Search results for: Fourier Spectral method
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8417

Search results for: Fourier Spectral method

8417 Fourier Spectral Method for Analytic Continuation

Authors: Zhenyu Zhao, Lei You

Abstract:

The numerical analytic continuation of a function f(z) = f(x + iy) on a strip is discussed in this paper. The data are only given approximately on the real axis. The periodicity of given data is assumed. A truncated Fourier spectral method has been introduced to deal with the ill-posedness of the problem. The theoretic results show that the discrepancy principle can work well for this problem. Some numerical results are also given to show the efficiency of the method.

Keywords: Analytic continuation, ill-posed problem, regularization method Fourier spectral method, the discrepancy principle.

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8416 Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamic Analysis for Oscillatory Airfoils using Time Spectral Method

Authors: Mohamad Reza. Mohaghegh, Majid. Malek Jafarian

Abstract:

This research proposes an algorithm for the simulation of time-periodic unsteady problems via the solution unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. This algorithm which is called Time Spectral method uses a Fourier representation in time and hence solve for the periodic state directly without resolving transients (which consume most of the resources in a time-accurate scheme). Mathematical tools used here are discrete Fourier transformations. It has shown tremendous potential for reducing the computational cost compared to conventional time-accurate methods, by enforcing periodicity and using Fourier representation in time, leading to spectral accuracy. The accuracy and efficiency of this technique is verified by Euler and Navier-Stokes calculations for pitching airfoils. Because of flow turbulence nature, Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model has been used at viscous flow analysis. The results presented by the Time Spectral method are compared with experimental data. It has shown tremendous potential for reducing the computational cost compared to the conventional time-accurate methods, by enforcing periodicity and using Fourier representation in time, leading to spectral accuracy, because results verify the small number of time intervals per pitching cycle required to capture the flow physics.

Keywords: Time Spectral Method, Time-periodic unsteadyflow, Discrete Fourier transform, Pitching airfoil, Turbulence flow

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8415 Efficient Spectral Analysis of Quasi Stationary Time Series

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of quasi-stationary processes can be efficiently estimated using the short time Fourier series (STFT). In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed that computes the PSD of quasi-stationary process efficiently using offline autoregressive model order estimation algorithm, recursive parameter estimation technique and modified sliding window discrete Fourier Transform algorithm. The main difference in this algorithm and STFT is that the sliding window (SW) and window for spectral estimation (WSA) are separately defined. WSA is updated and its PSD is computed only when change in statistics is detected in the SW. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is found to be lesser than that for standard STFT technique.

Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), quasi-stationarytime series, short time Fourier Transform, Sliding window DFT.

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8414 Audio Watermarking Using Spectral Modifications

Authors: Jyotsna Singh, Parul Garg, Alok Nath De

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a non-blind technique of adding the watermark to the Fourier spectral components of audio signal in a way such that the modified amplitude does not exceed the maximum amplitude spread (MAS). This MAS is due to individual Discrete fourier transform (DFT) coefficients in that particular frame, which is derived from the Energy Spreading function given by Schroeder. Using this technique one can store double the information within a given frame length i.e. overriding the watermark on the host of equal length with least perceptual distortion. The watermark is uniformly floating on the DFT components of original signal. This helps in detecting any intentional manipulations done on the watermarked audio. Also, the scheme is found robust to various signal processing attacks like presence of multiple watermarks, Additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and mp3 compression.

Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform, Spreading Function, Watermark, Pseudo Noise Sequence, Spectral Masking Effect

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8413 New Approach to Spectral Analysis of High Bit Rate PCM Signals

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Pulse code modulation is a widespread technique in digital communication with significant impact on existing modern and proposed future communication technologies. Its widespread utilization is due to its simplicity and attractive spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present a new approach to the spectral analysis of PCM signals using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, which is very accurate for high bit rates. This approach can serve as a model for similar spectral analysis of other competing modulation schemes.

