Search results for: Finite Difference method.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9477

Search results for: Finite Difference method.

9477 A Finite Difference Calculation Procedure for the Navier-Stokes Equations on a Staggered Curvilinear Grid

Authors: R. M. Barron, B. Zogheib

Abstract:

A new numerical method for solving the twodimensional, steady, incompressible, viscous flow equations on a Curvilinear staggered grid is presented in this paper. The proposed methodology is finite difference based, but essentially takes advantage of the best features of two well-established numerical formulations, the finite difference and finite volume methods. Some weaknesses of the finite difference approach are removed by exploiting the strengths of the finite volume method. In particular, the issue of velocity-pressure coupling is dealt with in the proposed finite difference formulation by developing a pressure correction equation in a manner similar to the SIMPLE approach commonly used in finite volume formulations. However, since this is purely a finite difference formulation, numerical approximation of fluxes is not required. Results obtained from the present method are based on the first-order upwind scheme for the convective terms, but the methodology can easily be modified to accommodate higher order differencing schemes.

Keywords: Curvilinear, finite difference, finite volume, SIMPLE.

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9476 Localized Meshfree Methods for Solving 3D-Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Reza Mollapourasl, Majid Haghi

Abstract:

In this study, we develop local meshfree methods known as radial basis function-generated finite difference (RBF-FD) method and Hermite finite difference (RBF-HFD) method to design stencil weights and spatial discretization for Helmholtz equation. The convergence and stability of schemes are investigated numerically in three dimensions with irregular shaped domain. These localized meshless methods incorporate the advantages of the RBF method, finite difference and Hermite finite difference methods to handle the ill-conditioning issue that often destroys the convergence rate of global RBF methods. Moreover, numerical illustrations show that the proposed localized RBF type methods are efficient and applicable for problems with complex geometries. The convergence and accuracy of both schemes are compared by solving a test problem.

Keywords: Radial basis functions, Hermite finite difference, Helmholtz equation, stability.

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9475 An Optimal Control of Water Pollution in a Stream Using a Finite Difference Method

Authors: Nopparat Pochai, Rujira Deepana

Abstract:

Water pollution assessment problems arise frequently in environmental science. In this research, a finite difference method for solving the one-dimensional steady convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is proposed; it is then used to optimize water treatment costs.

Keywords: Finite difference, One-dimensional, Steady state, Waterpollution control, Optimization, Convection-diffusion equation.

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9474 Dynamic Response of Strain Rate Dependent Glass/Epoxy Composite Beams Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: M. M. Shokrieh, A. Karamnejad

Abstract:

This paper deals with a numerical analysis of the transient response of composite beams with strain rate dependent mechanical properties by use of a finite difference method. The equations of motion based on Timoshenko beam theory are derived. The geometric nonlinearity effects are taken into account with von Kármán large deflection theory. The finite difference method in conjunction with Newmark average acceleration method is applied to solve the differential equations. A modified progressive damage model which accounts for strain rate effects is developed based on the material property degradation rules and modified Hashin-type failure criteria and added to the finite difference model. The components of the model are implemented into a computer code in Mathematica 6. Glass/epoxy laminated composite beams with constant and strain rate dependent mechanical properties under dynamic load are analyzed. Effects of strain rate on dynamic response of the beam for various stacking sequences, load and boundary conditions are investigated.

Keywords: Composite beam, Finite difference method, Progressive damage modeling, Strain rate.

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9473 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller

Abstract:

In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: Finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations.

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9472 Applications of High-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme to Nonlinear Goursat Problems

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Several numerical schemes utilizing central difference approximations have been developed to solve the Goursat problem. However, in a recent years compact discretization methods which leads to high-order finite difference schemes have been used since it is capable of achieving better accuracy as well as preserving certain features of the equation e.g. linearity. The basic idea of the new scheme is to find the compact approximations to the derivative terms by differentiating centrally the governing equations. Our primary interest is to study the performance of the new scheme when applied to two Goursat partial differential equations against the traditional finite difference scheme.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, finite difference scheme, compact finite difference

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9471 A Fully Implicit Finite-Difference Solution to One Dimensional Coupled Nonlinear Burgers’ Equations

Authors: Vineet K. Srivastava, Mukesh K. Awasthi, Mohammad Tamsir

Abstract:

A fully implicit finite-difference method has been proposed for the numerical solutions of one dimensional coupled nonlinear Burgers’ equations on the uniform mesh points. The method forms a system of nonlinear difference equations which is to be solved at each iteration. Newton’s iterative method has been implemented to solve this nonlinear assembled system of equations. The linear system has been solved by Gauss elimination method with partial pivoting algorithm at each iteration of Newton’s method. Three test examples have been carried out to illustrate the accuracy of the method. Computed solutions obtained by proposed scheme have been compared with analytical solutions and those already available in the literature by finding L2 and L∞ errors.

