Search results for: All-silicon raman laser
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 354

Search results for: All-silicon raman laser

354 All-Silicon Raman Laser with Quasi-Phase-Matched Structures and Resonators

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

The principle of all-silicon Raman lasers for an output wavelength of 1.3 μm is presented, which employs quasi-phase-matched structures and resonators to enhance the output power. 1.3-μm laser beams for GE-PONs in FTTH systems generated from a silicon device are very important because such a silicon device can be monolithically integrated with the silicon planar lightwave circuits (Si PLCs) used in the GE-PONs. This reduces the device fabrication processes and time and also optical losses at the junctions between optical waveguides of the Si PLCs and Si laser devices when compared with 1.3-μm III-V semiconductor lasers set on the Si PLCs employed at present. We show that the quasi-phase-matched Si Raman laser with resonators can produce about 174 times larger laser power at 1.3 μm (at maximum) than that without resonators for a Si waveguide of Raman gain 20 cm/GW and optical loss 1.2 dB/cm, pumped at power 10 mW, where the length of the waveguide is 3 mm and its cross-section is (1.5 μm)2.

Keywords: All-silicon raman laser, FTTH, GE-PON, quasi-phase-matched structure, resonator.

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353 Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure

Authors: A. Arya, R. Laha, V. R. Dantham

Abstract:

We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.

Keywords: Localized surface plasmons, photonic nanojet, SERS, whispering gallery mode.

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352 Utilization of Laser-Ablation Based Analytical Methods for Obtaining Complete Chemical Information of Algae

Authors: Pavel Pořízka, David Prochazka, Karel Novotný, Ota Samek, ZdeněkPilát, Klára Procházková, and Jozef Kaiser

Abstract:

Themain goal of this article is to find efficient methods for elemental and molecular analysis of living microorganisms (algae) under defined environmental conditions and cultivation processes. The overall knowledge of chemical composition is obtained utilizing laser-based techniques, Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for acquiring information about elemental composition and Raman Spectroscopy for gaining molecular information, respectively. Algal cells were suspended in liquid media and characterized using their spectra. Results obtained employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy techniques will help to elucidate algae biology (nutrition dynamics depending on cultivation conditions) and to identify algal strains, which have the potential for applications in metal-ion absorption (bioremediation) and biofuel industry. Moreover, bioremediation can be readily combined with production of 3rd generation biofuels. In order to use algae for efficient fuel production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determinedleading to high production of oil in selected cellswithout significant inhibition of the photosynthetic activity and the culture growth rate, e.g. it is necessary to distinguish conditions for algal strain containing high amount of higher unsaturated fatty acids. Measurements employing LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy were utilized in order to give information about alga Trachydiscusminutus with emphasis on the amount of the lipid content inside the algal cell and the ability of algae to withdraw nutrients from its environment and bioremediation (elemental composition), respectively. This article can serve as the reference for further efforts in describing complete chemical composition of algal samples employing laserablation techniques.

Keywords: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Algae, Algal strains, Bioremediation, Biofuels.

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351 Characterization of a Pure Diamond-Like Carbon Film Deposited by Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Camilla G. Goncalves, Benedito Christ, Walter Miyakawa, Antonio J. Abdalla

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the properties and microstructure of diamond-like carbon film deposited by pulsed laser deposition by ablation of a graphite target in a vacuum chamber on a steel substrate. The equipment was mounted to provide one laser beam. The target of high purity graphite and the steel substrate were polished. The mechanical and tribological properties of the film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation test, scratch test, roughness profile, tribometer, optical microscopy and SEM images. It was concluded that the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique associated with the low-pressure chamber and a graphite target provides a good fraction of sp3 bonding, that the process variable as surface polishing and laser parameter have great influence in tribological properties and in adherence tests performance. The optical microscopy images are efficient to identify the metallurgical bond.

Keywords: Characterization, diamond-like carbon, DLC, mechanical properties, pulsed laser deposition.

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350 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: A. Emre Ozturk, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

Autonomous robotic systems need an equipment like a human eye for their movement. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been designed and implemented for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper.

