the mathematical modeling: HEC-HMS with the Snyder-s hydrograph synthesized and transposed methods were applied for those areas using calibrated hydrological parameters from the upstream of Pua weir with continuously daily recorded of streamflow and rainfall data during 2008-2011. The results showed that the simulated daily streamflow and sum up as annual runoff in 2008, 2010, and 2011 were fitted with observed annual runoff at Pua weir using the simple linear regression with the satisfied correlation R2 of 0.64, 062, and 0.59, respectively. The sensitivity of simulation results were come from difficulty using calibrated parameters i.e. lag-time, coefficient of peak flow, initial losses, uniform loss rates, and missing some daily observed data. These calibrated parameters were used to apply for the other 2-ungauged catchments and downstream catchments simulated.

Keywords: Streamflow, hydrological model, ungauged catchments.

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11 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for I/O and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun-Young Kim, Chung-Kwang Lee, Han-Hee Cho, Sang-Woon Cho, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp.

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10 A Study of Adaptive Fault Detection Method for GNSS Applications

Authors: Je Young Lee, Hee Sung Kim, Kwang Ho Choi, Joonhoo Lim, Sebum Chun, Hyung Keun Lee

Abstract:

This study is purposed to develop an efficient fault detection method for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications based on adaptive noise covariance estimation. Due to the dependence on radio frequency signals, GNSS measurements are dominated by systematic errors in receiver’s operating environment. In the proposed method, the pseudorange and carrier-phase measurement noise covariances are obtained at time propagations and measurement updates in process of Carrier-Smoothed Code (CSC) filtering, respectively. The test statistics for fault detection are generated by the estimated measurement noise covariances. To evaluate the fault detection capability, intentional faults were added to the filed-collected measurements. The experiment result shows that the proposed method is efficient in detecting unhealthy measurements and improves GNSS positioning accuracy against fault occurrences.

Keywords: Adaptive estimation, fault detection, GNSS, residual.

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9 A Basic Study on Ubiquitous Overloaded Vehicles Regulation System

Authors: Byung-Wan Jo, Kwang-Won Yoon, Ji-Sun Choi

Abstract:

Load managing method on road became necessary since overloaded vehicles occur damage on road facilities and existing systems for preventing this damage still show many problems.Accordingly, efficient managing system for preventing overloaded vehicles could be organized by using the road itself as a scale by applying genetic algorithm to analyze the load and the drive information of vehicles.Therefore, this paper organized Ubiquitous sensor network system for development of intelligent overload vehicle regulation system, also in this study, to use the behavior of road, the transformation was measured by installing underground box type indoor model and indoor experiment was held using genetic algorithm. And we examined wireless possibility of overloaded vehicle regulation system through experiment of the transmission and reception distance.If this system will apply to road and bridge, might be effective for economy and convenience through establishment of U-IT system..

Keywords: Overload Vehicle. Genetic Algorithm, EmbeddedSystem, Wim Sensor, overload vehicle regulation

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8 A Study on Crashworhiness Assessment and Improvement of Tilting Train Made of Sandwich Composites

Authors: Hyung-Jin Jang, Kwang-Bok Shin, Sung-Ho Han

Abstract:

This paper describes the crashworthiness assessment and improvement of tlting train made of sandwich composites. The crashworhiness assessment of tilting train was conducted according to four collision scenarios of the Korean railway safety law. Collision analysis was carried out using explicit finite element analysis code LS-DYNA 3D. The finite element model consists of 3-D finite element model and 1-D equivalent model to save the finite element modeling and calculation time. It found that the crashworthiness analysis results were satisfied with the performance requirements except the crash scenario-2. In order to meet the crashworthiness requirements for crash scenario-2, the stiffness reinforcement for the laminate composite cover and metal frames of cabmask structure were proposed. Consequentially, it has satisfied the requirement for crash scenario-2.

Keywords: Crashworthiness, collision scenario, Korean railway safety law, sandwich composite, tilting train.

