Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1917

Search results for: High power laser

1917 Laser Excited Nuclear γ -Source of High Spectral Brightness

Authors: A. Аndreev, Yu. Rozhdestvenskii, К. Platonov, R. Salomaa

Abstract:

This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.

Keywords: High power laser, short pulse, fast particles, isomertarget.

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1916 CART Method for Modeling the Output Power of Copper Bromide Laser

Authors: Iliycho P. Iliev, Desislava S. Voynikova, Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva

Abstract:

This paper examines the available experiment data for a copper bromide vapor laser (CuBr laser), emitting at two wavelengths - 510.6 and 578.2nm. Laser output power is estimated based on 10 independent input physical parameters. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is obtained which describes 97% of data. The resulting binary CART tree specifies which input parameters influence considerably each of the classification groups. This allows for a technical assessment that indicates which of these are the most significant for the manufacture and operation of the type of laser under consideration. The predicted values of the laser output power are also obtained depending on classification. This aids the design and development processes considerably.

Keywords: Classification and regression trees (CART), Copper Bromide laser (CuBr laser), laser generation, nonparametric statistical model.

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1915 Flexible Laser Reduced Graphene Oxide/ MnO2 Electrode for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Ingy N. Bkrey, Ahmed A. Moniem

Abstract:

We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.

Keywords: Electrode Deposition, Flexible, Graphene oxide, Graphene, High Power CO2 Laser, MnO2.

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1914 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”

Keywords: Flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron.

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1913 Effect of Laser Power and Powder Flow Rate on Properties of Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V

Authors: Mukul Shukla, Rasheedat M. Mahamood, Esther T. Akinlabi, Sisa. Pityana

Abstract:

Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing process with capabilities that include: producing new part directly from 3 Dimensional Computer Aided Design (3D CAD) model, building new part on the existing old component and repairing an existing high valued component parts that would have been discarded in the past. With all these capabilities and its advantages over other additive manufacturing techniques, the underlying physics of the LMD process is yet to be fully understood probably because of high interaction between the processing parameters and studying many parameters at the same time makes it further complex to understand. In this study, the effect of laser power and powder flow rate on physical properties (deposition height and deposition width), metallurgical property (microstructure) and mechanical (microhardness) properties on laser deposited most widely used aerospace alloy are studied. Also, because the Ti6Al4V is very expensive, and LMD is capable of reducing buy-to-fly ratio of aerospace parts, the material utilization efficiency is also studied. Four sets of experiments were performed and repeated to establish repeatability using laser power of 1.8 kW and 3.0 kW, powder flow rate of 2.88 g/min and 5.67 g/min, and keeping the gas flow rate and scanning speed constant at 2 l/min and 0.005 m/s respectively. The deposition height / width are found to increase with increase in laser power and increase in powder flow rate. The material utilization is favoured by higher power while higher powder flow rate reduces material utilization. The results are presented and fully discussed.

Keywords: Laser Metal Deposition, Material Efficiency, Microstructure, Ti6Al4V.

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1912 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: Laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power.

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1911 Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers

Authors: R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e. 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.

Keywords: Power distribution, megasonic sweeping, thickness mode transducers, cavitation intensity, particle removal, laser particle counting, nano, submicron.

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1910 Design of Direct Power Controller for a High Power Neutral Point Clamped Converter Using Real Time Simulator

Authors: Amin Zabihinejad, Philippe Viarouge

Abstract:

In this paper, a direct power control (DPC) strategies have been investigated in order to control a high power AC/DC converter with time variable load. This converter is composed of a three level three phase neutral point clamped (NPC) converter as rectifier and an H-bridge four quadrant current control converter. In the high power application, controller not only must adjust the desire outputs but also decrease the level of distortions which are injected to the network from the converter. Regarding to this reason and nonlinearity of the power electronic converter, the conventional controllers cannot achieve appropriate responses. In this research, the precise mathematical analysis has been employed to design the appropriate controller in order to control the time variable load. A DPC controller has been proposed and simulated using Matlab/ Simulink. In order to verify the simulation result, a real time simulator- OPAL-RT- has been employed. In this paper, the dynamic response and stability of the high power NPC with variable load has been investigated and compared with conventional types using a real time simulator. The results proved that the DPC controller is more stable and has more precise outputs in comparison with conventional controller.

Keywords: Direct Power Control, Three Level Rectifier, Real Time Simulator, High Power Application.