Keywords: 3D Laser Scanner, embedded systems.

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349 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Deformation, Laser forming, Mechanisms, Titanium, Titanium alloy.

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348 Optimal Design of Flat – Gain Wide-Band Discrete Raman Amplifiers

Authors: Banaz Omer Rasheed, Parexan M. Aljaff

Abstract:

In this paper, a wide band gain–flattened discrete Raman amplifiers utilizing four optimum pump wavelengths is demonstrated.

Keywords: Fiber Raman Amplifiers, Optimization, WaveLength Division Multiplexing.

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347 Compact Er3+-Doped ZBLAN Green Upconversion Fibre Laser

Authors: Syed Sohail Abbas, Sergei Popov

Abstract:

In this paper, a fibre laser at 546 nm has been studied for a signal power of -30 dB. Er3+-doped ZBLAN fibre has been used by upconversion pumping of a 980 nm laser diode. Gain saturation effect has been investigated in detail. Laser performance has also been discussed. An efficiency of 35% has been calculated with a length of 5 mm fibre laser. Results show that Er3+-doped ZBLAN is a promising candidate for optical amplification at 546 nm.

Keywords: Compact visible lasers, Erbium doped, Gainsaturation, Green laser, Optical fibre lasers

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346 Raman Scattering and PL Studies on AlGaN/GaN HEMT Layers on 200 mm Si(111)

Authors: W. Z. Wang, S. Todd, S. B. Dolmanan, K. B. Lee, L. Yuan, H. F. Sun, S. L. Selvaraj, M.Krishnakumar, G. Q. Lo, S. Tripathy

Abstract:

The crystalline quality of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown on a 200 mm silicon substrate has been investigated using UV-visible micro- Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The visible Raman scattering probes the whole nitride stack with the Si substrate and shows the presence of a small component of residual in-plane stress in the thick GaN buffer resulting from a wafer bowing, while the UV micro-Raman indicates a tensile interfacial stress induced at the top GaN/AlGaN/AlN layers. PL shows a good crystal quality GaN channel where the yellow band intensity is very low compared to that of the near-band-edge transition. The uniformity of this sample is shown by measurements from several points across the epiwafer.

Keywords: Raman, photo luminescence, AlGaN/GaN, HEMT.

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345 CART Method for Modeling the Output Power of Copper Bromide Laser

Authors: Iliycho P. Iliev, Desislava S. Voynikova, Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva

Abstract:

This paper examines the available experiment data for a copper bromide vapor laser (CuBr laser), emitting at two wavelengths - 510.6 and 578.2nm. Laser output power is estimated based on 10 independent input physical parameters. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is obtained which describes 97% of data. The resulting binary CART tree specifies which input parameters influence considerably each of the classification groups. This allows for a technical assessment that indicates which of these are the most significant for the manufacture and operation of the type of laser under consideration. The predicted values of the laser output power are also obtained depending on classification. This aids the design and development processes considerably.

Keywords: Classification and regression trees (CART), Copper Bromide laser (CuBr laser), laser generation, nonparametric statistical model.

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344 Development of a Water-Jet Assisted Underwater Laser Cutting Process

Authors: Suvradip Mullick, Yuvraj K. Madhukar, Subhranshu Roy, Ashish K. Nath

Abstract:

We present the development of a new underwater laser cutting process in which a water-jet has been used along with the laser beam to remove the molten material through kerf. The conventional underwater laser cutting usually utilizes a high pressure gas jet along with laser beam to create a dry condition in the cutting zone and also to eject out the molten material. This causes a lot of gas bubbles and turbulence in water, and produces aerosols and waste gas. This may cause contamination in the surrounding atmosphere while cutting radioactive components like burnt nuclear fuel. The water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting process produces much less turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere. Some amount of water vapor bubbles is formed at the laser-metal-water interface; however, they tend to condense as they rise up through the surrounding water. We present the design and development of a water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting head and the parametric study of the cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with a 2 kW CW fiber laser. The cutting performance is similar to that of the gas assist laser cutting; however, the process efficiency is reduced due to heat convection by water-jet and laser beam scattering by vapor. This process may be attractive for underwater cutting of nuclear reactor components.

