Search results for: distorted voltages.
164 Using the Schunt Active Power Filter for Compensation of the Distorted and Umbalanced Power System Voltage
Authors: I. Habi, M. Bouguerra, D. Ouahdi, H. Meglouli
In this paper, we apply the PQ theory with shunt active power filter in an unbalanced and distorted power system voltage to compensate the perturbations generated by non linear load. The power factor is also improved in the current source. The PLL system is used to extract the fundamental component of the even sequence under conditions mentioned of the power system voltage.
Keywords: Converter, power filter, harmonies, non-linear load, pq theory, PLL, unbalanced voltages, distorted voltages.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1478
163 Shunt Power Active Filter Control under NonIdeal Voltages Conditions
Authors: H. Abaali, M. T. Lamchich, M. Raoufi
In this paper, we propose the Modified Synchronous Detection (MSD) Method for determining the reference compensating currents of the shunt active power filter under non sinusoidal voltages conditions. For controlling the inverter switching we used the PI regulator. The numerical simulation results, using Power System Blockset Toolbox PSB of Matlab, from a complete structure, are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Distorted, harmonic, Modified Synchronous Detection Method, PI regulator, Shunt Active Power Filter, unbalanced.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1613
162 Syntactic Recognition of Distorted Patterns
Authors: Marek Skomorowski
Abstract:In syntactic pattern recognition a pattern can be represented by a graph. Given an unknown pattern represented by a graph g, the problem of recognition is to determine if the graph g belongs to a language L(G) generated by a graph grammar G. The so-called IE graphs have been defined in  for a description of patterns. The IE graphs are generated by so-called ETPL(k) graph grammars defined in . An efficient, parsing algorithm for ETPL(k) graph grammars for syntactic recognition of patterns represented by IE graphs has been presented in . In practice, structural descriptions may contain pattern distortions, so that the assignment of a graph g, representing an unknown pattern, to a graph language L(G) generated by an ETPL(k) graph grammar G is rejected by the ETPL(k) type parsing. Therefore, there is a need for constructing effective parsing algorithms for recognition of distorted patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to syntactic recognition of distorted patterns. To take into account all variations of a distorted pattern under study, a probabilistic description of the pattern is needed. A random IE graph approach is proposed here for such a description ().
Keywords: Syntactic pattern recognition, Distorted patterns, Random graphs, Graph grammars.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1278
161 Optimizing Voltage Parameter of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinsonian Patients by Modeling
Authors: M. Sadeghi, A.H. Jafari, S.M.P. Firoozabadi
Abstract:Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is the second solution for Parkinson's Disease. Its three parameters are: frequency, pulse width and voltage. They must be optimized to achieve successful treatment. Nowadays it is done clinically by neurologists and there is not certain numerical method to detect them. The aim of this research is to introduce simulation and modeling of Parkinson's Disease treatment as a computational procedure to select optimum voltage. We recorded finger tremor signals of some Parkinsonian patients under DBS treatment at constant frequency and pulse width but variable voltages; then, we adapted a new model to fit these data. The optimum voltages obtained by data fitting results were the same as neurologists- commented voltages, which means modeling can be used as an engineering method to select optimum stimulation voltages.
Keywords: modeling, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson'sdisease, tremor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1626
160 SVPWM Based Two Level VSI for Micro Grids
Authors: P. V. V. Rama Rao, M. V. Srikanth, S. Dileep Kumar Varma
With advances in solid-state power electronic devices and microprocessors, various pulse-width-modulation (PWM) techniques have been developed for industrial applications. This paper presents the comparison of two different PWM techniques, the sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique and the space-vector PWM (SVPWM) technique applied to two level VSI for micro grid applications. These two methods are compared by discussing their ease of implementation and by analyzing the output harmonic spectra of various output voltages (line-to-neutral voltages, and line-to-line voltages) and their total harmonic distortion (THD). The SVPWM technique in the under-modulation region can increase the fundamental output voltage by 15.5% over the SPWM technique.