Keywords: Burgers’ equation, Implicit Finite-difference method, Newton’s method, Gauss elimination with partial pivoting.

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9470 Simulation of the Finite Difference Time Domain in Two Dimension

Authors: Akram G., Jasmy Y.

Abstract:

The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the most widely used computational methods in electromagnetic. This paper describes the design of two-dimensional (2D) FDTD simulation software for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization using Berenger's split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) formulation. The software is developed using Matlab programming language. Numerical examples validate the software.

Keywords: Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, perfectly matched layer (PML), split-filed formulation, transverse magnetic (TM) polarization.

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9469 Heuristic Method for Judging the Computational Stability of the Difference Schemes of the Biharmonic Equation

Authors: Guang Zeng, Jin Huang, Zicai Li

Abstract:

In this paper, we research the standard 13-point difference schemes for solving the biharmonic equation. Heuristic method is applied to judging the stability of multi-level difference schemes of the biharmonic equation. It is showed that the standard 13-point difference schemes are stable.

Keywords: Finite-difference equation, computational stability, hirt method.

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9468 Energy Based Temperature Profile for Heat Transfer Analysis of Concrete Section Exposed to Fire on One Side

Authors: Pattamad Panedpojaman

Abstract:

For fire safety purposes, the fire resistance and the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members are assessed to satisfy specific fire performance criteria. The available prescribed provisions are based on standard fire load. Under various fire scenarios, engineers are in need of both heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. For heat transfer analysis, the study proposed a modified finite difference method to evaluate the temperature profile within a cross section. The research conducted is limited to concrete sections exposed to a fire on their one side. The method is based on the energy conservation principle and a pre-determined power function of the temperature profile. The power value of 2.7 is found to be a suitable value for concrete sections. The temperature profiles of the proposed method are only slightly deviate from those of the experiment, the FEM and the FDM for various fire loads such as ASTM E 119, ASTM 1529, BS EN 1991-1-2 and 550 oC. The proposed method is useful to avoid incontinence of the large matrix system of the typical finite difference method to solve the temperature profile. Furthermore, design engineers can simply apply the proposed method in regular spreadsheet software.

Keywords: temperature profile, finite difference method, concrete section, one-side fire exposed, energy conservation

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9467 New Fourth Order Explicit Group Method in the Solution of the Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, the formulation of a new group explicit method with a fourth order accuracy is described in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The formulation is based on the nine-point fourth order compact finite difference approximation formula. The complexity analysis of the developed scheme is also presented. Several numerical experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of the developed scheme. Comparisons with other existing schemes will be reported and discussed. Preliminary results indicate that this method is a viable alternative high accuracy solver to the Helmholtz equation.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, five-point formula, nine-point formula.

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9466 Stepsize Control of the Finite Difference Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Davod Khojasteh Salkuyeh

Abstract:

An important task in solving second order linear ordinary differential equations by the finite difference is to choose a suitable stepsize h. In this paper, by using the stochastic arithmetic, the CESTAC method and the CADNA library we present a procedure to estimate the optimal stepsize hopt, the stepsize which minimizes the global error consisting of truncation and round-off error.

Keywords: Ordinary differential equations, optimal stepsize, error, stochastic arithmetic, CESTAC, CADNA.

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9465 A Comparative Study of High Order Rotated Group Iterative Schemes on Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a high order group explicit method in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The presented method is derived from a nine-point fourth order finite difference approximation formula obtained from a 45-degree rotation of the standard grid which makes it possible for the construction of iterative procedure with reduced complexity. The developed method will be compared with the existing group iterative schemes available in literature in terms of computational time, iteration counts, and computational complexity. The comparative performances of the methods will be discussed and reported.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, rotated grid, standard grid.

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9464 Simulation of Lightning Surge Propagation in Transmission Lines Using the FDTD Method

Authors: Kokiat Aodsup, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper describes a finite-difference time-domainFDTD) method to analyze lightning surge propagation in electric transmission lines. Numerical computation of solving the Telegraphist-s equations is determined and investigated its effectiveness. A source of lightning surge wave on power transmission lines is modeled by using Heidler-s surge model. The proposed method was tested against medium-voltage power transmission lines in comparison with the solution obtained by using lattice diagram. As a result, the calculation showed that the method is one of accurate methods to analyze transient lightning wave in power transmission lines.

Keywords: Traveling wave, Lightning surge, Bewley lattice diagram, Telegraphist's equations, Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method,

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9463 Stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler Plate Equation: Numerical Analysis

Authors: Carla E. O. de Moraes, Gladson O. Antunes, Mauro A. Rincon

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the internal stabilization of the Bernoulli-Euler equation numerically. For this, we consider a square plate subjected to a feedback/damping force distributed only in a subdomain. An algorithm for obtaining an approximate solution to this problem was proposed and implemented. The numerical method used was the Finite Difference Method. Numerical simulations were performed and showed the behavior of the solution, confirming the theoretical results that have already been proved in the literature. In addition, we studied the validation of the numerical scheme proposed, followed by an analysis of the numerical error; and we conducted a study on the decay of the energy associated.

