Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2874

Search results for: Custom Power

2874 A Review of Control Schemes for Active Power Filters in Order to Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Mohammad Hasan Raouf, Azim Nowbakht, Mohammad Bagher Haddadi, Mohammad Reza Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Power quality has become a very important issue recently due to the impact on electricity suppliers, equipment manufacturers and customers. Power quality is described as the variation of voltage, current and frequency in a power system. Voltage magnitude is one of the major factors that determine the quality of power. Indeed, custom power technology, the low-voltage counterpart of the more widely known flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) technology, aimed at high-voltage power transmission applications, has emerged as a credible solution to solve many problems relating to power quality problems. There are various power quality problems such as voltage sags, swells, flickers, interruptions and harmonics etc. Active Power Filter (APF) is one of the custom power devices and can mitigate harmonics, reactive power and unbalanced load currents originating from load side. In this study, an extensive review of APF studies, the advantages and disadvantages of each introduced methods are presented. The study also helps the researchers to choose the optimum control techniques and power circuit configuration for APF applications.

Keywords: Power Quality, Custom Power, Active Filter, Control Approach.

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2873 Direct Power Control Strategies for Multilevel Inverter Based Custom Power Devices

Authors: S. Venkateshwarlu, B. P. Muni, A. D. Rajkumar, J. Praveen

Abstract:

Custom power is a technology driven product and service solution which embraces a family devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distributed Shunt Compensator (DSTATCOM), Solid State Breaker (SSB) etc which will provide power quality functions at distribution voltages. The rapid response of these devices enables them to operate in real time, providing continuous and dynamic control of the supply including voltage and reactive power regulation, harmonic reduction and elimination of voltage dips. This paper presents the benefits of multilevel inverters when they are used for DPC based custom power devices. Power flow control mechanism, salient features, advantages and disadvantages of direct power control (DPC) using lookup table, SVM, predictive voltage vector and hybrid DPC strategies are discussed in this paper. Simulation results of three level inverter based STATCOM, harmonic analysis of multi level inverters are presented at the end.

Keywords: DPC, DPC-SVM, Dynamic voltage restorer, DSTATCOM, Multilevel inverter, PWM Converter, PDPC, VF-DPC.

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2872 Compensation of Power Quality Disturbances Using DVR

Authors: R. Rezaeipour

Abstract:

One of the key aspects of power quality improvement in power system is the mitigation of voltage sags/swells and flicker. Custom power devices have been known as the best tools for voltage disturbances mitigation as well as reactive power compensation. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) which is the most efficient and effective modern custom power device can provide the most commercial solution to solve several problems of power quality in distribution networks. This paper deals with analysis and simulation technique of DVR based on instantaneous power theory which is a quick control to detect signals. The main purpose of this work is to remove three important disturbances including voltage sags/swells and flicker. Simulation of the proposed method was carried out on two sample systems by using Matlab software environment and the results of simulation show that the proposed method is able to provide desirable power quality in the presence of wide range of disturbances.

Keywords: DVR, Power quality, Voltage sags, Voltage swells, Flicker.

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2871 Three-Level Converters based Generalized Unified Power Quality Conditioner

Authors: Bahr Eldin S. M, K. S. Rama Rao, N. Perumal

Abstract:

A generalized unified power quality conditioner (GUPQC) by using three single-phase three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) connected back-to-back through a common dc link is proposed in this paper as a new custom power device for a three-feeder distribution system. One of the converters is connected in shunt with one feeder for mitigation of current harmonics and reactive power compensation, while the other two VSCs are connected in series with the other two feeders to maintain the load voltage sinusoidal and at constant level. A new control scheme based on synchronous reference frame is proposed for series converters. The simulation analysis on compensation performance of GUPQC based on PSCAD/EMTDC is reported.