Keywords: SPWM, SVPWM, VSI, Modulation Index.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3104
159 A Cell-centered Diffusion Finite Volume Scheme and it's Application to Magnetic Flux Compression Generators
Authors: Qiang Zhao, Yina Shi, Guangwei Yuan, Zhiwei Dong
A cell-centered finite volume scheme for discretizing diffusion operators on distorted quadrilateral meshes has recently been designed and added to APMFCG to enable that code to be used as a tool for studying explosive magnetic flux compression generators. This paper describes this scheme. Comparisons with analytic results for 2-D test cases are presented, as well as 2-D results from a test of a "realistic" generator configuration.
Keywords: Cell-centered FVM, distorted meshes, diffusion scheme, MFCG.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1255
158 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell
Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou
Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.
Keywords: Aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2521
157 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes
Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng
In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.
Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing, forming, set and reset voltages, XPS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 844
156 A Comprehensive Approach in Calculating the Impact of the Ground on Radiated Electromagnetic Fields Due to Lightning
Authors: Lahcene Boukelkoul
The influence of finite ground conductivity is of great importance in calculating the induced voltages from the radiated electromagnetic fields due to lightning. In this paper, we try to give a comprehensive approach to calculate the impact of the ground on the radiated electromagnetic fields to lightning. The vertical component of lightning electric field is calculated with a reasonable approximation assuming a perfectly conducting ground in case the observation point does not exceed a few kilometers from the lightning channel. However, for distant observation points the radiated vertical component of lightning electric field is attenuated due finitely conducting ground. The attenuation is calculated using the expression elaborated for both low and high frequencies. The horizontal component of the electric field, however, is more affected by a finite conductivity of a ground. Besides, the contribution of the horizontal component of the electric field, to induced voltages on an overhead transmission line, is greater than that of the vertical component. Therefore, the calculation of the horizontal electric field is great concern for the simulation of lightning-induced voltages. For field to transmission lines coupling the ground impedance is calculated for early time behavior and for low frequency range.
Keywords: Ground impedance, horizontal electric field, lightning, transient propagation, vertical electric field.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1737
155 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity
Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das
Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern- Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1.Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.
Keywords: Anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2633
154 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers
Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır
In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.
Keywords: Transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 892
153 Study on the Mechanical Behavior of the Varactor of a Micro-Phase Shifter
Authors: Mehrdad Nouri Khajavi, Sajjad Ahoui Ghazvin, Ghader Rezazadeh, Mohammad Fathalilou
Abstract:In this paper static and dynamic response of a varactor of a micro-phase shifter to DC, step DC and AC voltages have been studied. By presenting a mathematical modeling Galerkin-based step by step linearization method (SSLM) and Galerkin-based reduced order model have been used to solve the governing static and dynamic equations, respectively. The calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages have been validated by previous experimental and theoretical results and a good agreement has been achieved. Then the frequency response and phase diagram of the system has been studied. It has been shown that applying the DC voltage shifts down the phase diagram and frequency response. Also increasing the damping ratio shifts up the phase diagram.
Keywords: MEMS, Phase Shifter, Pull-in Voltage, PhaseDiagramProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1565
152 Investigation of Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties of Tc-CuPc: PCBM Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) under Dark Conditions
Authors: Shahid M. Khan, Muhammad H. Sayyad
An organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) was fabricated using a blended film containing Copper (II) tetrakis(4-acumylphenoxy) phthalocyanine (Tc-CuPc) along with [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Weight ratio between Tc-CuPc and PCBM was 1:1. The electrical properties of Tc-CuPc: PCBM BHJ were examined. Rectifying nature of the BHJ was displayed by current-voltage (I-V) curves, recorded in dark and at various temperatures. At low voltages, conduction was ohmic succeeded by space-charge limiting current (SCLC) conduction at higher voltages in which exponential trap distribution was dominant. Series resistance, shunt resistance, ideality factor, effective barrier height and mobility at room temperature were found to be 526 4, 482 k4, 3.7, 0.17 eV and 2×10-7 cm2V-1s-1 respectively. Temperature effect towards different BHJ parameters was observed under dark condition.
