**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**163

# Search results for: gravity

##### 163 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

**Authors:**
Danni Cong,
Meiping Wu,
Hua Mu,
Xiaofeng He,
Junxiang Lian,
Juliang Cao,
Shaokun Cai,
Hao Qin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravity gradient,
accelerometer,
gravity gradient sensor,
single-axis rotation modulation.

##### 162 Exploring Solutions in Extended Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

**Authors:**
Aziza Altaibayeva,
Ertan Gudekli,
Ratbay Myrzakulov

**Abstract:**

In this letter, we explore exact solutions for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We use of an extension of this theory with first order dynamical lapse function. The equations of motion have been derived in a fully consistent scenario. We assume that there are some spherically symmetric families of exact solutions of this extended theory of gravity. We obtain exact solutions and investigate the singularity structures of these solutions. Specially, an exact solution with the regular horizon is found.

**Keywords:**
Quantum gravity,
Horava-Lifshitz gravity,
black hole,
spherically symmetric space times.

##### 161 The Evaluation of Gravity Anomalies Based on Global Models by Land Gravity Data

**Authors:**
M. Yilmaz,
I. Yilmaz,
M. Uysal

**Abstract:**

The Earth system generates different phenomena that are observable at the surface of the Earth such as mass deformations and displacements leading to plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanism. The dynamic processes associated with the interior, surface, and atmosphere of the Earth affect the three pillars of geodesy: shape of the Earth, its gravity field, and its rotation. Geodesy establishes a characteristic structure in order to define, monitor, and predict of the whole Earth system. The traditional and new instruments, observables, and techniques in geodesy are related to the gravity field. Therefore, the geodesy monitors the gravity field and its temporal variability in order to transform the geodetic observations made on the physical surface of the Earth into the geometrical surface in which positions are mathematically defined. In this paper, the main components of the gravity field modeling, (Free-air and Bouguer) gravity anomalies are calculated via recent global models (EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO) over a selected study area. The model-based gravity anomalies are compared with the corresponding terrestrial gravity data in terms of standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) for determining the best fit global model in the study area at a regional scale in Turkey. The least SD (13.63 mGal) and RMSE (15.71 mGal) were obtained by EGM2008 for the Free-air gravity anomaly residuals. For the Bouguer gravity anomaly residuals, EIGEN6C4 provides the least SD (8.05 mGal) and RMSE (8.12 mGal). The results indicated that EIGEN6C4 can be a useful tool for modeling the gravity field of the Earth over the study area.

**Keywords:**
Free-air gravity anomaly,
Bouguer gravity anomaly,
global model,
land gravity.

##### 160 Conformal Invariance in F (R, T) Gravity

**Authors:**
Pyotr Tsyba,
Olga Razina,
Ertan Güdekli,
Ratbay Myrzakulov

**Abstract:**

In this paper we consider the equation of motion for the F (R, T) gravity on their property of conformal invariance. It is shown that in the general case, such a theory is not conformal invariant. Studied special cases for the functions v and u in which can appear properties of the theory. Also we consider cosmological aspects F (R, T) theory of gravity, having considered particular case F (R, T) = μR+νT^2. Showed that in this case there is a nonlinear dependence of the parameter equation of state from time to time, which affects its evolution.

**Keywords:**
Conformally invariance,
F (R,
T) gravity,
metric
FRW,
equation of motion,
dark energy.

##### 159 Comparisons of Co-Seismic Gravity Changes between GRACE Observations and the Predictions from the Finite-Fault Models for the 2012 Mw = 8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake Off-Sumatra

**Authors:**
Armin Rahimi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Undersea earthquake,
GRACE observation,
gravity change,
dislocation model,
slip distribution.

##### 158 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

**Authors:**
Meng Wu

**Abstract:**

Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

**Keywords:**
Motion planning,
gravity gradient inversion algorithm,
ant colony optimization.

##### 157 Effect of Concrete Nonlinear Parameters on the Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

**Authors:**
Z. Heirany,
M. Ghaemian

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Numerical methods; concrete gravity dams; finiteelement method; boundary condition

##### 156 Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits

**Authors:**
T. B. Karu Jayasundara

**Abstract:**

Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The ** Wilfley** heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was

*6*

*and 2*

^{0}*respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.*

^{0}**Keywords:**
Anomaly,
gravity,
influence,
mineral.