Keywords: Coding, discrete Fourier, power spectral density, pulse code modulation, Riemann-Stieltjes integrals.

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8412 Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film

Authors: S.Solaymani, T.Ghodselahi, N.B.Nezafat, H.Zahrabi, A.Gelali

Abstract:

The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Fast Fourier transform, Power spectral density, RBS.

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8411 A Robust Extrapolation Method for Curtailed Aperture Reconstruction in Acoustic Imaging

Authors: R. Bremananth

Abstract:

Acoustic Imaging based sound localization using microphone array is a challenging task in digital-signal processing. Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based near-field acoustical holography (NAH) is an important acoustical technique for sound source localization and provide an efficient solution to the ill-posed problem. However, in practice, due to the usage of small curtailed aperture and its consequence of significant spectral leakage, the DFT could not reconstruct the active-region-of-sound (AROS) effectively, especially near the edges of aperture. In this paper, we emphasize the fundamental problems of DFT-based NAH, provide a solution to spectral leakage effect by the extrapolation based on linear predictive coding and 2D Tukey windowing. This approach has been tested to localize the single and multi-point sound sources. We observe that incorporating extrapolation technique increases the spatial resolution, localization accuracy and reduces spectral leakage when small curtail aperture with a lower number of sensors accounts.

Keywords: Acoustic Imaging, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), k-space wavenumber, Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH), Source Localization, Spectral Leakage.

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8410 Recursive Wiener-Khintchine Theorem

Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud

Abstract:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) computed by taking the Fourier transform of auto-correlation functions (Wiener-Khintchine Theorem) gives better result, in case of noisy data, as compared to the Periodogram approach. However, the computational complexity of Wiener-Khintchine approach is more than that of the Periodogram approach. For the computation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this problem becomes even more prominent where computation of PSD is required after every shift in the window under analysis. In this paper, recursive version of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem has been derived by using the sliding DFT approach meant for computation of STFT. The computational complexity of the proposed recursive Wiener-Khintchine algorithm, for a window size of N, is O(N).

Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), Wiener-KhintchineTheorem, Periodogram, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), TheSliding DFT.

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8409 Mathematical Reconstruction of an Object Image Using X-Ray Interferometric Fourier Holography Method

Authors: M. K. Balyan

Abstract:

The main principles of X-ray Fourier interferometric holography method are discussed. The object image is reconstructed by the mathematical method of Fourier transformation. The three methods are presented – method of approximation, iteration method and step by step method. As an example the complex amplitude transmission coefficient reconstruction of a beryllium wire is considered. The results reconstructed by three presented methods are compared. The best results are obtained by means of step by step method.

Keywords: Dynamical diffraction, hologram, object image, X-ray holography.

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8408 The Ratios between the Spectral Norm, the Numerical Radius and the Spectral Radius

Authors: Kui Du

Abstract:

Recently, Uhlig [Numer. Algorithms, 52(3):335-353, 2009] proposed open questions about the ratios between the spectral norm, the numerical radius and the spectral radius of a square matrix. In this note, we provide some observations to answer these questions.

Keywords: Spectral norm, Numerical radius, Spectral radius, Ratios

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8407 On Fourier Type Integral Transform for a Class of Generalized Quotients

Authors: A. S. Issa, S. K. Q. AL-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate certain spaces of generalized functions for the Fourier and Fourier type integral transforms. We discuss convolution theorems and establish certain spaces of distributions for the considered integrals. The new Fourier type integral is well-defined, linear, one-to-one and continuous with respect to certain types of convergences. Many properties and an inverse problem are also discussed in some details.

Keywords: Fourier type integral, Fourier integral, generalized quotient, Boehmian, distribution.