Keywords: Laser, underwater cutting, water-jet.

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343 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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342 Studies on Ti/Al Sheet Joint Using Laser Beam Welding – A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N. M. Nagarajan, N. Mathiyazagan

Abstract:

Laser beam welding has wide acceptability due to least welding distortion, low labour costs and convenient operation. However, laser welding for dissimilar titanium and aluminium alloys is a new area which is having wider applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The present study is concerned with welding parameters namely laser power, welding speed, focusing distance and type of shielding gas and thereby evaluate welding performance of titanium and aluminium alloy thin sheets. This paper reviews the basic concepts associated with different parameters of Ti/Al sheet joint using Laser beam welding.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Dissimilar joining Titanium and Aluminum sheets.

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341 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid

Abstract:

Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming.

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340 Industrial Applications of Laser Engraving: Influence of the Process Parameters on Machined Surface Quality

Authors: F.Agalianos, S.Patelis , P. Kyratsis, E. Maravelakis, E.Vasarmidis, A.Antoniadis

Abstract:

Laser engraving is a manufacturing method for those applications where previously Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) was the only choice. Laser engraving technology removes material layer-by-layer and the thickness of layers is usually in the range of few microns. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of the process parameters on the surface quality when machined by laser engraving. The examined parameters were: the pulse frequency, the beam speed and the layer thickness. The surface quality was determined by the surface roughness for every set of parameters. Experimental results on Al7075 material showed that the surface roughness strictly depends on the process parameters used.

Keywords: Laser engraving, Al7075, Yb: YAG laser, laser process parameters, material roughness.

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339 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: Laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load.

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338 An Approach to Flatten the Gain of Fiber Raman Amplifiers with Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, gain, pumping, WDM.

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337 Simulation of Laser Structuring by Three Dimensional Heat Transfer Model

Authors: Bassim Bachy, Joerg Franke

Abstract:

In this study, a three dimensional numerical heat transfer model has been used to simulate the laser structuring of polymer substrate material in the Three-Dimensional Molded Interconnect Device (3D MID) which is used in the advanced multifunctional applications. A finite element method (FEM) transient thermal analysis is performed using APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) provided by ANSYS. In this model, the effect of surface heat source was modeled with Gaussian distribution, also the effect of the mixed boundary conditions which consist of convection and radiation heat transfers have been considered in this analysis. The model provides a full description of the temperature distribution, as well as calculates the depth and the width of the groove upon material removal at different set of laser parameters such as laser power and laser speed. This study also includes the experimental procedure to study the effect of laser parameters on the depth and width of the removal groove metal as verification to the modeled results. Good agreement between the experimental and the model results is achieved for a wide range of laser powers. It is found that the quality of the laser structure process is affected by the laser scan speed and laser power. For a high laser structured quality, it is suggested to use laser with high speed and moderate to high laser power.

Keywords: Laser Structuring, Simulation, Finite element analysis, Thermal modeling.

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336 Laser Excited Nuclear γ -Source of High Spectral Brightness

Authors: A. Аndreev, Yu. Rozhdestvenskii, К. Platonov, R. Salomaa

Abstract:

This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.

Keywords: High power laser, short pulse, fast particles, isomertarget.

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335 Development of an Infrared Thermography Method with CO2 Laser Excitation, Applied to Defect Detection in CFRP

Authors: Sam-Ang Keo, Franck Brachelet, Florin Breaban, Didier Defer

Abstract:

This paper presents a NDT by infrared thermography with excitation CO2 Laser, wavelength of 10.6 μm. This excitation is the controllable heating beam, confirmed by a preliminary test on a wooden plate 1.2 m x 0.9 m x 1 cm. As the first practice, this method is applied to detecting the defect in CFRP heated by the Laser 300 W during 40 s. Two samples 40 cm x 40 cm x 4.5 cm are prepared, one with defect, another one without defect. The laser beam passes through the lens of a deviation device, and heats the samples placed at a determinate position and area. As a result, the absence of adhesive can be detected. This method displays prominently its application as NDT with the composite materials. This work gives a good perspective to characterize the laser beam, which is very useful for the next detection campaigns.