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1909 High Performance In0.42Ga0.58As/In0.26Ga0.74As Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Quantum Well Laser on In0.31Ga0.69As Ternary Substrate

Authors: Md. M. Biswas, Md. M. Hossain, Shaikh Nuruddin

Abstract:

This paper reports on the theoretical performance analysis of the 1.3 μm In0.42Ga0.58As /In0.26Ga0.74As multiple quantum well (MQW) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) on the ternary In0.31Ga0.69As substrate. The output power of 2.2 mW has been obtained at room temperature for 7.5 mA injection current. The material gain has been estimated to be ~3156 cm-1 at room temperature with the injection carrier concentration of 2×1017 cm-3. The modulation bandwidth of this laser is measured to be 9.34 GHz at room temperature for the biasing current of 2 mA above the threshold value. The outcomes reveal that the proposed InGaAsbased MQW laser is the promising one for optical communication system.

Keywords: Quantum well, VCSEL, output power, materialgain, modulation bandwidth.

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1908 High Energy Dual-Wavelength Mid-Infrared Extracavity KTA Optical Parametric Oscillator

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Qibing Sun, Nan Huang, Shaolan Zhu, Wei Zhao

Abstract:

A high energy dual-wavelength extracavity KTA optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with excellent stability and beam quality, which is pumped by a Q-switched single-longitudinal-mode Nd:YAG laser, has been demonstrated based on a type II noncritical phase matching (NCPM) KTA crystal. The maximum pulse energy of 10.2 mJ with the output stability of better than 4.1% rms at 3.467 μm is obtained at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 2 ns, and the 11.9 mJ of 1.535 μm radiation is obtained simultaneously. This extracavity NCPM KTA OPO is very useful when high energy, high beam quality and smooth time domain are needed.

Keywords: mid-infrared laser, OPO, dual-wavelength laser

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1907 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ∼72% PAE and output power of >39dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The loadand source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), GaN HEMT, Class-J and Class-E, High Efficiency.

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1906 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: Laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load.

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1905 Compact Tunable 10 W picosecond Sourcebased on Yb-doped Fiber Amplification of Gain Switch Laser Diode

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Cunxiao Gao, Jintao Tao, Wei Zhao, Yishan Wang

Abstract:

A compact tunable 10 W picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode has been demonstrated. A gain switch semiconductor laser diode was used as the seed source, and a multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with two large mode area double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifiers to construct the amplification system. The tunable pulses with high stability and excellent beam quality (M2<1.2) of 10 W average power 150 ps pulse duration at 1 MHz repetition rate were obtained. The central wavelength with the line width of 2.5-3 nm was tunable from 1053 nm to 1073 nm.

Keywords: Fiber laser, fiber amplifier, picosecond laser, highpower laser

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1904 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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1903 Industrial Applications of Laser Engraving: Influence of the Process Parameters on Machined Surface Quality

Authors: F.Agalianos, S.Patelis , P. Kyratsis, E. Maravelakis, E.Vasarmidis, A.Antoniadis

Abstract:

Laser engraving is a manufacturing method for those applications where previously Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) was the only choice. Laser engraving technology removes material layer-by-layer and the thickness of layers is usually in the range of few microns. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of the process parameters on the surface quality when machined by laser engraving. The examined parameters were: the pulse frequency, the beam speed and the layer thickness. The surface quality was determined by the surface roughness for every set of parameters. Experimental results on Al7075 material showed that the surface roughness strictly depends on the process parameters used.

Keywords: Laser engraving, Al7075, Yb: YAG laser, laser process parameters, material roughness.

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1902 Two New Low Power High Performance Full Adders with Minimum Gates

Authors: M.Hosseinghadiry, H. Mohammadi, M.Nadisenejani

Abstract:

with increasing circuits- complexity and demand to use portable devices, power consumption is one of the most important parameters these days. Full adders are the basic block of many circuits. Therefore reducing power consumption in full adders is very important in low power circuits. One of the most powerconsuming modules in full adders is XOR/XNOR circuit. This paper presents two new full adders based on two new logic approaches. The proposed logic approaches use one XOR or XNOR gate to implement a full adder cell. Therefore, delay and power will be decreased. Using two new approaches and two XOR and XNOR gates, two new full adders have been implemented in this paper. Simulations are carried out by HSPICE in 0.18μm bulk technology with 1.8V supply voltage. The results show that the ten-transistors proposed full adder has 12% less power consumption and is 5% faster in comparison to MB12T full adder. 9T is more efficient in area and is 24% better than similar 10T full adder in term of power consumption. The main drawback of the proposed circuits is output threshold loss problem.