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7 Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Byeong Sam Kim, Juhee Lee, Kwang Soo Kim

Abstract:

The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Shape optimization, Airfoil on WIGcraft, Genetic algorithm, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

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6 Social Network Based Decision Support System for Smart U-Parking Planning

Authors: Jun-Ho Park, Kwang-Woo Nam, Seung-Mo Hong, Tae-Heon Moon, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to build ‘Ubi-Net’, a decision-making support system for systematic establishment in U-City planning. We have experienced various urban problems caused by high-density development and population concentrations in established urban areas. To address these problems, a U-Service contributes to the alleviation of urban problems by providing real-time information to citizens through network connections and related information. However, technology, devices, and information for consumers are required for systematic U-Service planning in towns and cities where there are many difficulties in this regard, and a lack of reference systems. Thus, this study suggests methods to support the establishment of sustainable planning by providing comprehensive information including IT technology, devices, news, and social networking services (SNS) to U-City planners through intelligent searches. In this study, we targeted Smart U-Parking Planning to solve parking problems in an ‘old’ city. Through this study, we sought to contribute to supporting advances in U-Space and the alleviation of urban problems.

Keywords: Design and decision support system, smart U-parking planning, social network analysis.

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5 Effect of Endplate Shape on Performance and Stability of Wings-in Ground (WIG) Craft

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Chol Ho Hong, Kwang Soo Kim, Juhee Lee

Abstract:

Numerical analysis for the aerodynamic characteristics of the WIG (wing-in ground effect) craft with highly cambered and aspect ratio of one is performed to predict the ground effect for the case of with- and without- lower-extension endplate. The analysis is included varying angles of attack from 0 to10 deg. and ground clearances from 5% of chord to 50%. Due to the ground effect, the lift by rising in pressure on the lower surface is increased and the influence of wing-tip vortices is decreased. These two significant effects improve the lift-drag ratio. On the other hand, the endplate prevents the high-pressure air escaping from the air cushion at the wing tip and causes to increase the lift and lift-drag ratio further. It is found from the visualization of computation results that two wing-tip vortices are generated from each surface of the wing tip and their strength are weak and diminished rapidly. Irodov-s criteria are also evaluated to investigate the static height stability. The comparison of Irodov-s criteria shows that the endplate improves the deviation of the static height stability with respect to pitch angles and heights. As the results, the endplate can improve the aerodynamic characteristics and static height stability of wings in ground effect, simultaneously.

Keywords: WIG craft, Endplate, Ground Effect, Aerodynamics, CFD, Lift-drag ratio, Static height stability.

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4 Analysis of the Energetic Feature of the Loaded Gait with Variation of the Trunk Flexion Angle

Authors: Ji-il Park, Hyungtae Seo, Jihyuk Park, Kwang jin Choi, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of the research is to investigate the energetic feature of the backpack load on soldier’s gait with variation of the trunk flexion angle. It is believed that the trunk flexion variation of the loaded gait may cause a significant difference in the energy cost which is often in practice in daily life. To this end, seven healthy Korea military personnel participated in the experiment and are tested under three different walking postures comprised of the small, natural and large trunk flexion. There are around 5 degree differences of waist angle between each trunk flexion. The ground reaction forces were collected from the force plates and motion kinematic data are measured by the motion capture system. Based on these data, the impulses, momentums and mechanical works done on the center of body mass (COM) during the double support phase were computed. The result shows that the push-off and heel strike impulse are not relevant to the trunk flexion change, however the mechanical work by the push-off and heel strike were changed by the trunk flexion variation. It is because the vertical velocity of the COM during the double support phase is increased significantly with an increase in the trunk flexion. Therefore, we can know that the gait efficiency of the loaded gait depends on the trunk flexion angle. Also, even though the gravitational impulse and pre-collision momentum are changed by the trunk flexion variation, the after-collision momentum is almost constant regardless of the trunk flexion variation.

Keywords: Loaded gait, collision, impulse, gravity, heel strike, push-off, gait analysis.

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3 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Sun-Young Heo, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Kwang-Woo Nam

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient (WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention in the case area. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: CCTV, Safe City, Crime Prevention, Spatial Analysis.