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8406 An Overview of the Application of Fuzzy Inference System for the Automation of Breast Cancer Grading with Spectral Data

Authors: Shabbar Naqvi, Jonathan M. Garibaldi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent occurring cancers in women throughout the world including U.K. The grading of this cancer plays a vital role in the prognosis of the disease. In this paper we present an overview of the use of advanced computational method of fuzzy inference system as a tool for the automation of breast cancer grading. A new spectral data set obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of cancer patients has been used for this study. The future work outlines the potential areas of fuzzy systems that can be used for the automation of breast cancer grading.

Keywords: Breast cancer, FTIR, fuzzy inference system, principal component analysis

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8405 Two-Dimensional Solitary Wave Solution to the Quadratic Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation

Authors: Sarun Phibanchon

Abstract:

The solitary wave solution of the quadratic nonlinear Schrdinger equation is determined by the iterative method called Petviashvili method. This solution is also used for the initial condition for the time evolution to study the stability analysis. The spectral method is applied for the time evolution.

Keywords: soliton, iterative method, spectral method, plasma

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8404 Enhancement of m-FISH Images using Spectral Unmixing

Authors: Martin De Biasio, Raimund Leitner, Franz G. Wuertz, Sergey Verzakov, Pierre J. Elbischger

Abstract:

Breast carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in women. Multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (m-FISH) is a common method for staging breast carcinoma. The interpretation of m-FISH images is complicated due to two effects: (i) Spectral overlap in the emission spectra of fluorochrome marked DNA probes and (ii) tissue autofluorescence. In this paper hyper-spectral images of m-FISH samples are used and spectral unmixing is applied to produce false colour images with higher contrast and better information content than standard RGB images. The spectral unmixing is realised by combinations of: Orthogonal Projection Analysis (OPA), Alterating Least Squares (ALS), Simple-to-use Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) and VARIMAX. These are applied on the data to reduce tissue autofluorescence and resolve the spectral overlap in the emission spectra. The results show that spectral unmixing methods reduce the intensity caused by tissue autofluorescence by up to 78% and enhance image contrast by algorithmically reducing the overlap of the emission spectra.

Keywords: breast carcinoma, hyperspectral imaging, m-FISH, spectral unmixing

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8403 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: Spectral decomposition, eigenvalues of the Jacobian, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems.

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8402 Thin Bed Reservoir Delineation Using Spectral Decomposition and Instantaneous Seismic Attributes, Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

Authors: P. Sophon, M. Kruachanta, S. Chaisri, G. Leaungvongpaisan, P. Wongpornchai

Abstract:

The thick bed hydrocarbon reservoirs are primarily interested because of the more prolific production. When the amount of petroleum in the thick bed starts decreasing, the thin bed reservoirs are the alternative targets to maintain the reserves. The conventional interpretation of seismic data cannot delineate the thin bed having thickness less than the vertical seismic resolution. Therefore, spectral decomposition and instantaneous seismic attributes were used to delineate the thin bed in this study. Short Window Discrete Fourier Transform (SWDFT) spectral decomposition and instantaneous frequency attributes were used to reveal the thin bed reservoir, while Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) spectral decomposition and envelope (instantaneous amplitude) attributes were used to indicate hydrocarbon bearing zone. The study area is located in the Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The thin bed target is the uppermost part of Mangahewa Formation, the most productive in the gas-condensate production in the Pohokura Field. According to the time-frequency analysis, SWDFT spectral decomposition can reveal the thin bed using a 72 Hz SWDFT isofrequency section and map, and that is confirmed by the instantaneous frequency attribute. The envelope attribute showing the high anomaly indicates the hydrocarbon accumulation area at the thin bed target. Moreover, the CWT spectral decomposition shows the low-frequency shadow zone and abnormal seismic attenuation in the higher isofrequencies below the thin bed confirms that the thin bed can be a prospective hydrocarbon zone.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon indication, instantaneous seismic attribute, spectral decomposition, thin bed delineation.