Keywords: Custom power device, generalized unified power quality conditioner, PSCAD/ETMDC, voltage source converter

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2870 Run-Time Customisation of Soft-Core CPUs on Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Rehab Abdullah Shendi

Abstract:

The use of customised soft-core processors in which instructions can be integrated into a system in application hardware is increasing in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) field. Specifically, the partial run-time reconfiguration of FPGAs in specialised processors for a particular domain can be very beneficial. In this report, the design and implementation for the customisation of a soft-core MIPS processor using an FPGA and partial reconfiguration (PR) of FPGA technology will be addressed to achieve efficient resource use. This can be achieved using a PR design flow that helps the design fit into a smaller device. Moreover, the impact of static power consumption could be reduced due to runtime reconfiguration. This will be done by configurable custom instructions implemented in the hardware as an extension on the MIPS CPU. The aim of this project is to investigate the PR of FPGAs for run-time adaptations of the instruction set of a soft-core CPU, including the integration of custom instructions and the exploration of the potential to use the MultiBoot feature available in Xilinx FPGAs to carry out the PR process. The system will be evaluated and tested on a Nexus 3 development board featuring a Xilinx Spartran-6 FPGA. The system will be able to load reconfigurable custom instructions dynamically into user programs with the help of the trap handler when the custom instruction is called by the MIPS CPU. The results of this experiment demonstrate that custom instructions in hardware can speed up a certain function and many instructions can be saved when compared to a software implementation of the same function. Implementing custom instructions in hardware is perfectly possible and worth exploring.

Keywords: Customisation, FPGA, MIPS, partial reconfiguration.

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2869 Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Denoising by Customized Thresholding

Authors: Wahiba Mohguen, Raïs El’hadi Bekka

Abstract:

This paper presents a denoising method called EMD-Custom that was based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and the modified Customized Thresholding Function (Custom) algorithms. EMD was applied to decompose adaptively a noisy signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then, all the noisy IMFs got threshold by applying the presented thresholding function to suppress noise and to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method was tested on simulated data and real ECG signal, and the results were compared to the EMD-Based signal denoising methods using the soft and hard thresholding. The results showed the superior performance of the proposed EMD-Custom denoising over the traditional approach. The performances were evaluated in terms of SNR in dB, and Mean Square Error (MSE).

Keywords: Customized thresholding, ECG signal, EMD, hard thresholding, Soft-thresholding.

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2868 Modeling and Simulation of Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigation of Voltage Sags

Authors: S. Ganesh, L. Raguraman, E. Anushya, J. krishnasree

Abstract:

Voltage sags are the most common power quality disturbance in the distribution system. It occurs due to the fault in the electrical network or by the starting of a large induction motor and this can be solved by using the custom power devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR). In this paper DVR is proposed to compensate voltage sags on critical loads dynamically. The DVR consists of VSC, injection transformers, passive filters and energy storage (lead acid battery). By injecting an appropriate voltage, the DVR restores a voltage waveform and ensures constant load voltage. The simulation and experimental results of a DVR using MATLAB software shows clearly the performance of the DVR in mitigating voltage sags.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, Voltage sags, Power quality, Injection methods.

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2867 A Single-Phase Register File with Complementary Pass-Transistor Adiabatic Logic

Authors: Jianping Hu, Xiaolei Sheng

Abstract:

This paper introduces an adiabatic register file based on two-phase CPAL (Complementary Pass-Transistor Adiabatic Logic circuits) with power-gating scheme, which can operate on a single-phase power clock. A 32×32 single-phase adiabatic register file with power-gating scheme has been implemented with TSMC 0.18μm CMOS technology. All the circuits except for the storage cells employ two-phase CPAL circuits, and the storage cell is based on the conventional memory one. The two-phase non-overlap power-clock generator with power-gating scheme is used to supply the proposed adiabatic register file. Full-custom layouts are drawn. The energy and functional simulations have been performed using the net-list extracted from their layouts. Compared with the traditional static CMOS register file, HSPICE simulations show that the proposed adiabatic register file can work very well, and it attains about 73% energy savings at 100 MHz.

Keywords: Low power, Register file, Complementarypass-transistor logic, Adiabatic logic, Single-phase power clock.