Keywords: Bernoulli-Euler Plate Equation, Numerical Simulations, Stability, Energy Decay, Finite Difference Method.

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9462 The Comparison of Finite Difference Methods for Radiation Diffusion Equations

Authors: Ren Jian, Yang Shulin

Abstract:

In this paper, the difference between the Alternating Direction Method (ADM) and the Non-Splitting Method (NSM) is investigated, while both methods applied to the simulations for 2-D multimaterial radiation diffusion issues. Although the ADM have the same accuracy orders with the NSM on the uniform meshes, the accuracy of ADM will decrease on the distorted meshes or the boundary of domain. Numerical experiments are carried out to confirm the theoretical predication.

Keywords: Alternating Direction Method, Non-SplittingMethod, Radiation Diffusion.

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9461 A Non-Standard Finite Difference Scheme for the Solution of Laplace Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

Authors: Khaled Moaddy

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a fast and accurate numerical scheme for the solution of a Laplace equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The non-standard finite difference scheme (NSFD) is applied to construct the numerical solutions of a Laplace equation with two different Dirichlet boundary conditions. The solutions obtained using NSFD are compared with the solutions obtained using the standard finite difference scheme (SFD). The NSFD scheme is demonstrated to be reliable and efficient.

Keywords: Standard finite difference schemes, non–standard schemes, Laplace equation, Dirichlet boundary conditions.

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9460 Cubic Trigonometric B-spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas

Abstract:

The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: Collocation method, Cubic trigonometric B-spline, Finite difference, Wave equation.

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9459 Analysis of One Dimensional Advection Diffusion Model Using Finite Difference Method

Authors: Vijay Kumar Kukreja, Ravneet Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, one dimensional advection diffusion model is analyzed using finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme. A practical problem of filter cake washing of chemical engineering is analyzed. The model is converted into dimensionless form. For the grid Ω × ω = [0, 1] × [0, T], the Crank-Nicolson spatial derivative scheme is used in space domain and forward difference scheme is used in time domain. The scheme is found to be unconditionally convergent, stable, first order accurate in time and second order accurate in space domain. For a test problem, numerical results are compared with the analytical ones for different values of parameter.

Keywords: Consistency, Crank-Nicolson scheme, Gerschgorin circle, Lax-Richtmyer theorem, Peclet number, stability.

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9458 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case.

Keywords: Finite-difference method, the nonlinear damped equation, the numerical simulation, the suspended string equation

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9457 A Finite Element Solution of the Mathematical Model for Smoke Dispersion from Two Sources

Authors: Nopparat Pochai

Abstract:

Smoke discharging is a main reason of air pollution problem from industrial plants. The obstacle of a building has an affect with the air pollutant discharge. In this research, a mathematical model of the smoke dispersion from two sources and one source with a structural obstacle is considered. The governing equation of the model is an isothermal mass transfer model in a viscous fluid. The finite element method is used to approximate the solutions of the model. The triangular linear elements have been used for discretising the domain, and time integration has been carried out by semi-implicit finite difference method. The simulations of smoke dispersion in cases of one chimney and two chimneys are presented. The maximum calculated smoke concentration of both cases are compared. It is then used to make the decision for smoke discharging and air pollutant control problems on industrial area.

Keywords: Air pollution, Smoke dispersion, Finite element method, Stream function, Vorticity equation, Convection-diffusion equation, Semi-implicit method

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9456 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, numerical analysis, FLAC2D, displacement, Embankment Dam, pore water pressure.

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9455 Migration of a Drop in Simple Shear Flow at Finite Reynolds Numbers: Size and Viscosity Ratio Effects

Authors: M. Bayareh, S. Mortazavi

Abstract:

The migration of a deformable drop in simple shear flow at finite Reynolds numbers is investigated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using a finite difference/front tracking method. The objectives of this study are to examine the effectiveness of the present approach to predict the migration of a drop in a shear flow and to investigate the behavior of the drop migration with different drop sizes and non-unity viscosity ratios. It is shown that the drop deformation depends strongly on the capillary number, so that; the proper non-dimensional number for the interfacial tension is the capillary number. The rate of migration increased with increasing the drop radius. In other words, the required time for drop migration to the centreline decreases. As the viscosity ratio increases, the drop rotates more slowly and the lubrication force becomes stronger. The increased lubrication force makes it easier for the drop to migrate to the centre of the channel. The migration velocity of the drop vanishes as the drop reaches the centreline under viscosity ratio of one and non-unity viscosity ratios. To validate the present calculations, some typical results are compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

Keywords: drop migration, shear flow, front-tracking method, finite difference method.