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8401 Computation of Probability Coefficients using Binary Decision Diagram and their Application in Test Vector Generation

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper deals with efficient computation of probability coefficients which offers computational simplicity as compared to spectral coefficients. It eliminates the need of inner product evaluations in determination of signature of a combinational circuit realizing given Boolean function. The method for computation of probability coefficients using transform matrix, fast transform method and using BDD is given. Theoretical relations for achievable computational advantage in terms of required additions in computing all 2n probability coefficients of n variable function have been developed. It is shown that for n ≥ 5, only 50% additions are needed to compute all probability coefficients as compared to spectral coefficients. The fault detection techniques based on spectral signature can be used with probability signature also to offer computational advantage.

Keywords: Binary Decision Diagrams, Spectral Coefficients, Fault detection

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8400 Quality Factor Variation with Transform Order in Fractional Fourier Domain

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, K. Pardha Saradhi, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a powerful tool, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. This paper provides a mathematical relation relating the span in Fractional Fourier domain with the amplitude and phase functions of the signal, which is further used to study the variation of quality factor with different values of the transform order. It is seen that with the increase in the number of transients in the signal, the deviation of average Fractional Fourier span from the frequency bandwidth increases. Also, with the increase in the transient nature of the signal, the optimum value of transform order can be estimated based on the quality factor variation, and this value is found to be very close to that for which one can obtain the most compact representation. With the entire mathematical analysis and experimentation, we consolidate the fact that Fractional Fourier Transform gives more optimal representations for a number of transform orders than Fourier transform.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Quality Factor, Fractional Fourier span, transient signals.

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8399 Numerical Solution of Linear Ordinary Differential Equations in Quantum Chemistry by Clenshaw Method

Authors: M. Saravi, F. Ashrafi, S.R. Mirrajei

Abstract:

As we know, most differential equations concerning physical phenomenon could not be solved by analytical method. Even if we use Series Method, some times we need an appropriate change of variable, and even when we can, their closed form solution may be so complicated that using it to obtain an image or to examine the structure of the system is impossible. For example, if we consider Schrodinger equation, i.e., We come to a three-term recursion relations, which work with it takes, at least, a little bit time to get a series solution[6]. For this reason we use a change of variable such as or when we consider the orbital angular momentum[1], it will be necessary to solve. As we can observe, working with this equation is tedious. In this paper, after introducing Clenshaw method, which is a kind of Spectral method, we try to solve some of such equations.

Keywords: Chebyshev polynomials, Clenshaw method, ODEs, Spectral methods

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8398 Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry

Authors: A. Manallah, C. Meier

Abstract:

Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.

Keywords: Confocal spectral interferometry, Nondestructive testing, Optical metrology, Surface topography, Roughness.

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8397 An Efficient Hamiltonian for Discrete Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Pardha Saradhi K., Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform, is a powerful tool for the analysis of transient signals. The discrete Fractional Fourier Transform Hamiltonians have been proposed in the past with varying degrees of correlation between their eigenvectors and Hermite Gaussian functions. In this paper, we propose a new Hamiltonian for the discrete Fractional Fourier Transform and show that the eigenvectors of the proposed matrix has a higher degree of correlation with the Hermite Gaussian functions. Also, the proposed matrix is shown to give better Fractional Fourier responses with various transform orders for different signals.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, Hamiltonian, Eigen Vectors, Discrete Hermite Gaussians.

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8396 FT-NIR Method to Determine Moisture in Gluten Free Rice Based Pasta during Drying

Authors: Navneet Singh Deora, Aastha Deswal, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