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2866 Balanced and Unbalanced Voltage Sag Mitigation Using DSTATCOM with Linear and Nonlinear Loads

Authors: H. Nasiraghdam, A. Jalilian

Abstract:

DSTATCOM is one of the equipments for voltage sag mitigation in power systems. In this paper a new control method for balanced and unbalanced voltage sag mitigation using DSTATCOM is proposed. The control system has two loops in order to regulate compensator current and load voltage. Delayed signal cancellation has been used for sequence separation. The compensator should protect sensitive loads against different types of voltage sag. Performance of the proposed method is investigated under different types of voltage sags for linear and nonlinear loads. Simulation results show appropriate operation of the proposed control system.

Keywords: Custom power, power quality, voltage sagmitigation, current vector control.

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2865 An Extensible Software Infrastructure for Computer Aided Custom Monitoring of Patients in Smart Homes

Authors: Ritwik Dutta, Marilyn Wolf

Abstract:

This paper describes the tradeoffs and the design from scratch of a self-contained, easy-to-use health dashboard software system that provides customizable data tracking for patients in smart homes. The system is made up of different software modules and comprises a front-end and a back-end component. Built with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, the front-end allows adding users, logging into the system, selecting metrics, and specifying health goals. The backend consists of a NoSQL Mongo database, a Python script, and a SimpleHTTPServer written in Python. The database stores user profiles and health data in JSON format. The Python script makes use of the PyMongo driver library to query the database and displays formatted data as a daily snapshot of user health metrics against target goals. Any number of standard and custom metrics can be added to the system, and corresponding health data can be fed automatically, via sensor APIs or manually, as text or picture data files. A real-time METAR request API permits correlating weather data with patient health, and an advanced query system is implemented to allow trend analysis of selected health metrics over custom time intervals. Available on the GitHub repository system, the project is free to use for academic purposes of learning and experimenting, or practical purposes by building on it.

Keywords: Flask, Java, JavaScript, health monitoring, long term care, Mongo, Python, smart home, software engineering, webserver.

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2864 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: Power Quality Disturbances, Power Quality Evaluation, Statistical Analysis.

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2863 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: Power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor.

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2862 Performance of Power System Stabilizer (UNITROL D) in Benghazi North Power Plant

Authors: T. Hussein

Abstract:

The use of power system stabilizers (PSSs) to damp power system swing mode of oscillations is practical important. Our purpose is to retune the power system stabilizer (PSS1A) parameters in Unitrol D produced by ABB– was installed in 1995in Benghazi North Power Plants (BNPPs) at General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL). The optimal values of the power system stabilizer (PSS1A) parameters are determined off-line by a particle swarm optimization technique (PSO). The objective is to damp the local and inter-area modes of oscillations that occur following power system disturbances. The retuned power system stabilizer (PSS1A) can cope with large disturbance at different operating points and has enhanced power system stability.

Keywords: Static excitation system, particle swarm optimization (PSO), power system stabilizer (PSS).

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2861 Power Control in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine

Authors: A. Ourici

Abstract:

This paper proposes a direct power control for doubly-fed induction machine for variable speed wind power generation. It provides decoupled regulation of the primary side active and reactive power and it is suitable for both electric energy generation and drive applications. In order to control the power flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the network, a decoupled control of active and reactive power is synthesized using PI controllers.The obtained simulation results show the feasibility and the effectiveness of the suggested method

Keywords: Doubly fed induction machine , decoupled power control , vector control , active and reactive power, PWM inverter

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2860 The Study on the Wireless Power Transfer System for Mobile Robots

Authors: Hyung-Nam Kim, Won-Yong Chae, Dong-Sul Shin, Ho-Sung Kim, Hee-Je Kim

Abstract:

A wireless power transfer system can attribute to the fields in robot, aviation and space in which lightening the weight of device and improving the movement play an important role. A wireless power transfer system was investigated to overcome the inconvenience of using power cable. Especially a wireless power transfer technology is important element for mobile robots. We proposed the wireless power transfer system of the half-bridge resonant converter with the frequency tracking and optimized power transfer control unit. And the possibility of the application and development system was verified through the experiment with LED loads.

Keywords: Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), resonancefrequency, protection circuit. LED.