##### 155 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

**Authors:**
Gbenga F. Akomolafe,
Joseph Omojola,
Ezekiel S. Joshua,
Seyi C. Adediwura,
Elijah T. Adesuji,
Michael O. Odey,
Oyinade A. Dedeke,
Ayo H. Labulo

**Abstract:**

Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

**Keywords:**
Anatomy,
Clinostat,
Germination,
Microgravity,
Lycopersicon esculentum.

##### 154 Study on Liquid Nitrogen Gravity Circulation Loop for Cryopumps in Large Space Simulator

**Authors:**
Weiwei Shan,
Wenjing Ding,
Juan Ning,
Chao He,
Zijuan Wang

**Abstract:**

Gravity circulation loop for the cryopumps of the space simulator is introduced, and two phase mathematic model of flow heat transfer is analyzed as well. Based on this model, the liquid nitrogen (LN_{2}) gravity circulation loop including its equipment and layout is designed and has served as LN_{2} feeding system for cryopumps in one large space simulator. With the help of control software and human machine interface, this system can be operated flexibly, simply, and automatically under four conditions. When running this system, the results show that the cryopumps can be cooled down and maintained under the required temperature, 120 K.

**Keywords:**
Cryopumps,
gravity circulation loop,
liquid nitrogen,
two-phase.

##### 153 Design of Gravity Dam by Genetic Algorithms

**Authors:**
Farzin Salmasi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chromosomes,
dam,
genetic algorithm,
globaloptimum,
preliminary layout,
stress analysis,
theoretical profile.

##### 152 Geopotential Models Evaluation in Algeria Using Stochastic Method, GPS/Leveling and Topographic Data

**Authors:**
M. A. Meslem

**Abstract:**

For precise geoid determination, we use a reference field to subtract long and medium wavelength of the gravity field from observations data when we use the remove-compute-restore technique. Therefore, a comparison study between considered models should be made in order to select the optimal reference gravity field to be used. In this context, two recent global geopotential models have been selected to perform this comparison study over Northern Algeria. The Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) and the Global Gravity Model (GECO) conceived with a combination of the first model with anomalous potential derived from a GOCE satellite-only global model. Free air gravity anomalies in the area under study have been used to compute residual data using both gravity field models and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) to subtract the residual terrain effect from the gravity observations. Residual data were used to generate local empirical covariance functions and their fitting to the closed form in order to compare their statistical behaviors according to both cases. Finally, height anomalies were computed from both geopotential models and compared to a set of GPS levelled points on benchmarks using least squares adjustment. The result described in details in this paper regarding these two models has pointed out a slight advantage of GECO global model globally through error degree variances comparison and ground-truth evaluation.

**Keywords:**
Quasigeoid,
gravity anomalies,
covariance,
GGM.

##### 151 The Influence of Gravity on The Temporal Instability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curved Jets

**Authors:**
Abdullah Madhi Alsharif,
Jamal Uddin

**Abstract:**

A liquid curved jet has many applications in different industrial and engineering processes, such as the prilling process for generating small spherical pellets (fertilizer or magnesium). The liquids used are usually molten and contain small quantities of polymers and therefore can be modelled as non-Newtonian liquids. In this paper, we model the viscoelastic liquid jet by using the Oldroyd- B model. An asymptotic analysis has been used to simplify the governing equations. Furthermore, the trajectory and a linear temporal stability in the presence of gravity and rotation have been determined.

**Keywords:**
gravity,
prilling,
rotation,
viscoelastic jets.

##### 150 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

**Authors:**
Danni Cong,
Meiping Wu,
Xiaofeng He,
Junxiang Lian,
Juliang Cao,
Shaokuncai,
Hao Qin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravity gradient sensor,
radial installation limit error,
accelerometer,
uniaxial rotational modulation.

##### 149 Effect of Particle Gravity on the Fractal Dimension of Particle Line in three-dimensional Turbulent Flows using Kinematic Simulation

**Authors:**
A. Abou El-Azm Aly,
F. Nicolleau,
T. M. Michelitsch,
A. F. Nowakowski

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Heavy particles,
two-phase flow,
Kinematic Simulation,
Fractal dimension.

##### 148 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

**Authors:**
Sana Bembli,
Nahla Khraief Haddad,
Safya Belghith

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Exoskeleton-upper limb system,
gravity compensation,
model free terminal sliding mode,
robustness analysis,
Monte Carlo,
H∞ methods.

##### 147 Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation

**Authors:**
Xin Cheng,
Benny Thörnberg,
Abdul Waheed Malik,
Najeem Lawal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dynamic thresholding,
segmentation,
position measurement,
sub-pixel precision,
center of gravity.