Keywords: Full adder, XNOR, Low power, High performance, Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit.

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1901 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Safwat W. Z. Mahmoud

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: Bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser.

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1900 Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter

Authors: B. Sathyanandhi, P. M. Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can  take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant  circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to  presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.  Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.

Keywords: Buck-boost converter, High switching frequency, Power factor correction, power factor correction stage Regulation stage, Total harmonic distortion (THD).

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1899 Negative Slope Ramp Carrier Control for High Power Factor Boost Converters in CCM Operation

Authors: T. Tanitteerapan, E.Thanpo

Abstract:

This paper, a simple continuous conduction mode (CCM) pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controller for high power factor boost converters is introduced. The duty ratios were obtained by the comparison of a sensed signal from inductor current or switch current and a negative slope ramp carrier waveform in each switching period. Due to the proposed control requires only the inductor current or switch current sensor and the output voltage sensor, its circuit implementation was very simple. To verify the proposed control, the circuit experimentation of a 350 W boost converter with the proposed control was applied. From the results, the input current waveform was shaped to be closely sinusoidal, implying high power factor and low harmonics.

Keywords: High power factor converters, boost converters, low harmonic rectifiers, power factor correction, and current control.

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1898 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting.

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1897 A Novel Low Power Very Low Voltage High Performance Current Mirror

Authors: Khalil Monfaredi, Hassan Faraji Baghtash, Majid Abbasi

Abstract:

In this paper a novel high output impedance, low input impedance, wide bandwidth, very simple current mirror with input and output voltage requirements less than that of a simple current mirror is presented. These features are achieved with very simple structure avoiding extra large node impedances to ensure high bandwidth operation. The circuit's principle of operation is discussed and compared to simple and low voltage cascode (LVC) current mirrors. Such outstanding features of this current mirror as high output impedance ~384K, low input impedance~6.4, wide bandwidth~178MHz, low input voltage ~ 362mV, low output voltage ~ 38mV and low current transfer error ~4% (all at 50μA) makes it an outstanding choice for high performance applications. Simulation results in BSIM 0.35μm CMOS technology with HSPICE are given in comparison with simple, and LVC current mirrors to verify and validate the performance of the proposed current mirror.

Keywords: Analog circuits, Current mirror, high frequency, Low power, Low voltage.

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1896 Laser Transmission through Vegetative Material

Authors: Juliana A. Fracarolli, Adilson M. Enes, Inácio M. Dal Fabbro, Silvestre Rodrigues

Abstract:

The dynamic speckle or biospeckle is an interference phenomenon generated at the reflection of a coherent light by an active surface or even by a particulate or living body surface. The above mentioned phenomenon gave scientific support to a method named biospeckle which has been employed to study seed viability, biological activity, tissue senescence, tissue water content, fruit bruising, etc. Since the above mentioned method is not invasive and yields numerical values, it can be considered for possible automation associated to several processes, including selection and sorting. Based on these preliminary considerations, this research work proposed to study the interaction of a laser beam with vegetative samples by measuring the incident light intensity and the transmitted light beam intensity at several vegetative slabs of varying thickness. Tests were carried on fifteen slices of apple tissue divided into three thickness groups, i.e., 4 mm, 5 mm, 18 mm and 22 mm. A diode laser beam of 10mW and 632 nm wavelength and a Samsung digital camera were employed to carry the tests. Outgoing images were analyzed by comparing the gray gradient of a fixed image column of each image to obtain a laser penetration scale into the tissue, according to the slice thickness.

Keywords: Fruit, laser, laser transmission, vegetative tissue.

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1895 Power Line Carrier for Power Telemetering

Authors: Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Uthai Jaithong, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of power line carrier (PLC) for electrical power telemetering. This system has a special capability of transmitting the measured values to a centralized computer via power lines. The PLC modem as a passive high-pass filter is designed for transmitting and receiving information. Its function is to send the information carrier together with transmitted data by superimposing it on the 50 Hz power frequency signal. A microcontroller is employed to function as the main processing of the modem. It is programmed for PLC control and interfacing with other devices. Each power meter, connected via a PLC modem, is assigned with a unique identification number (address) for distinguishing each device from one another.