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2859 Power Line Carrier for Power Telemetering

Authors: Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Uthai Jaithong, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of power line carrier (PLC) for electrical power telemetering. This system has a special capability of transmitting the measured values to a centralized computer via power lines. The PLC modem as a passive high-pass filter is designed for transmitting and receiving information. Its function is to send the information carrier together with transmitted data by superimposing it on the 50 Hz power frequency signal. A microcontroller is employed to function as the main processing of the modem. It is programmed for PLC control and interfacing with other devices. Each power meter, connected via a PLC modem, is assigned with a unique identification number (address) for distinguishing each device from one another.

Keywords: Power telemetering, Power line carrier, High-passfilter, Digital data transmission

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2858 Energy Efficiency and Renewable for Power System in Macedonia

Authors: Tomislav Stambolic, Anton Causevski

Abstract:

The deficit of power supply in Macedonia is almost 30% or reached up to 3000 GWh in a year. The existing thermal and hydro power plants are not enough to cover the power and energy, so the import increases every year. Therefore, in order to have more domestic energy supply, the new trends in renewable and energy efficiency should be implemented in power sector. The paper gives some perspectives for development of the power system in Macedonia, taking into account the growth of electricity demand and in the same time with implementation of renewable and energy efficiency. The development of power system is made for the period up to 2030 with the period of every 5 years.

Keywords: Energy, Power System, Renewable, Efficiency

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2857 Transfigurative Changes of Governmental Responsibility

Authors: Ákos Cserny

Abstract:

The unequivocal increase of the area of operation of the executive power can happen with the appearance of new areas to be influenced and its integration in the power, or at the expense of the scopes of other organs with public authority. The extension of the executive can only be accepted within the framework of the rule of law if parallel with this process we get constitutional guarantees that the exercise of power is kept within constitutional framework. Failure to do so, however, may result in the lack, deficit of democracy and democratic sense, and may cause an overwhelming dominance of the executive power. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present executive power and responsibility in the context of different dimensions.

Keywords: Confidence, constitution, executive power, liability, parliamentarism.

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2856 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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2855 Using the Schunt Active Power Filter for Compensation of the Distorted and Umbalanced Power System Voltage

Authors: I. Habi, M. Bouguerra, D. Ouahdi, H. Meglouli

Abstract:

In this paper, we apply the PQ theory with shunt active power filter in an unbalanced and distorted power system voltage to compensate the perturbations generated by non linear load. The power factor is also improved in the current source. The PLL system is used to extract the fundamental component of the even sequence under conditions mentioned of the power system voltage.

Keywords: Converter, power filter, harmonies, non-linear load, pq theory, PLL, unbalanced voltages, distorted voltages.

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2854 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: Channel simulation, electromagnetic simulation, power-aware signal integrity analysis, power integrity, PIPro.

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2853 Designing of Full Adder Using Low Power Techniques

Authors: Shashank Gautam

Abstract:

This paper proposes techniques like MT CMOS, POWER GATING, DUAL STACK, GALEOR and LECTOR to reduce the leakage power. A Full Adder has been designed using these techniques and power dissipation is calculated and is compared with general CMOS logic of Full Adder. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed techniques is effective to save power dissipation and to increase the speed of operation of the circuits to a large extent.

Keywords: Low Power, MT CMOS, Galeor, Lector, Power Gating, Dual Stack, Full Adder.

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2852 Unified Power Flow Controller Placement to Improve Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: M. Salehi, A. A. Motie Birjandi, F. Namdari

Abstract:

Weak damping of low frequency oscillations is a frequent phenomenon in electrical power systems. These frequencies can be damped by power system stabilizers. Unified power flow controller (UPFC), as one of the most important FACTS devices, can be applied to increase the damping of power system oscillations and the more effect of this controller on increasing the damping of oscillations depends on its proper placement in power systems. In this paper, a technique based on controllability is proposed to select proper location of UPFC and the best input control signal in order to enhance damping of power oscillations. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated in IEEE 9 bus power system.

Keywords: Unified power flow controller (UPFC), controllability, small signal analysis, eigenvalues.