##### 146 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Reservoir Due to Vertical Component of Earthquake Using an Analytical Solution

**Authors:**
M. Pasbani Khiavi,
M. A. Ghorbani

**Abstract:**

This paper presents an analytical solution to get a reliable estimation of the hydrodynamic pressure on gravity dams induced by vertical component earthquake when solving the fluid and dam interaction problem. Presented analytical technique is presented for calculation of earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressure in the reservoir of gravity dams allowing for water compressibility and wave absorption at the reservoir bottom. This new analytical solution can take into account the effect of bottom material on seismic response of gravity dams. It is concluded that because the vertical component of ground motion causes significant hydrodynamic forces in the horizontal direction on a vertical upstream face, responses to the vertical component of ground motion are of special importance in analysis of concrete gravity dams subjected to earthquakes.

**Keywords:**
Dam,
Reservoir,
Analytical solution,
Vertical
component,
Earthquake

##### 145 Biography of the Earth in the Light of the Laws of Classical Physics

**Authors:**
I. V. Kuzminov

**Abstract:**

The proposed article is an analytical review of previously published articles in the series "Physics of Gravity", "The Picture of the World by Second Law of Thermodynamics" and others. The article shows the key role of the forces of gravity and the action of the second law of thermodynamics in shaping the picture of the world. In other words, the second law of thermodynamics can be called the law of matter cooling. The action in the compartment of the inverse temperature dependence of the forces of gravity and the second law of thermodynamics is carried out by the processes of separation, condensation, phase transitions, and transformation of matter. On the basis of the proposed concept, along the way, completely new versions of the development of events in the biography of the Earth are put forward. For example, new versions of the origin of planets, the origin of continents and others are being put forward. This article contains a list of articles and videos that are somehow related to the proposed topic. Articles and videos are presented in English and Russian.

**Keywords:**
Gravity,
the second law of thermodynamics,
electron rotation,
inverse temperature dependence,
inertia forces,
centrifugal forces.

##### 144 Analysis on Influence of Gravity on Convection Heat Transfer in Manned Spacecraft during Terrestrial Test

**Authors:**
Wang Jing,
Tao Tao,
Li Xiyuan,
Pei Yifei

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gravity,
Convection heat transfer,
Manned
spacecraft,
Dimensionless number,
Numerical simulation

##### 143 CFD Simulations of Flow in Capillary Flow Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

**Authors:**
John B. McQuillen,
David F. Chao,
Nancy R. Hall,
Brian J. Motil,
Nengli Zhang

**Abstract:**

Future space vehicles will require the use of non-toxic, cryogenic propellants, because of the performance advantages over the toxic hypergolic propellants and also because of the environmental and handling concerns. A prototypical capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations with different submersion depths of the LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel, including horizontally and vertically submersions of the LAD channel assembly at normal gravity environment was conducted. Gravity effects on the flow field in LAD channel are inspected and analyzed through comparing the simulations.

**Keywords:**
Liquid acquisition device,
cryogenic propellants,
CFD simulation,
vertically submerged screen channel,
gravity effects.

##### 142 Concrete Gravity Dams and Traveling Wave Effect along Reservoir Bottom

**Authors:**
H. Mirzabozorg,
M. Varmazyari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Concrete gravity dam,
dam-reservoir-foundation interaction,
traveling wave,
damage mechanics.

##### 141 Deployment of a Biocompatible International Space Station into Geostationary Orbit

**Authors:**
Tim Falk,
Chris Chatwin

**Abstract:**

This study explores the possibility of a space station that will occupy a geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) and create artificial gravity using centripetal acceleration. The concept of the station is to create a habitable, safe environment that can increase the possibility of space tourism by reducing the wide variation of hazards associated with space exploration. The ability to control the intensity of artificial gravity through Hall-effect thrusters will allow experiments to be carried out at different levels of artificial gravity. A feasible prototype model was built to convey the concept and to enable cost estimation. The SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket with a 26,700 kg payload to GEO was selected to take the 675 tonne spacecraft into orbit; space station construction will require up to 30 launches, this would be reduced to 5 launches when the SpaceX BFR becomes available. The estimated total cost of implementing the Sussex Biocompatible International Space Station (BISS) is approximately $47.039 billion, which is very attractive when compared to the cost of the International Space Station, which cost $150 billion.

