Search results for: protection circuit. LED.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1131

Search results for: protection circuit. LED.

1131 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), holding Voltage.

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1130 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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1129 A Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based ESD Protection Circuit with High Holding Voltage and High Robustness Characteristics

Authors: Kyoung-il Do, Byung-seok Lee, Hee-guk Chae, Jeong-yun Seo Yong-seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-based Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with high holding voltage and high robustness characteristics is proposed. Unlike conventional SCR, the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage and provides effective ESD protection with latch-up immunity. In addition, the TCAD simulation results show that the proposed circuit has better electrical characteristics than the conventional SCR. A stack technology was used for voltage-specific applications. Consequentially, the proposed circuit has a trigger voltage of 17.60 V and a holding voltage of 3.64 V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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1128 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3 and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, Holding voltage, Latch-up.

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1127 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage.

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1126 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Current Sensing, Power-on protection, Step-up Converter, Soft-start.

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1125 Fault Classification of Double Circuit Transmission Line Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Anamika Jain, A. S. Thoke, R. N. Patel

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problems encountered by conventional distance relays when protecting double-circuit transmission lines. The problems arise principally as a result of the mutual coupling between the two circuits under different fault conditions; this mutual coupling is highly nonlinear in nature. An adaptive protection scheme is proposed for such lines based on application of artificial neural network (ANN). ANN has the ability to classify the nonlinear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. One of the key points of the present work is that only current signals measured at local end have been used to detect and classify the faults in the double circuit transmission line with double end infeed. The adaptive protection scheme is tested under a specific fault type, but varying fault location, fault resistance, fault inception angle and with remote end infeed. An improved performance is experienced once the neural network is trained adequately, which performs precisely when faced with different system parameters and conditions. The entire test results clearly show that the fault is detected and classified within a quarter cycle; thus the proposed adaptive protection technique is well suited for double circuit transmission line fault detection & classification. Results of performance studies show that the proposed neural network-based module can improve the performance of conventional fault selection algorithms.

Keywords: Double circuit transmission line, Fault detection and classification, High impedance fault and Artificial Neural Network.

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1124 An Approach in the Improvement of the Reliability of Impedance Relay

Authors: D. Ouahdi, R. Ladjeroud, I. Habi

Abstract:

The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.

Keywords: Distance Protection, Fault Detection, negative sequence, overload, Transmission line.

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1123 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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1122 Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.

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1121 A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology

Authors: H. Asiaban, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current, low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE. The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: Current-mode, squarer/divider, low-pass filter, converter, translinear loop, RMS-to-DC.

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1120 Experience-based Learning Program for Electronic Circuit Design

Authors: Koyu Chinen, Haruka Mikamori

Abstract:

A new multi-step comprehensive experience-based learning program was developed and carried out so that the students understood about what was the principle of the circuit function and how the designed circuit was used in actual advanced applications.

Keywords: Electronic circuit education, Experience based learning, Comprehensive education,

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1119 Non-Isolated Direct AC-DC Converter Design with BCM-PFC Circuit

Authors: Y. Kobori, L. Xing, H. Gao, N.Onozawa, S. Wu, S. N. Mohyar, Z. Nosker, H. Kobayashi, N. Takai, K. Niitsu

Abstract:

This paper proposes two types of non-isolated direct AC-DC converters. First, it shows a buck-boost converter with an H-bridge, which requires few components (three switches, two diodes, one inductor and one capacitor) to convert AC input to DC output directly. This circuit can handle a wide range of output voltage. Second, a direct AC-DC buck converter is proposed for lower output voltage applications. This circuit is analyzed with output voltage of 12V. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for both circuits.

Keywords: AC-DC converter, Buck-boost converter, Buck converter, PFC, BCM PFC circuit.

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1118 Realization of a Temperature Based Automatic Controlled Domestic Electric Boiling System

Authors: Shengqi Yu, Jinwei Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a kind of analog circuit based temperature control system, which is mainly composed by threshold control signal circuit, synchronization signal circuit and trigger pulse circuit. Firstly, the temperature feedback signal function is realized by temperature sensor TS503F3950E. Secondly, the main control circuit forms the cycle controlled pulse signal to control the thyristor switching model. Finally two reverse paralleled thyristors regulate the output power by their switching state. In the consequence, this is a modernized and energy-saving domestic electric heating system.

Keywords: Time base circuit, automatic control, zero-crossing trigger, temperature control.