Pasta is one of the most widely consumed food products around the world. Rapid determination of the moisture content in pasta will assist food processors to provide online quality control of pasta during large scale production. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared method (FT-NIR) was developed for determining moisture content in pasta. A calibration set of 150 samples, a validation set of 30 samples and a prediction set of 25 samples of pasta were used. The diffuse reflection spectra of different types of pastas were measured by FT-NIR analyzer in the 4,000-12,000cm-1 spectral range. Calibration and validation sets were designed for the conception and evaluation of the method adequacy in the range of moisture content 10 to 15 percent (w.b) of the pasta. The prediction models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, were developed in the near-infrared. Conventional criteria such as the R2, the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square errors of estimation (RMSEE) as well as the number of PLS factors were considered for the selection of three pre-processing (vector normalization, minimum-maximum normalization and multiplicative scatter correction) methods. Spectra of pasta sample were treated with different mathematic pre-treatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and moisture content. The moisture content in pasta predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (R2 = 0.983), which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of moisture content in pasta. The best calibration model was developed with min-max normalization (MMN) spectral pre-processing (R2 = 0.9775). The MMN pre-processing method was found most suitable and the maximum coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9875 was obtained for the calibration model developed.

Keywords: FT-NIR, Pasta, moisture determination.

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8395 A PSO-based End-Member Selection Method for Spectral Unmixing of Multispectral Satellite Images

Authors: Mahamed G.H. Omran, Andries P Engelbrecht, Ayed Salman

Abstract:

An end-member selection method for spectral unmixing that is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is developed in this paper. The algorithm uses the K-means clustering algorithm and a method of dynamic selection of end-members subsets to find the appropriate set of end-members for a given set of multispectral images. The proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to test image sets from various platforms such as LANDSAT 5 MSS and NOAA's AVHRR. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm are encouraging. The influence of different values of the algorithm control parameters on performance is studied. Furthermore, the performance of different versions of PSO is also investigated.

Keywords: End-members selection, multispectral satellite imagery, particle swarm optimization, spectral unmixing.

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8394 MRI Reconstruction Using Discrete Fourier Transform: A tutorial

Authors: Abiodun M. Aibinu, Momoh J. E. Salami, Amir A. Shafie, Athaur Rahman Najeeb

Abstract:

The use of Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) implemented in the form of Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) is one of the standard method of reconstructing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from uniformly sampled K-space data. In this tutorial, three of the major problems associated with the use of IFFT in MRI reconstruction are highlighted. The tutorial also gives brief introduction to MRI physics; MRI system from instrumentation point of view; K-space signal and the process of IDFT and IFFT for One and two dimensional (1D and 2D) data.

Keywords: Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), K-space Data, Magnetic Resonance (MR), Spin, Windows.

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8393 Rigorous Electromagnetic Model of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Automated Histology of Prostate Tissue Specimens

Authors: Rohith K Reddy, David Mayerich, Michael Walsh, P Scott Carney, Rohit Bhargava

Abstract:

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging technique that provides both chemically and spatially resolved information. The rich chemical content of data may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for prostate cancer. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of prostate tissue has shown that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to a high degree of accuracy [1] and cancer diagnosis can be performed with an accuracy of about 80% [2] on a microscopic (≈ 6μm) length scale. In performing these analyses, it has been observed that there is large variability (more than 60%) between spectra from different points on tissue that is expected to consist of the same essential chemical constituents. Spectra at the edges of tissues are characteristically and consistently different from chemically similar tissue in the middle of the same sample. Here, we explain these differences using a rigorous electromagnetic model for light-sample interaction. Spectra from FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of chemically heterogeneous samples are different from bulk spectra of individual chemical constituents of the sample. This is because spectra not only depend on chemistry, but also on the shape of the sample. Using coupled wave analysis, we characterize and quantify the nature of spectral distortions at the edges of tissues. Furthermore, we present a method of performing histological classification of tissue samples. Since the mid-infrared spectrum is typically assumed to be a quantitative measure of chemical composition, classification results can vary widely due to spectral distortions. However, we demonstrate that the selection of localized metrics based on chemical information can make our data robust to the spectral distortions caused by scattering at the tissue boundary.