**Keywords:**
Artificial gravity,
biocompatible,
geostationary orbit,
space station.

##### 140 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

**Authors:**
T. B. Karu Jayasundara

**Abstract:**

The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

**Keywords:**
Dust particles,
high and low tides,
heavy minerals. low gravity.

##### 139 A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method

**Authors:**
Shidvash Vakilipour,
Scott Ormiston,
Masoud Mohammadi,
Rouzbeh Riazi,
Kimia Amiri,
Sahar Barati

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Coupled solver,
gravitational force,
interface tracking,
Reynolds number to Froude number,
two-phase flow.

##### 138 Equal Sharing Solutions for Bicooperative Games

**Authors:**
Fan-Yong Meng,
Yan Wang

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we discuss the egalitarianism solution (ES) and center-of-gravity of the imputation-set value (CIV) for bicooperative games, which can be seen as the extensions of the solutions for traditional games given by Dutta and Ray [1] and Driessen and Funaki [2]. Furthermore, axiomatic systems for the given values are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is offered to illustrate the player ES and CTV.

**Keywords:**
Bicooperative games,
egalitarianism solution,
center of- gravity of the imputation-set value.

##### 137 3D High-Precision Tunnel Gravity Exploration Method for Concealed High-Density Ore-Bodies: A Case Study on the Zhaotong Maoping Carbonate-Hosted Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) Deposit in Northeastern Yunnan, China

**Authors:**
Han Run-Sheng,
Li Wen-Yao,
Wang Feng,
Liu Fei,
Qiu Wen-Long,
Lei Li

**Abstract:**

Accurately positioning detection of concealed deposits or ore-bodies is one of the difficult problems in mineral exploration field. Theory calculation and exploration practices for tunnel gravity indicate that 3D high-precision Tunnel Gravity Exploration Method (TGEM) can find concealed high-density three-dimensional ore-bodies in the depth. The ore-finding breakthroughs at the depth of the Zhaotong Maoping carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb–(Ag–Ge) deposit in Northeastern Yunnan have proved that the exploration method in combination with MEAHFZ method is effective to detect concealed high-density ore-bodies. TGEM may overcome anomalous ambiguity of other geophysical methods for 3D positioning of concealed ore-bodies.

**Keywords:**
3D tunnel gravity exploration method,
concealed high-density ore-bodies,
Zn–Pb–(Ag–Ge) deposit,
Zaotong Maoping,
Northeastern Yunnan.

##### 136 Picture of the World by the Second Law of Thermodynamics

**Authors:**
I. V. Kuzminov

**Abstract:**

According to its content, the proposed article is a collection of articles with comments and additions. All articles, in one way or another, have a connection with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The content of the articles is given in a concise form. The articles were published in different journals at different times. Main topics are presented: gravity, biography of the Earth, physics of global warming-cooling cycles, multiverse. The articles are based on the laws of classical physics. Along the way, it should be noted that the Second Law of Thermodynamics can be formulated as the Law of Matter Cooling. As it cools down, the processes of condensation, separation, and changes in the aggregate states of matter occur. In accordance with these changes, a picture of the world is being formed. Also, the main driving force of these processes is the inverse temperature dependence of the forces of gravity. As matter cools, the forces of gravity increase. The actions of these phenomena in the compartment form a picture of the world.

**Keywords:**
Gravitational forces,
cooling of matter,
second law of thermodynamics,
planetary model of the atom.

##### 135 Investigation of Buoyant Parameters of k-ε Turbulence Model in Gravity Stratified Flows

**Authors:**
A. Majid Bahari,
Kourosh Hejazi

**Abstract:**

Different variants for buoyancy-affected terms in k-ε turbulence model have been utilized to predict the flow parameters more accurately, and investigate applicability of alternative k-ε turbulence buoyant closures in numerical simulation of a horizontal gravity current. The additional non-isotropic turbulent stress due to buoyancy has been considered in production term, based on Algebraic Stress Model (ASM). In order to account for turbulent scalar fluxes, general gradient diffusion hypothesis has been used along with Boussinesq gradient diffusion hypothesis with a variable turbulent Schmidt number and additional empirical constant c3ε.To simulate buoyant flow domain a 2D vertical numerical model (WISE, Width Integrated Stratified Environments), based on Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, has been deployed and the model has been further developed for different k-ε turbulence closures. Results are compared against measured laboratory values of a saline gravity current to explore the efficient turbulence model.

**Keywords:**
Buoyant flows,
Buoyant k-ε turbulence model,
saline gravity current.

##### 134 Artificial Neural Network Modeling and Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Hydraulic Design Related to Seepage under Concrete Gravity Dams on Permeable Soils

**Authors:**
Muqdad Al-Juboori,
Bithin Datta

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Artificial neural network,
concrete gravity dam,
genetic algorithm,
seepage analysis.