Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Flask

15 Re-Examination of Louis Pasteur’s S-Shaped Flask Experiment

Authors: Ming-Hua Fu

Abstract:

No negative control nor control to prevent microbes from escaping was set when the S-shaped flask experiments were performed by Pasteur. Microscope was not used to observe the media in the flasks. Louis Pasteur’s S-shaped flask experiment was re-examined by using U-shaped flasks, modified S-shaped flasks and microscope. A mixture of microbes was isolated from the room air, from which one rod-shaped Bacillus species with proposed name Bacillus gaso-mobilis sp nov and one grape-shaped Staphylococcus species with proposed name of Staphylococcus gaso-mobilis sp nov were identified. Their penicillin and ampicillin resistant strains containing plasmids were isolated. These bacteria could change color, produce odor and automatically move in the air. They did not form colonies on solid media. They had a high suspension capacity in liquid media. Their light absorbance peaked at the wave length of 320 nm.  It was concluded that there were flaws with Louis Pasteur’s S-shaped flask experiments. 

Keywords: Bacteria, gaso-mobile, re-examine, S-shaped flasks.

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14 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: Alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane.

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13 Microalgal Lipid Production by Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Supaporn Kookkhunthod, Ngarmnit Nontaso

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to produce heterotrophic microalgal lipid in flask-batch fermentation. Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 supported maximum values of 0.374 g/L/d, 0.478 g lipid/g cells, and 0.112 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, and specific rate of lipid production, respectively when culture was performed on BG-11 medium supplemented with 50g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sugarcane molasses as carbon source. The main components of fatty acid from extracted lipid were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid which similar to vegetable oils and suitable for biodiesel production.

Keywords: Microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, kineticparameters, biodiesel.

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12 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including, time, temperature and mixing rate were kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, CCD, transesterification.

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11 Effects of Wastewater Strength and Salt Stress on Microalgal Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation

Authors: Praepilas Dujjanutat, Pakawadee Kaewkannetra

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate a potential of microalgae for utilizing industrial wastewater as a cheap nutrient for their growth and oil accumulation. Wastewater was collected from the effluent ponds of agro-industrial factories (cassava and ethanol production plants). Only 2 microalgal strains were isolated and identified as Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sp.. However, only S. quadricauda was selected to cultivate in various wastewater concentrations (10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The highest biomass obtained at 6.6×106 and 6.27×106 cells/ml when 60% wastewater was used in flask and photo-bioreactor. The cultures gave the highest lipid content at 18.58 % and 42.86% in cases of S. quadricauda and S. obliquus. In addition, under salt stress (1.0 M NaCl), S. obliquus demonstrated the highest lipid content at 50% which was much more than the case of no NaCl adding. However, the concentration of NaCl does not affect on lipid accumulation in case of S. quadricauda.

Keywords: Cassava wastewater, cultivation, lipid accumulation, microalgae

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10 Glutamic Acid Production from Potato by Brevibacterium linens

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Masoumeh Izadi, Sara Hosseinpour

Abstract:

In this study, the possibility of using potato as a substrate for glutamic acid production by Brevibacterium linens was investigated. For preparation of fermentation medium, potato was hydrolyzed by hydrochloridric acid. The medium contained potato hydrolysate, tween 80, mineral solution, glucose, and potassium hydrogen phosphate. The initial pH of the medium was adjusted to 7-7.5. For achieving the optimum time with maximum yield, the beakers containing the medium and the inoculums were incubated in a rotary water bath flask shaker for one to five days. Thin layer choromatography was used for quantitative and qualitative assay of the glutamic acid produced. The results revealed that as fermentation time increased, pH of the fermentation medium significantly decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, glutamic acid concentration in fermentation medium increased significantly (P<0.05). The highest amount of the glutamic acid obtained was 5.6 g/l on the forth day of fermentation.

Keywords: Brevibacterium linens, Fermentation, Glutamicacid, Thin layer choromatography

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9 Isolation and Screening of Fungi for Aerobic Delignification and Reduction of AOX of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent

Authors: N. Lokeshwari, G Srinikethan, S. G. Joshi, I. Shasikala, B. Srikanth, Bashirahmed, L. Sushma

Abstract:

Water pollution is a major concern for the pulp and paper industry due to the large quantities of effluents generated. Biodegradation of industrial Lignin and AOX by a fungal isolate identified as Aspergillus flavus, white rot fungi which was isolated from Pulp and Paper effluent was studied in batch flask system with industrial effluent and synthetic solution. The flasks were operated at temperature 32°C at 200rpm for eight days in continuous mode. The average overall pH, Temperature, DO, C.O.D, T.D.S, T.S.S, Lignin, AOX were up to 4.56, 32oC, 4.2mg/l, 104mg/l, 6000 mg/l, 4000mg/l, 575.5mg/l, 2195 mg/l respectively after treatment. The Aspergillus flavus sp was the most effective in the biodegradation of Lignin of pulp industry for 94% at 480nm, AOX for 62% at 510nm and of chemical oxygen demand levels for 45% after 8 days of incubation. The optimal conditions found were 4 pH and 32oC temperature for lignin and AOX degradation.

Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, Lignin, Optimal conditions, Quantification studies.

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8 Development of a Remote Testing System for Performance of Gas Leakage Detectors

Authors: Gyoutae Park, Woosuk Kim, Sangguk Ahn, Seungmo Kim, Minjun Kim, Jinhan Lee, Youngdo Jo, Jongsam Moon, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

In this research, we designed a remote system to test parameters of gas detectors such as gas concentration and initial response time. This testing system is available to measure two gas instruments simultaneously. First of all, we assembled an experimental jig with a square structure. Those parts are included with a glass flask, two high-quality cameras, and two Ethernet modems for transmitting data. This remote gas detector testing system extracts numerals from videos with continually various gas concentrations while LCDs show photographs from cameras. Extracted numeral data are received to a laptop computer through Ethernet modem. And then, the numerical data with gas concentrations and the measured initial response speeds are recorded and graphed. Our remote testing system will be diversely applied on gas detector’s test and will be certificated in domestic and international countries.

Keywords: Gas leakage detector, inspection instrument, extracting numerals, concentration.

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7 Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Growth and Lipid Production from Mixotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Thidarat Papone, Mutiyaporn Puangbut

Abstract:

Mixotrophic cultivation of the isolated freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 in batch shake flask for biomass and lipid productions, different concentration of glucose as carbon substrate, different nitrogen source and concentrations were investigated. Using 1.0g/L of NaNO3 as nitrogen source, the maximum biomass yield of 10.04g/L with biomass productivity of 1.673g/L d was obtained using 40g/L glucose, while a biomass of 7.09, 8.55 and 9.45g/L with biomass productivity of 1.182, 1.425 and 1.575g/L d were found at 20, 30 and 50g/L glucose, respectively. The maximum lipid yield of 3.99g/L with lipid productivity of 0.665g/L d was obtained when 40g/L glucose was used. Lipid yield of 1.50, 3.34 and 3.66g/L with lipid productivity of 0.250, 0.557 and 0.610g/L d were found when using the initial concentration of glucose at 20, 30 and 50g/L, respectively. Process product yield (YP/S) of 0.078, 0.119, 0.158 and 0.094 were observed when glucose concentration was 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, respectively. The results obtained from the study shows that mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 is a desirable cultivation process for microbial lipid and biomass production. 

Keywords: Mixotrophic cultivation, microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2.

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6 Microbial Oil Production by Isolated Oleaginous Yeast Torulaspora globosa YU5/2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Ratanaporn Baojungharn

Abstract:

Microbial oil was produced by soil isolated oleaginous yeast YU5/2 in flask-batch fermentation. The yeast was identified by molecular genetics technique based on sequence analysis of the variable D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and it was identified as Torulaspora globosa. T. globosa YU5/2 supported maximum values of 0.520 g/L/d, 0.472 g lipid/g cells, 4.16 g/L, and 0.156 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, lipid concentration, and specific rate of lipid production respectively, when culture was performed in nitrogen-limiting medium supplemented with 80g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sweet potato tubers hydrolysates as carbon source.

Keywords: Microbial oil, oleaginous yeast, Torulasporaglobosa YU5/2, sweet potato tubers, kinetic parameters.

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5 Enhanced Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium brevicompactum with Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Casein

Authors: F. Ardestani, S. S. A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium brevicompactum, which has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, the first, mycophenolic acid was produced in a fermentation process by Penicillium brevicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask using a base medium. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity of process were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L. h, respectively. Also the glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during batch cultivation. Obtained results showed that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of some various concentrations of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity as 3.63 g/L, 49 mg/g glucose and 12.96 mg/L.h, respectively were obtained with using 30 g/L enzymatically hydrolyzed casein in culture medium. These values show an enhanced MPA production, product yield and process productivity pr as 116.8%, 132.8% and 163.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Penicillium brevicompactum, Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture

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4 The Effects of Methionine and Acetate Concentrations on Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in Submerged Culture

Authors: F. Ardestani, S.A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali, M. Hosseyni, G. Najafpour

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid “MPA" is a secondary metabolite of Penicillium bervicompactum with antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, fermentation process was established for production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L.h respectively. Glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during fermentation time. It was found that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of methionine and acetate concentrations on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity (1.763 g/L, 23.8 mg/g glucose and 6.30 mg/L. h respectively) were obtained with using 2.5 g/L methionine in culture medium. Further addition of methionine had not more positive effect on MPA production. Finally, results showed that the addition of acetate to the culture medium had not any observable effect on MPA production.