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1117 Three Phase Fault Analysis of DC-Link Rectifier using new Power Differential Protection Concept

Authors: A. Gamil, G. Herold

Abstract:

The concept of differential protection based on current quantities has been discussed in many paper and researches. For certificating and inverting of currents and voltages through converter systems, there is no conventional current differential relay, which can compare current quantities, because they are different in form and frequencies. An overview over a new concept of differential protection for converters based on instantaneous power quantities will be discussed in this paper. To drive the power quantities a mathematical background of the space vectors will be introduced. A simple DCLink is preceded in this paper and a power analysis description and simulation is derived using Matlab®/ SimulinkTM concerning a certain construction scheme of Power Differential Relay System. Finally a complete analysis of three phase fault in DC-Link Rectifier is discussed to ensure the ability of Power Differential Protection System to detect the fault in main and selectivity protection sections.

Keywords: Space Vectors, Power Differential Relay (PDR), Short Circuit Power, Diode Recovery Energy, Detected Power Differential Signal (DPDS), Power Space Vector (PSV), Power Space Vector Protection Area (PSVPA).

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1116 A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

Authors: O. Hashemipour, S. G. Nabavi

Abstract:

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Keywords: Zero-voltage-technique, MOS-resistor, OTA, Feedback-resistor.

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1115 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit

Authors: Davit Mirzoyan, Ararat Khachatryan

Abstract:

A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.

Keywords: Detection, monitoring, process corner, process variation.

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1114 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs

Authors: Jae Hyung Noh, Hang Geun Jeong

Abstract:

The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.

Keywords: Phase-locked loop (PLL), charge-pump, phase/frequency detector (PFD), regulated cascode.

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1113 Realization of Electronically Controllable Current-mode Square-rooting Circuit Based on MO-CFTA

Authors: P. Silapan, C. Chanapromma, T. Worachak

Abstract:

This article proposes a current-mode square-rooting circuit using current follower transconductance amplifier (CTFA). The amplitude of the output current can be electronically controlled via input bias current with wide input dynamic range. The proposed circuit consists of only single CFTA. Without any matching conditions and external passive elements, the circuit is then appropriate for an IC architecture. The magnitude of the output signal is temperature-insensitive. The PSpice simulation results are depicted, and the given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The power consumption is approximately 1.96mW at ±1.5V supply voltages.

Keywords: CFTA, Current-mode, Square-rooting Circuit

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1112 A Low-Voltage Current-Mode Wheatstone Bridge using CMOS Transistors

Authors: Ebrahim Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new circuit arrangement for a current-mode Wheatstone bridge that is suitable for low-voltage integrated circuits implementation. Compared to the other proposed circuits, this circuit features severe reduction of the elements number, low supply voltage (1V) and low power consumption (<350uW). In addition, the circuit has favorable nonlinearity error (<0.35%), operate with multiple sensors and works by single supply voltage. The circuit employs MOSFET transistors, so it can be used for standard CMOS fabrication. Simulation results by HSPICE show high performance of the circuit and confirm the validity of the proposed design technique.

Keywords: Wheatstone bridge, current-mode, low-voltage, MOS.

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1111 Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic based Full Adder Circuit

Authors: Shipra Upadhyay , R. K. Nagaria, R. A. Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the design and experimental evaluation of complementary energy path adiabatic logic (CEPAL) based 1 bit full adder circuit. A simulative investigation on the proposed full adder has been done using VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of cadence in 0.18μm UMC technology and its performance has been compared with the conventional CMOS full adder circuit. The CEPAL based full adder circuit exhibits the energy saving of 70% to the conventional CMOS full adder circuit, at 100 MHz frequency and 1.8V operating voltage.

Keywords: Adiabatic, CEPAL, full adder, power clock

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1110 Reliability Modeling and Data Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Subject to Random Shocks

Authors: Rafik Medjoudj, Rabah Medjoudj, D. Aissani

Abstract:

The electrical substation components are often subject to degradation due to over-voltage or over-current, caused by a short circuit or a lightning. A particular interest is given to the circuit breaker, regarding the importance of its function and its dangerous failure. This component degrades gradually due to the use, and it is also subject to the shock process resulted from the stress of isolating the fault when a short circuit occurs in the system. In this paper, based on failure mechanisms developments, the wear out of the circuit breaker contacts is modeled. The aim of this work is to evaluate its reliability and consequently its residual lifetime. The shock process is based on two random variables such as: the arrival of shocks and their magnitudes. The arrival of shocks was modeled using homogeneous Poisson process (HPP). By simulation, the dates of short-circuit arrivals were generated accompanied with their magnitudes. The same principle of simulation is applied to the amount of cumulative wear out contacts. The objective reached is to find the formulation of the wear function depending on the number of solicitations of the circuit breaker.