Keywords: Bulk heterojunction, PCBM, phthalocyanine, spin coating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1669
151 Harmonic Pollution Caused by Non-Linear Load: Analysis and Identification
Authors: K. Khlifi, A. Haddouk, M. Hlaili, H. Mechergui
The present paper provides a detailed analysis of prior methods and approaches for non-linear load identification in residential buildings. The main goal of this analysis is to decipher the distorted signals and to estimate the harmonics influence on power systems. We have performed an analytical study of non-linear loads behavior in the residential environment. Simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the distorted rate of the current and follow his behavior. To complete this work, an instrumental platform has been realized to carry out practical tests on single-phase non-linear loads which illustrate the current consumption of some domestic appliances supplied with single-phase sinusoidal voltage. These non-linear loads have been processed and tracked in order to limit their influence on the power grid and to reduce the Joule effect losses. As a result, the study has allowed to identify responsible circuits of harmonic pollution.
Keywords: Distortion rate, harmonic analysis, harmonic pollution, non-linear load, power factor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 679
150 Subjective Versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance Images
Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran
Abstract:Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.
Keywords: Medical Resonance (MR) images, Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS), Full Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1968
149 Long-term Monitor of Seawater by using TiO2:Ru Sensing Electrode for Hard Clam Cultivation
Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Cheng-Wei Chen
Abstract:The hard clam (meretrix lusoria) cultivated industry has been developed vigorously for recent years in Taiwan, and seawater quality determines the cultivated environment. The pH concentration variation affects survival rate of meretrix lusoria immediately. In order to monitor seawater quality, solid-state sensing electrode of ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Ru) is developed to measure hydrogen ion concentration in different cultivated solutions. Because the TiO2:Ru sensing electrode has high chemical stability and superior sensing characteristics, thus it is applied as a pH sensor. Response voltages of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are readout by instrument amplifier in different sample solutions. Mean sensitivity and linearity of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are 55.20 mV/pH and 0.999 from pH1 to pH13, respectively. We expect that the TiO2:Ru sensing electrode can be applied to real environment measurement, therefore we collect two sample solutions by different meretrix lusoria cultivated ponds in the Yunlin, Taiwan. The two sample solutions are both measured for 200 seconds after calibration of standard pH buffer solutions (pH7, pH8 and pH 9). Mean response voltages of sample 1 and sample 2 are -178.758 mV (Standard deviation=0.427 mV) and -180.206 mV (Standard deviation =0.399 mV), respectively. Response voltages of the two sample solutions are between pH 8 and pH 9 which conform to weak alkali range and suitable meretrix lusoria growth. For long-term monitoring, drift of cultivated solutions (sample 1 and sample 2) are 1.16 mV/hour and 1.03 mV/hour, respectively.
Keywords: Co-sputtering system, Hard clam (meretrix lusoria), Ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide, Solid-state sensing electrode.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1520
148 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator – Unsymmetrical Point Operation
Authors: P. Pistelok
The article presents the concept of an electromagnetic circuit generator with permanent magnets mounted on the surface rotor core designed for single phase work. Computation field-circuit model was shown. The spectrum of time course of voltages in the idle work was presented. The cross section with graphically presentation of magnetic induction in particular parts of electromagnetic circuits was presented. Distribution of magnetic induction at the rated load point for each phase was shown. The time course of voltages and currents for each phases for rated power were displayed. An analysis of laboratory results and measurement of load characteristics of the generator was discussed. The work deals with three electromagnetic circuits of generators with permanent magnet where output voltage characteristics versus rated power were expressed.