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9454 Comparison of Finite Difference Schemes for Water Flow in Unsaturated Soils

Authors: H. Taheri Shahraiyni, B. Ataie Ashtiani

Abstract:

Flow movement in unsaturated soil can be expressed by a partial differential equation, named Richards equation. The objective of this study is the finding of an appropriate implicit numerical solution for head based Richards equation. Some of the well known finite difference schemes (fully implicit, Crank Nicolson and Runge-Kutta) have been utilized in this study. In addition, the effects of different approximations of moisture capacity function, convergence criteria and time stepping methods were evaluated. Two different infiltration problems were solved to investigate the performance of different schemes. These problems include of vertical water flow in a wet and very dry soils. The numerical solutions of two problems were compared using four evaluation criteria and the results of comparisons showed that fully implicit scheme is better than the other schemes. In addition, utilizing of standard chord slope method for approximation of moisture capacity function, automatic time stepping method and difference between two successive iterations as convergence criterion in the fully implicit scheme can lead to better and more reliable results for simulation of fluid movement in different unsaturated soils.

Keywords: Finite Difference methods, Richards equation, fullyimplicit, Crank-Nicolson, Runge-Kutta.

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9453 Nonlinear Control of a Continuous Bioreactor Based on Cell Population Model

Authors: Mahdi Sharifian, Mohammad Ali Fanaei

Abstract:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker-s yeast) can exhibit sustained oscillations during the operation in a continuous bioreactor that adversely affects its stability and productivity. Because of heterogeneous nature of cell populations, the cell population balance models can be used to capture the dynamic behavior of such cultures. In this paper an unstructured, segregated model is used which is based on population balance equation(PBE) and then in order to simulation, the 4th order Rung-Kutta is used for time dimension and three methods, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements and Galerkin finite element are used for discretization of the cell mass domain. The results indicate that the orthogonal collocation on finite element not only is able to predict the oscillating behavior of the cell culture but also needs much little time for calculations. Therefore this method is preferred in comparison with other methods. In the next step two controllers, a globally linearizing control (GLC) and a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller are designed for controlling the total cell mass per unit volume, and performances of these controllers are compared through simulation. The results show that although the PI controller has simpler structure, the GLC has better performance.

Keywords: Bioreactor, cell population balance, finite difference, orthogonal collocation on finite elements, Galerkin finite element, feedback linearization, PI controller.

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9452 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.

Keywords: beam, sub-impact, elastic-plastic deformation, finite difference method.

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9451 Effect of Columns Stiffness's and Number of Floors on the Accuracy of the Tributary Area Method

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The using of finite element programs in analyzing and designing buildings are becoming very popular, but there are many engineers still using the tributary area method (TAM) in designing the structural members such as columns. This study is an attempt to investigate the accuracy of the TAM results with different load condition (gravity and lateral load), different floors numbers, and different columns stiffness's. To conduct this study, linear elastic analysis in ETABS program is used. The results from finite element method are compared to those obtained from TAM. According to the analysis of the data obtained, it can be seen that there is significance difference between the real load carried by columns and the load which is calculated by using the TAM. Thus, using 3-D models are the best choice to calculate the real load effected on columns and design these columns according to this load.

Keywords: Tributary area method, finite element method, ETABS, lateral load, axial loads, reinforced concrete, stiffness, multi-floor buildings.

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9450 Dynamics of a Vapour Bubble inside a Vertical Rigid Cylinder in the Absence of Buoyancy Forces

Authors: S. Mehran, S. Rouhi, F.Rouzbahani, E. Haghgoo

Abstract:

In this paper, growth and collapse of a vapour bubble generated due to a local energy input inside a rigid cylinder and in the absence of buoyancy forces is investigated using Boundary Integral Equation Method and Finite Difference Method .The fluid is treated as potential flow and Boundary Integral Equation Method is used to solve Laplace-s equation for velocity potential. Different ratios of the diameter of the rigid cylinder to the maximum radius of the bubble are considered. Results show that during the collapse phase of the bubble inside a vertical rigid cylinder, two liquid micro jets are developed on the top and bottom sides of the vapour bubble and are directed inward. It is found that by increasing the ratio of the cylinder diameter to the maximum radius of the bubble, the rate of the growth and collapse phases of the bubble increases and the life time of the bubble decreases.

Keywords: Vapour bubble, Vertical rigid cylinder, Boundaryelement method, Finite difference method, Buoyancy forces.

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9449 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, convertingand storing solar energy as heat. In thispaper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transferbehaviour of salinity gradient solar pond. MATLAB codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results arefound to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Difference method, Salt-gradient solar-pond, Solar energy, Transient heat and mass transfer.

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9448 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation.

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