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2 An Empirical Investigation on the Dynamics of Knowledge and IT Industries in Korea

Authors: Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon, Youn Taik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam

Abstract:

Knowledge and IT inputs to other industrial production have become more important as a key factor for the competitiveness of national and regional economies, such as knowledge economies in smart cities. Knowledge and IT industries lead the industrial innovation and technical (r)evolution through low cost, high efficiency in production, and by creating a new value chain and new production path chains, which is referred as knowledge and IT dynamics. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and IT dynamics in Korea, which are analyzed through the input-output model and structural path analysis. Twenty-eight industries were reclassified into seven categories; Agriculture and Mining, IT manufacture, Non-IT manufacture, Construction, IT-service, Knowledge service, Non-knowledge service to take close look at the knowledge and IT dynamics. Knowledge and IT dynamics were analyzed through the change of input output coefficient and multiplier indices in terms of technical innovation, as well as the changes of the structural paths of the knowledge and IT to other industries in terms of new production value creation from 1985 and 2010. The structural paths of knowledge and IT explain not only that IT foster the generation, circulation and use of knowledge through IT industries and IT-based service, but also that knowledge encourages IT use through creating, sharing and managing knowledge. As a result, this paper found the empirical investigation on the knowledge and IT dynamics of the Korean economy. Knowledge and IT has played an important role regarding the inter-industrial transactional input for production, as well as new industrial creation. The birth of the input-output production path has mostly originated from the knowledge and IT industries, while the death of the input-output production path took place in the traditional industries from 1985 and 2010. The Korean economy has been in transition to a knowledge economy in the Smart City.

Keywords: Knowledge and IT industries, input-output model, structural path analysis, dynamics of knowledge and IT, knowledge economy, knowledge city, smart city.

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1 The Research of Taiwan Green Building Materials (GBM) system and GBM Eco-Efficiency Model on Climate Change

Authors: Ting-Ting Hsieh, Che-Ming Chiang, Ming-Chin Ho, Kwang-Pang Lai

Abstract:

The globe Sustainability has become the subject of international attention, the key reason is that global climate change. Climate and disasters around the abnormal frequency multiplier, the global temperature of the catastrophe and disaster continue to occur throughout the world, as well as countries around the world. Currently there are many important international conferences and policy, it is a "global environmental sustainability " and "living human health " as the goal of development, including the APEC 2007 meeting to "climate Clean Energy" as the theme Sydney Declaration, 2008 World Economic Forum's "Carbon - promote Cool Earth energy efficiency improvement project", the EU proposed "Green Idea" program, the Japanese annual policy, "low-carbon society, sustainable eco-city environment (Eco City) "And from 2009 to 2010 to promote the "Eco-Point" to promote green energy and carbon reduction products .And the 2010 World Climate Change Conference (COP16 United Nations Climate Change Conference Copenhagen), the world has been the subject of Negative conservative "Environmental Protection ", "save energy consumption, " into a positive response to the "Sustainable " and" LOHAS", while Taiwan has actively put forward eco-cities, green building, green building materials and other related environmental response Measures, especially green building construction environment that is the basis of factors, the most widely used application level, and direct contact with human health and the key to sustainable planet. "Sustainable development "is a necessary condition for continuation of the Earth, "healthy and comfortable" is a necessary condition for the continuation of life, and improve the "quality" is a necessary condition for economic development, balance between the three is "to enhance the efficiency of ", According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) for the "environmental efficiency "(Eco-Efficiency) proposed: " the achievement of environmental efficiency, the price to be competitive in the provision of goods or services to meet people's needs, improve living Quality at the same time, the goods or services throughout the life cycle. Its impact on the environment and natural resource utilization and gradually reduced to the extent the Earth can load. "whichever is the economy "Economic" and " Ecologic". The research into the methodology to obtain the Taiwan Green Building Material Labeling product as the scope of the study, by investigating and weight analysis to explore green building environmental load (Ln) factor and the Green Building Quality (Qn) factor to Establish green building environmental efficiency assessment model (GBM Eco-Efficiency). And building materials for healthy green label products for priority assessment object, the object is set in the material evidence for the direct response to the environmental load from the floor class-based, explicit feedback correction to the Green Building environmental efficiency assessment model, "efficiency " as a starting point to achieve balance between human "health "and Earth "sustainable development of win-win strategy. The study is expected to reach 1.To establish green building materials and the quality of environmental impact assessment system, 2. To establish value of GBM Eco-Efficiency model, 3. To establish the GBM Eco-Efficiency model for application of green building material feedback mechanisms.

Keywords: Climate Change, Green Building Material (GBM), Eco-Efficiency, Life Cycle Assessment, Performance Evaluation

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