Keywords: Permanent magnet generator, permanent magnets, vibration, course of torque, single phase work, asymmetrical three phase work.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2258
147 Closely Parametrical Model for an Electrical Arc Furnace
Authors: Labar Hocine, Dgeghader Yacine, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Bounaya Kamel
Abstract:To maximise furnace production it-s necessary to optimise furnace control, with the objectives of achieving maximum power input into the melting process, minimum network distortion and power-off time, without compromise on quality and safety. This can be achieved with on the one hand by an appropriate electrode control and on the other hand by a minimum of AC transformer switching. Electrical arc is a stochastic process; witch is the principal cause of power quality problems, including voltages dips, harmonic distortion, unbalance loads and flicker. So it is difficult to make an appropriate model for an Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF). The factors that effect EAF operation are the melting or refining materials, melting stage, electrode position (arc length), electrode arm control and short circuit power of the feeder. So arc voltages, current and power are defined as a nonlinear function of the arc length. In this article we propose our own empirical function of the EAF and model, for the mean stages of the melting process, thanks to the measurements in the steel factory.
Keywords: Modelling, electrical arc, melting, power, EAF, steel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3108
146 Electric Field Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of 400 kV Silicone Composite Insulator
Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, N. Sumathi, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya
Abstract:In electrical power system, high voltage insulators are necessary for consistent performance. All insulators are exposed to different mechanical and electrical stresses. Mechanical stresses occur due to various loads such as wind load, hardware and conductors weight. Electrical stresses are due to over voltages and operating voltages. The performance analysis of polymer insulators is an essential, as most of the electrical utility companies are employing polymer insulators for new and updated transmission lines. In this paper, electric field is analyzed for 400 kV silicone (SiR) composite insulator by COULOMB 3D software based on boundary element method. The field results are compared with EPRI reference values. Our results proved that values at critical regions are very less compared to EPRI reference values. And also experimentally 400 kV single V suspension string is evaluated as per IEC standards.
Keywords: Electric field analysis, silicone composite insulator, boundary element method, RIV, Corona.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
145 Low Voltage High Gain Linear Class AB CMOS OTA with DC Level Input Stage
Authors: Houda Bdiri Gabbouj, Néjib Hassen, Kamel Besbes
This paper presents a low-voltage low-power differential linear transconductor with near rail-to-rail input swing. Based on the current-mirror OTA topology, the proposed transconductor combines the Flipped Voltage Follower (FVF) technique to linearize the transconductor behavior that leads to class- AB linear operation and the virtual transistor technique to lower the effective threshold voltages of the transistors which offers an advantage in terms of low supply requirement. Design of the OTA has been discussed. It operates at supply voltages of about ±0.8V. Simulation results for 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology show a good input range of 1Vpp with a high DC gain of 81.53dB and a total harmonic distortion of -40dB at 1MHz for an input of 1Vpp. The main aim of this paper is to present and compare new OTA design with high transconductance, which has a potential to be used in low voltage applications.
Keywords: Amplifier class AB, current mirror, flipped voltage follower, low voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4368
144 Solution of Optimal Reactive Power Flow using Biogeography-Based Optimization
Authors: Aniruddha Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Chattopadhyay
Abstract:Optimal reactive power flow is an optimization problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The control variables are generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) technique has been applied to solve different kinds of optimal reactive power flow problems subject to operational constraints like power balance constraint, line flow and bus voltages limits etc. BBO searches for the global optimum mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. In the present work, BBO has been applied to solve the optimal reactive power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus and standard IEEE 57-bus power systems for minimization of active power loss. The superiority of the proposed method has been demonstrated. Considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed method seems to be a promising one for solving these problems.
Keywords: Active Power Loss, Biogeography-Based Optimization, Migration, Mutation, Optimal Reactive Power Flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4164
143 Forming the Differential-Algebraic Model of Radial Power Systems for Simulation of both Transient and Steady-State Conditions
Authors: Saleh A. Al-Jufout
Abstract:This paper presents a procedure of forming the mathematical model of radial electric power systems for simulation of both transient and steady-state conditions. The research idea has been based on nodal voltages technique and on differentiation of Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) applied to each non-reference node of the radial system, the result of which the nodal voltages has been calculated by solving a system of algebraic equations. Currents of the electric power system components have been determined by solving their respective differential equations. Transforming the three-phase coordinate system into Cartesian coordinate system in the model decreased the overall number of equations by one third. The use of Cartesian coordinate system does not ignore the DC component during transient conditions, but restricts the model's implementation for symmetrical modes of operation only. An example of the input data for a four-bus radial electric power system has been calculated.