Keywords: Penicillium bervicompactum, Methionine, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture

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3 The Effect of Methionine and Acetate Concentrations on Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in Submerged Culture

Authors: Fatemeh Ardestani, Seyed Safa-ali Fatemi, Bagher Yakhchali, Seyed Morteza Hosseyni, Ghasem Najafpour

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid “MPA" is a secondary metabolite of Penicillium bervicompactum with antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, fermentation process was established for production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L.h respectively. Glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during fermentation time. It was found that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of methionine and acetate concentrations on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity (1.763 g/L, 23.8 mg/g glucose and 6.30 mg/L. h respectively) were obtained with using 2.5 g/L methionine in culture medium. Further addition of methionine had not more positive effect on MPA production. Finally, results showed that the addition of acetate to the culture medium had not any observable effect on MPA production

Keywords: Penicillium bervicompactum, Methionine, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture.

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2 An Extensible Software Infrastructure for Computer Aided Custom Monitoring of Patients in Smart Homes

Authors: Ritwik Dutta, Marilyn Wolf

Abstract:

This paper describes the tradeoffs and the design from scratch of a self-contained, easy-to-use health dashboard software system that provides customizable data tracking for patients in smart homes. The system is made up of different software modules and comprises a front-end and a back-end component. Built with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, the front-end allows adding users, logging into the system, selecting metrics, and specifying health goals. The backend consists of a NoSQL Mongo database, a Python script, and a SimpleHTTPServer written in Python. The database stores user profiles and health data in JSON format. The Python script makes use of the PyMongo driver library to query the database and displays formatted data as a daily snapshot of user health metrics against target goals. Any number of standard and custom metrics can be added to the system, and corresponding health data can be fed automatically, via sensor APIs or manually, as text or picture data files. A real-time METAR request API permits correlating weather data with patient health, and an advanced query system is implemented to allow trend analysis of selected health metrics over custom time intervals. Available on the GitHub repository system, the project is free to use for academic purposes of learning and experimenting, or practical purposes by building on it.

Keywords: Flask, Java, JavaScript, health monitoring, long term care, Mongo, Python, smart home, software engineering, webserver.

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1 Ethanol and Biomass Production from Spent Sulfite Liquor by Filamentous Fungi

Authors: M. T. Asadollahzadeh, A. Ghasemian, A. R. Saraeian, H. Resalati, P. R. Lennartsson, M. J. Taherzadeh

Abstract:

Since filamentous fungi are capable of assimilating several types of sugars (hexoses and pentoses), they are potential candidates for bioconversion of spent sulfite liquor (SSL). Three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizopus oryzae were investigated in this work. The SSL was diluted in order to obtain concentrations of 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% and supplemented with two types of nutrients. The results from cultivations in shake flask showed that A. oryzae and M. indicus were not able to grow in pure SSL and SSL90% while R. oryzae could grow only in SSL50% and SSL60%. Cultivation with A. oryzae resulted in the highest yield of produced fungal biomass, while R. oryzae cultivation resulted in the lowest fungal biomass yield. Although, the mediums containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O as nutrients supplementations produced higher fungal biomass compared to the mediums containing NH4H2PO4 and ammonia, but there was no significant difference between two types of nutrients in terms of sugars and acetic acid consumption rate. The sugars consumption in M. indicus cultivation was faster than A. oryzae and R. oryzae cultivation. Acetic acid present in SSL was completely consumed during cultivation of all fungi. M. indicus was the best and fastest ethanol producer from SSL among the fungi examined, when yeast extract and salts were used as nutrients supplementations. Furthermore, no further improvement in ethanol concentration and rate of sugars consumption was obtained in medium supplemented with NH4H2PO4 and ammonia compared to medium containing yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, CaCl2∙2H2O, and MgSO4∙7H2O. On the other hand, the higher dilution of SSL resulted in a better fermentability, and better consumption of sugars and acetic acid.

Keywords: Ethanol, filamentous fungi, fungal biomass, spent sulfite liquor.

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