Keywords: CO2 LASER, Infrared Thermography, NDT, CFRP, Defect Detection.

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334 Application of Adaptive Neural Network Algorithms for Determination of Salt Composition of Waters Using Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: Tatiana A. Dolenko, Sergey A. Burikov, Alexander O. Efitorov, Sergey A. Dolenko

Abstract:

In this study, a comparative analysis of the approaches associated with the use of neural network algorithms for effective solution of a complex inverse problem – the problem of identifying and determining the individual concentrations of inorganic salts in multicomponent aqueous solutions by the spectra of Raman scattering of light – is performed. It is shown that application of artificial neural networks provides the average accuracy of determination of concentration of each salt no worse than 0.025 M. The results of comparative analysis of input data compression methods are presented. It is demonstrated that use of uniform aggregation of input features allows decreasing the error of determination of individual concentrations of components by 16-18% on the average.

Keywords: Inverse problems, multi-component solutions, neural networks, Raman spectroscopy.

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333 Experimental Study on Machinability of Laser- Sintered Material in Ball End Milling

Authors: Abdullah Yassin, Takashi Ueda, Syed Tarmizi Syed Shazali

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the machinability of laser-sintered material using small ball end mill focusing on wear mechanisms. Laser-sintered material was produced by irradiating a laser beam on a layer of loose fine SCM-Ni-Cu powder. Bulk carbon steel JIS S55C was selected as a reference steel. The effects of powder consolidation mechanisms and unsintered powder on the tool life and wear mechanisms were carried out. Results indicated that tool life in cutting laser-sintered material is lower than that in cutting JIS S55C. Adhesion of the work material and chipping were the main wear mechanisms of the ball end mill in cutting laser-sintered material. Cutting with the unsintered powder surrounding the tool and laser-sintered material had caused major fracture on the cutting edge.

Keywords: Laser-sintered material, tool life, wear mechanism.

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332 Metallographic Analysis of Laser and Mechanically Formed HSLA Steel

Authors: L.C. Kgomari, R.K.K.Mbaya

Abstract:

This research was conducted to develop a correlation between microstructure of HSLA steel and the mechanical properties that occur as a result of both laser and mechanical forming processes of the metal. The technique of forming flat metals by applying laser beams is a relatively new concept in the manufacturing industry. However, the effects of laser energy on the stability of metal alloy phases have not yet been elucidated in terms of phase transformations and microhardness. In this work, CO2 laser source was used to irradiate the surface of a flat metal then the microstructure and microhardness of the metal were studied on the formed specimen. The extent to which the microstructure changed depended on the heat inputs of up to 1000 J/cm2 with cooling rates of about 4.8E+02 K/s. Experimental results revealed that the irradiated surface of a HSLA steel had transformed to austenitic structure during the heating process.

Keywords: Laser, Forming, Microstructure

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331 Pressure Study on Mn Doped KDP System under Hydrostatic Pressure

Authors: W. Paraguassu, S. Guerini, C. M. R. Remédios, P. T. C. Freire

Abstract:

High Pressure Raman scattering measurements of KDP:Mn were performed at room temperatures. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns taken at room temperature by Rietveld refinement showed that doped samples of KDP-Mn have the same tetragonal structure of a pure KDP crystal, but with a contraction of the crystalline cell. The behavior of the Raman spectra, in particular the emergence of a new modes at 330 cm-1, indicates that KDP:Mn undergoes a structural phase transition with onset at around 4 GP. First principle density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that tetrahedral rotation with pressure is predominantly around the c crystalline direction. Theoretical results indicates that pressure induced tetrahedral rotations leads to change tetrahedral neighborhood, activating librations/bending modes observed for high pressure phase of KDP:Mn with stronger Raman activity.