Keywords: Mathematical Modelling, Radial Power System, Steady-State, TransientsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1152
142 Power System Voltage Control using LP and Artificial Neural Network
Authors: A. Sina, A. Aeenmehr, H. Mohamadian
Abstract:Optimization and control of reactive power distribution in the power systems leads to the better operation of the reactive power resources. Reactive power control reduces considerably the power losses and effective loads and improves the power factor of the power systems. Another important reason of the reactive power control is improving the voltage profile of the power system. In this paper, voltage and reactive power control using Neural Network techniques have been applied to the 33 shines- Tehran Electric Company. In this suggested ANN, the voltages of PQ shines have been considered as the input of the ANN. Also, the generators voltages, tap transformers and shunt compensators have been considered as the output of ANN. Results of this techniques have been compared with the Linear Programming. Minimization of the transmission line power losses has been considered as the objective function of the linear programming technique. The comparison of the results of the ANN technique with the LP shows that the ANN technique improves the precision and reduces the computation time. ANN technique also has a simple structure and this causes to use the operator experience.
Keywords: voltage control, linear programming, artificial neural network, power systemsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
141 Power Quality Improvement Using PI and Fuzzy Logic Controllers Based Shunt Active Filter
Authors: Dipen A. Mistry, Bhupelly Dheeraj, Ravit Gautam, Manmohan Singh Meena, Suresh Mikkili
In recent years the large scale use of the power electronic equipment has led to an increase of harmonics in the power system. The harmonics results into a poor power quality and have great adverse economical impact on the utilities and customers. Current harmonics are one of the most common power quality problems and are usually resolved by using shunt active filter (SHAF). The main objective of this work is to develop PI and Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) to analyze the performance of Shunt Active Filter for mitigating current harmonics under balanced and unbalanced sinusoidal source voltage conditions for normal load and increased load. When the supply voltages are ideal (balanced), both PI and FLC are converging to the same compensation characteristics. However, the supply voltages are non-ideal (unbalanced), FLC offers outstanding results. Simulation results validate the superiority of FLC with triangular membership function over the PI controller.
Keywords: DC link voltage, Fuzzy logic controller, Harmonics, PI controller, Shunt Active Filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5008
140 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement
Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee
This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.
Keywords: Battery, Recovery Effect, Low-Power, Alternating Battery Cell Discharging, Adaptive Discharge Time Control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1382
139 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator
Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan
Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.
Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, Harmonics, Ripple factor, HVDC generator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 654
138 Fabrication of Nanoporous Template of Aluminum Oxide with High Regularity Using Hard Anodization Method
Authors: Hamed Rezazadeh, Majid Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Reza Zeidi Yam
Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized. The anodic oxide structure originates from the aluminum substrate and is composed entirely of aluminum oxide. This aluminum oxide is not applied to the surface like paint or plating, but is fully integrated with the underlying aluminum substrate, so cannot chip or peel. It has a highly ordered, porous structure that allows for secondary processes such as coloring and sealing. In this experimental paper, we focus on a reliable method for fabricating nanoporous alumina with high regularity. Starting from study of nanostructure materials synthesize methods. After that, porous alumina fabricate in the laboratory by anodization of aluminum oxide. Hard anodization processes are employed to fabricate the nanoporous alumina using 0.3M oxalic acid and 90, 120 and 140 anodized voltages. The nanoporous templates were characterized by SEM and FFT. The nanoporous templates using 140 voltages have high ordered. The pore formation, influence of the experimental conditions on the pore formation, the structural characteristics of the pore and the oxide chemical reactions involved in the pore growth are discuss.