Keywords: reliability, short-circuit, models of shocks.

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1109 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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1108 Surge Protection of Power Supply used for Automation Devices in Power Distribution System

Authors: Liheng Ying, Guangjiong Sun

Abstract:

The intent of this essay is to evaluate the effectiveness of surge suppressor aimed at power supply used for automation devices in power distribution system which is consist of MOV and T type low-pass filter. Books, journal articles and e-sources related to surge protection of power supply used for automation devices in power distribution system were consulted, and the useful information was organized, analyzed and developed into five parts: characteristics of surge wave, protection against surge wave, impedance characteristics of target, using Matlab to simulate circuit response after 5kV,1.2/50s surge wave and suggestions for surge protection. The results indicate that various types of load situation have great impact on the effectiveness of surge protective device. Therefore, type and parameters of surge protective device need to be carefully selected, and load matching is also vital to be concerned.

Keywords: automation devices in power distribution system, MOV, surge, T type low-pass filter.

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1107 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified

Authors: Amod P. Vaze

Abstract:

Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.

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1106 The Invariant Properties of Two-Port Circuits

Authors: Alexandr A. Penin

Abstract:

Application of projective geometry to the theory of two-ports and cascade circuits with a load change is considered. The equations linking the input and output of a two-port are interpreted as projective transformations which have the invariant as a cross-ratio of four points. This invariant has place for all regime parameters in all parts of a cascade circuit. This approach allows justifying the definition of a regime and its change, to calculate a circuit without explicitly finding the aparameters, to transmit accurately an analogue signal through the unstable two-port.

Keywords: Circuit regime, geometric circuit theory, projective geometry, two-port.

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1105 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam

Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal.

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1104 Design and Simulation Interface Circuit for Piezoresistive Accelerometers with Offset Cancellation Ability

Authors: Mohsen Bagheri, Ahmad Afifi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for read out of the piezoresistive accelerometer sensors. The circuit works based on Instrumentation amplifier and it is useful for reducing offset In Wheatstone Bridge. The obtained gain is 645 with 1μv/°c Equivalent drift and 1.58mw power consumption. A Schmitt trigger and multiplexer circuit control output node. a high speed counter is designed in this work .the proposed circuit is designed and simulated In 0.18μm CMOS technology with 1.8v power supply.

Keywords: Piezoresistive accelerometer, zero offset, Schmitt trigger, bidirectional reversible counter

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1103 On-Chip Aging Sensor Circuit Based on Phase Locked Loop Circuit

Authors: Ararat Khachatryan, Davit Mirzoyan

Abstract:

In sub micrometer technology, the aging phenomenon starts to have a significant impact on the reliability of integrated circuits by bringing performance degradation. For that reason, it is important to have a capability to evaluate the aging effects accurately. This paper presents an accurate aging measurement approach based on phase-locked loop (PLL) and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) circuit. The architecture is rejecting the circuit self-aging effect from the characteristics of PLL, which is generating the frequency without any aging phenomena affects. The aging monitor is implemented in low power 32 nm CMOS technology, and occupies a pretty small area. Aging simulation results show that the proposed aging measurement circuit improves accuracy by about 2.8% at high temperature and 19.6% at high voltage.

Keywords: Nanoscale, aging, effect, NBTI, HCI.

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1102 An Investigation of Short Circuit Analysis in Komag Sarawak Operations (KSO) Factory

Authors: M. H. Hairi, H. Zainuddin, M.H.N. Talib, A. Khamis, J. Y. Lichun

Abstract:

Short circuit currents plays a vital role in influencing the design and operation of equipment and power system and could not be avoided despite careful planning and design, good maintenance and thorough operation of the system. This paper discusses the short circuit analysis conducted in KSO briefly comprising of its significances, methods and results. A result sample of the analysis based on a single transformer is detailed in this paper. Furthermore, the results of the analysis and its significances were also discussed and commented.

Keywords: Short circuit currents, Transformer fault current

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