Keywords: Infrared, Spectroscopy, Imaging, Tissue classification

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8392 A Modified Speech Enhancement Using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction for Robust Speech Recognition

Authors: C. Ganesh Babu, P. T. Vanathi

Abstract:

In this paper we present an enhanced noise reduction method for robust speech recognition using Adaptive Gain Equalizer with Non linear Spectral Subtraction. In Adaptive Gain Equalizer method (AGE), the input signal is divided into a number of subbands that are individually weighed in time domain, in accordance to the short time Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) in each subband estimation at every time instant. Instead of focusing on suppression the noise on speech enhancement is focused. When analysis was done under various noise conditions for speech recognition, it was found that Adaptive Gain Equalizer method algorithm has an obvious failing point for a SNR of -5 dB, with inadequate levels of noise suppression for SNR less than this point. This work proposes the implementation of AGE when coupled with Non linear Spectral Subtraction (AGE-NSS) for robust speech recognition. The experimental result shows that out AGE-NSS performs the AGE when SNR drops below -5db level.

Keywords: Adaptive Gain Equalizer, Non Linear Spectral Subtraction, Speech Enhancement, and Speech Recognition.

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8391 Efficient Copy-Move Forgery Detection for Digital Images

Authors: Somayeh Sadeghi, Hamid A. Jalab, Sajjad Dadkhah

Abstract:

Due to availability of powerful image processing software and improvement of human computer knowledge, it becomes easy to tamper images. Manipulation of digital images in different fields like court of law and medical imaging create a serious problem nowadays. Copy-move forgery is one of the most common types of forgery which copies some part of the image and pastes it to another part of the same image to cover an important scene. In this paper, a copy-move forgery detection method proposed based on Fourier transform to detect forgeries. Firstly, image is divided to same size blocks and Fourier transform is performed on each block. Similarity in the Fourier transform between different blocks provides an indication of the copy-move operation. The experimental results prove that the proposed method works on reasonable time and works well for gray scale and colour images. Computational complexity reduced by using Fourier transform in this method.

Keywords: Copy-Move forgery, Digital Forensics, Image Forgery.

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8390 Lower Bound of Time Span Product for a General Class of Signals in Fractional Fourier Domain

Authors: Sukrit Shankar, Chetana Shanta Patsa, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

Fractional Fourier Transform is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform which is often symbolized as the rotation in time- frequency plane. Similar to the product of time and frequency span which provides the Uncertainty Principle for the classical Fourier domain, there has not been till date an Uncertainty Principle for the Fractional Fourier domain for a generalized class of finite energy signals. Though the lower bound for the product of time and Fractional Fourier span is derived for the real signals, a tighter lower bound for a general class of signals is of practical importance, especially for the analysis of signals containing chirps. We hence formulate a mathematical derivation that gives the lower bound of time and Fractional Fourier span product. The relation proves to be utmost importance in taking the Fractional Fourier Transform with adaptive time and Fractional span resolutions for a varied class of complex signals.

Keywords: Fractional Fourier Transform, uncertainty principle, Fractional Fourier Span, amplitude, phase.

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8389 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: Fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization.

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8388 Comparison of Detrending Methods in Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Liping Li, Changchun Liu, Ke Li, Chengyu Liu

Abstract:

Non-stationary trend in R-R interval series is considered as a main factor that could highly influence the evaluation of spectral analysis. It is suggested to remove trends in order to obtain reliable results. In this study, three detrending methods, the smoothness prior approach, the wavelet and the empirical mode decomposition, were compared on artificial R-R interval series with four types of simulated trends. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram was used for spectral analysis of R-R interval series. Results indicated that the wavelet method showed a better overall performance than the other two methods, and more time-saving, too. Therefore it was selected for spectral analysis of real R-R interval series of thirty-seven healthy subjects. Significant decreases (19.94±5.87% in the low frequency band and 18.97±5.78% in the ratio (p<0.001)) were found. Thus the wavelet method is recommended as an optimal choice for use.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, heart rate variability, signal detrending, smoothness priors, wavelet

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