Keywords: Alumina, Nanoporous Template, AnodizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2758
137 Investigation of the Effect of Impulse Voltage to Flashover by Using Water Jet
Authors: Harun Gülan, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu, Mehmet Cebeci
The main function of the insulators used in high voltage (HV) transmission lines is to insulate the energized conductor from the pole and hence from the ground. However, when the insulators fail to perform this insulation function due to various effects, failures occur. The deterioration of the insulation results either from breakdown or surface flashover. The surface flashover is caused by the layer of pollution that forms conductivity on the surface of the insulator, such as salt, carbonaceous compounds, rain, moisture, fog, dew, industrial pollution and desert dust. The source of the majority of failures and interruptions in HV lines is surface flashover. This threatens the continuity of supply and causes significant economic losses. Pollution flashover in HV insulators is still a serious problem that has not been fully resolved. In this study, a water jet test system has been established in order to investigate the behavior of insulators under dirty conditions and to determine their flashover performance. Flashover behavior of the insulators is examined by applying impulse voltages in the test system. This study aims to investigate the insulator behaviour under high impulse voltages. For this purpose, a water jet test system was installed and experimental results were obtained over a real system and analyzed. By using the water jet test system instead of the actual insulator, the damage to the insulator as a result of the flashover that would occur under impulse voltage was prevented. The results of the test system performed an important role in determining the insulator behavior and provided predictability.
Keywords: Insulator, pollution flashover, high impulse voltage, water jet model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 633
136 Estimation of Attenuation and Phase Delay in Driving Voltage Waveform of a Digital-Noiseless, Ultra-High-Speed Image Sensor
Authors: V. T. S. Dao, T. G. Etoh, C. Vo Le, H. D. Nguyen, K. Takehara, T. Akino, K. Nishi
Since 2004, we have been developing an in-situ storage image sensor (ISIS) that captures more than 100 consecutive images at a frame rate of 10 Mfps with ultra-high sensitivity as well as the video camera for use with this ISIS. Currently, basic research is continuing in an attempt to increase the frame rate up to 100 Mfps and above. In order to suppress electro-magnetic noise at such high frequency, a digital-noiseless imaging transfer scheme has been developed utilizing solely sinusoidal driving voltages. This paper presents highly efficient-yet-accurate expressions to estimate attenuation as well as phase delay of driving voltages through RC networks of an ultra-high-speed image sensor. Elmore metric for a fundamental RC chain is employed as the first-order approximation. By application of dimensional analysis to SPICE data, we found a simple expression that significantly improves the accuracy of the approximation. Similarly, another simple closed-form model to estimate phase delay through fundamental RC networks is also obtained. Estimation error of both expressions is much less than previous works, only less 2% for most of the cases . The framework of this analysis can be extended to address similar issues of other VLSI structures.
Keywords: Dimensional Analysis, ISIS, Digital-noiseless, RC network, Attenuation, Phase Delay, Elmore modelProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1338
135 Star-Hexagon Transformer Supported UPQC
Authors: Yash Pal, A.Swarup, Bhim Singh
Abstract:A new topology of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is proposed for different power quality (PQ) improvement in a three-phase four-wire (3P-4W) distribution system. For neutral current mitigation, a star-hexagon transformer is connected in shunt near the load along with three-leg voltage source inverters (VSIs) based UPQC. For the mitigation of source neutral current, the uses of passive elements are advantageous over the active compensation due to ruggedness and less complexity of control. In addition to this, by connecting a star-hexagon transformer for neutral current mitigation the over all rating of the UPQC is reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of 3P-4W UPQC is evaluated for power-factor correction, load balancing, neutral current mitigation and mitigation of voltage and currents harmonics. A simple control algorithm based on Unit Vector Template (UVT) technique is used as a control strategy of UPQC for mitigation of different PQ problems. In this control scheme, the current/voltage control is applied over the fundamental supply currents/voltages instead of fast changing APFs currents/voltages, thereby reducing the computational delay. Moreover, no extra control is required for neutral source current compensation; hence the numbers of current sensors are reduced. The performance of the proposed topology of UPQC is analyzed through simulations results using MATLAB software with its Simulink and Power System Block set toolboxes.
Keywords: Power-factor correction, Load balancing, UPQC, Voltage and Current harmonics, Neutral current mitigation, Starhexagon transformer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2194