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2851 Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems

Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju, Ch.Padmanabharaju, T.Ramana

Abstract:

The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controller used to control power flows of multiple transmission lines. This paper presents a mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM). This model is incorporated in Newton- Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the power flow control in transmission lines in which IPFC is placed. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this model. Numerical results are carried out on a standard 2 machine 5 bus system. The results without and with IPFC are compared in terms of voltages, active and reactive power flows to demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model.

Keywords: flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM), power flow control.

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2850 Design of an Ultra Low Power Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator

Authors: Mahdi Ebrahimzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce an ultra low power CMOS LC oscillator and analyze a method to design a low power low phase noise complementary CMOS LC oscillator. A 1.8GHz oscillator is designed based on this analysis. The circuit has power supply equal to 1.1 V and dissipates 0.17 mW power. The oscillator is also optimized for low phase noise behavior. The oscillator phase noise is -126.2 dBc/Hz and -144.4 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and 8 MHz offset respectively.

Keywords: LC oscillator, Low Power, Low Phase Noise

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2849 A Power-Gating Scheme to Reduce Leakage Power for P-type Adiabatic Logic Circuits

Authors: Hong Li, Linfeng Li, Jianping Hu

Abstract:

With rapid technology scaling, the proportion of the static power consumption catches up with dynamic power consumption gradually. To decrease leakage consumption is becoming more and more important in low-power design. This paper presents a power-gating scheme for P-DTGAL (p-type dual transmission gate adiabatic logic) circuits to reduce leakage power dissipations under deep submicron process. The energy dissipations of P-DTGAL circuits with power-gating scheme are investigated in different processes, frequencies and active ratios. BSIM4 model is adopted to reflect the characteristics of the leakage currents. HSPICE simulations show that the leakage loss is greatly reduced by using the P-DTGAL with power-gating techniques.

Keywords: Leakage reduction, low power, deep submicronCMOS circuits, P-type adiabatic circuits.

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2848 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh

Abstract:

We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, Optical fiber, Quality, Wavelength Converter.

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2847 High-Efficiency Comparator for Low-Power Application

Authors: M. Yousefi, N. Nasirzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, dynamic comparator structure employing two methods for power consumption reduction with applications in low-power high-speed analog-to-digital converters have been presented. The proposed comparator has low consumption thanks to power reduction methods. They have the ability for offset adjustment. The comparator consumes 14.3 μW at 100 MHz which is equal to 11.8 fJ. The comparator has been designed and simulated in 180 nm CMOS. Layouts occupy 210 μm2.

Keywords: Comparator, low, power, efficiency.

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2846 Curbing Abuses of Legal Power in the Society

Authors: Tajudeen Ojo Ibraheem

Abstract:

In a world characterized by greed and the lust for power and its attendant trappings, abuse of legal power is nothing new to most of us. Legal abuses of power abound in all fields of human endeavour. Accounts of such abuses dominate the mass media and for the average individual, no single day goes by without his getting to hear about at least one such occurrence. This paper briefly looks at the meaning of legal power, what legal abuse is all about, its causes, and some of its manifestations in the society. Its consequences will also be discussed and some suggestions for reform will be made. In the course of the paper, references will be made to various jurisdictions around the world.

Keywords: Abuse, legal, power, society.

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2845 Power Saving System in Green Data Center

Authors: Joon-young Jung, Dong-oh Kang, Chang-seok Bae

Abstract:

Power consumption is rapidly increased in data centers because the number of data center is increased and more the scale of data center become larger. Therefore, it is one of key research items to reduce power consumption in data center. The peak power of a typical server is around 250 watts. When a server is idle, it continues to use around 60% of the power consumed when in use, though vendors are putting effort into reducing this “idle" power load. Servers tend to work at only around a 5% to 20% utilization rate, partly because of response time concerns. An average of 10% of servers in their data centers was unused. In those reason, we propose dynamic power management system to reduce power consumption in green data center. Experiment result shows that about 55% power consumption is reduced at idle time.

Keywords: Data Center, Green IT, Management Server, Power Saving.

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