Keywords: Dipotassium molybdate, High pressure, Raman scattering, Phase transition, ab initio

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330 Experimental Parametric Investigation of Temperature Effects on 60W-QCW Diode Laser

Authors: E. Farsad, S. P. Abbasi, A. Goodarzi, M. S. Zabihi

Abstract:

Nowadays, quasi-continuous wave diode lasers are used in a widespread variety of applications. Temperature effects in these lasers can strongly influence their performance. In this paper, the effects of temperature have been experimentally investigated on different features of a 60W-QCW diode laser. The obtained results indicate that the conversion efficiency and operation voltage of diode laser decrease with the augmentation of the working temperature associated with a redshift in the laser peak wavelength. Experimental results show the emission peak wavelength of laser shifts 0.26 nm and the conversion efficiency decreases 1.76 % with the increase of temperature from 40 to 50 ̊C. Present study also shows the slope efficiency decreases gradually at low temperatures and rapidly at higher temperatures. Regarding the close dependence of the mentioned parameters to the operating temperature, it is of great importance to carefully control the working temperature of diode laser, particularly for medical applications.

Keywords: diode laser, experimentally, temperature, wavelength

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329 Source Optimisation of Laser-Plasma Bremmstrahlung for Applications in Engineering Imaging

Authors: R.J. Clarke, D. Neely, S. Blake, D.C. Carroll, J.S. Green, R. Heathcote, M. Notley

Abstract:

High Power Lasers produce an intense burst of Bremmstrahlung radiation which has potential applications in broadband x-ray radiography. Since the radiation produced is through the interaction of accelerated electrons with the remaining laser target, these bursts are extremely short – in the region of a few ps. As a result, the laser-produced x-rays are capable of imaging complex dynamic objects with zero motion blur.

Keywords: Bremmstrahlung, Imaging, Laser, Plasma, Radiography, x-ray.

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328 Performance of InGaN/GaN Laser Diode Based on Quaternary Alloys Stopper and Superlattice Layers

Authors: S. M. Thahab, H. Abu Hassan, Z. Hassan

Abstract:

The optical properties of InGaN/GaN laser diode based on quaternary alloys stopper and superlattice layers are numerically studied using ISE TCAD (Integrated System Engineering) simulation program. Improvements in laser optical performance have been achieved using quaternary alloy as superlattice layers in InGaN/GaN laser diodes. Lower threshold current of 18 mA and higher output power and slope efficiency of 22 mW and 1.6 W/A, respectively, at room temperature have been obtained. The laser structure with InAlGaN quaternary alloys as an electron blocking layer was found to provide better laser performance compared with the ternary AlxGa1-xN blocking layer.

Keywords: Nitride semiconductors, InAlGaN quaternary, laserdiode, superlattice.

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327 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”

Keywords: Flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron.

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326 Annealing of the Contact between Graphene and Metal: Electrical and Raman Study

Authors: A. Sakavičius, A. Lukša, V. Nargelienė, V. Bukauskas, G. Astromskas, A. Šetkus

Abstract:

We investigate the influence of annealing on the properties of a contact between graphene and metal (Au and Ni), using circular transmission line model (CTLM) contact geometry. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy are applied for characterization of the surface and interface properties. Annealing causes a decrease of the metal-graphene contact resistance for both Ni and Au.

Keywords: Graphene, Kelvin force probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy.

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325 Compact Tunable 10 W picosecond Sourcebased on Yb-doped Fiber Amplification of Gain Switch Laser Diode

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Cunxiao Gao, Jintao Tao, Wei Zhao, Yishan Wang

Abstract:

A compact tunable 10 W picosecond source based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of gain switch laser diode has been demonstrated. A gain switch semiconductor laser diode was used as the seed source, and a multi-stage single mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifier was combined with two large mode area double-clad Yb-doped fiber main amplifiers to construct the amplification system. The tunable pulses with high stability and excellent beam quality (M2<1.2) of 10 W average power 150 ps pulse duration at 1 MHz repetition rate were obtained. The central wavelength with the line width of 2.5-3 nm was tunable from 1053 nm to 1073 nm.

Keywords: Fiber laser, fiber amplifier, picosecond laser, highpower laser

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