Keywords: Power telemetering, Power line carrier, High-passfilter, Digital data transmission

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1894 New Design Methodologies for High Speed Low Power XOR-XNOR Circuits

Authors: Shiv Shankar Mishra, S. Wairya, R. K. Nagaria, S. Tiwari

Abstract:

New methodologies for XOR-XNOR circuits are proposed to improve the speed and power as these circuits are basic building blocks of many arithmetic circuits. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of various XOR-XNOR circuits. The performance of the XOR-XNOR circuits based on TSMC 0.18μm process models at all range of the supply voltage starting from 0.6V to 3.3V is evaluated by the comparison of the simulation results obtained from HSPICE. Simulation results reveal that the proposed circuit exhibit lower PDP and EDP, more power efficient and faster when compared with best available XOR-XNOR circuits in the literature.

Keywords: Exclusive-OR (XOR), Exclusive-NOR (XNOR), High speed, Low power, Arithmetic Circuits.

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1893 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: Channel simulation, electromagnetic simulation, power-aware signal integrity analysis, power integrity, PIPro.

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1892 RF Power Consumption Emulation Optimized with Interval Valued Homotopies

Authors: Deogratius Musiige, François Anton, Vital Yatskevich, Laulagnet Vincent, Darka Mioc, Nguyen Pierre

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions. The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power consumption of the RF device operating at 5MHz using homotopy between 2 continuous power consumptions of the RF device operating at the bandwidths 3MHz and 10MHz.

Keywords: Radio frequency, high power amplifier, baseband, LTE, power, emulation, homotopy, interval analysis, Tx power, register-transfer level.

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1891 A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application

Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Yu, Muthukumaraswamy Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.

Keywords: DC-DC power conversion, digital control, high temperatures, pulse-width modulation.

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1890 Design and Study of a DC/DC Converter for High Power, 14.4 V and 300 A for Automotive Applications

Authors: Julio Cesar Lopes de Oliveira, Carlos Henrique Gonc¸alves Treviso

Abstract:

The shortage of the automotive market in relation to options for sources of high power car audio systems, led to development of this work. Thus, we developed a source with stabilized voltage with 4320 W effective power. Designed to the voltage of 14.4 V and a choice of two currents: 30 A load option in battery banks and 300 A at full load. This source can also be considered as a source of general use dedicated commercial with a simple control circuit in analog form based on discrete components. The assembly of power circuit uses a methodology for higher power than the initially stipulated.

Keywords: DC-DC power converters, converters, power convertion, pulse width modulation converters.

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1889 Parameter Optimization and Thermal Simulation in Laser Joining of Coach Peel Panels of Dissimilar Materials

Authors: Masoud Mohammadpour, Blair Carlson, Radovan Kovacevic

Abstract:

The quality of laser welded-brazed (LWB) joints were strongly dependent on the main process parameters, therefore the effect of laser power (3.2–4 kW), welding speed (60–80 mm/s) and wire feed rate (70–90 mm/s) on mechanical strength and surface roughness were investigated in this study. The comprehensive optimization process by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function was used for multi-criteria optimization. The experiments were planned based on Box– Behnken design implementing linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the desired output properties. Finally, validation experiments were conducted on an optimized process condition which exhibited good agreement between the predicted and experimental results. AlSi3Mn1 was selected as the filler material for joining aluminum alloy 6022 and hot-dip galvanized steel in coach peel configuration. The high scanning speed could control the thickness of IMC as thin as 5 µm. The thermal simulations of joining process were conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), and results were validated through experimental data. The Fe/Al interfacial thermal history evidenced that the duration of critical temperature range (700–900 °C) in this high scanning speed process was less than 1 s. This short interaction time leads to the formation of reaction-control IMC layer instead of diffusion-control mechanisms.

Keywords: Laser welding-brazing, finite element, response surface methodology, multi-response optimization, cross-beam laser.

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1888 Effect of CW Laser Annealing on Silicon Surface for Application of Power Device

Authors: Satoru Kaneko, Takeshi Ito, Kensuke Akiyama, Manabu Yasui, Chihiro Kato, Satomi Tanaka, Yasuo Hirabayashi, Takeshi Ozawa, Akira Matsuno, Takashi Nire, Hiroshi Funakubo, Mamoru Yoshimoto

Abstract:

As application of re-activation of backside on power device Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT), laser annealing was employed to irradiate amorphous silicon substrate, and resistivities were measured using four point probe measurement. For annealing the amorphous silicon two lasers were used at wavelength of visible green (532 nm) together with Infrared (793 nm). While the green laser efficiently increased temperature at top surface the Infrared laser reached more deep inside and was effective for melting the top surface. A finite element method was employed to evaluate time dependent thermal distribution in silicon substrate.

Keywords: laser, annealing, silicon, recrystallization, thermal distribution, resistivity, finite element method, absorption, melting point, latent heat of fusion.

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