Search results for: Asynchronous actuator
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 199

Search results for: Asynchronous actuator

199 Asynchronous Microcontroller Simulation Model in VHDL

Authors: M. Kovac

Abstract:

This article describes design of the 8-bit asynchronous microcontroller simulation model in VHDL. The model is created in ISE Foundation design tool and simulated in Modelsim tool. This model is a simple application example of asynchronous systems designed in synchronous design tools. The design process of creating asynchronous system with 4-phase bundled-data protocol and with matching delays is described in the article. The model is described in gate-level abstraction. The simulation waveform of the functional construction is the result of this article. Described construction covers only the simulation model. The next step would be creating synthesizable model to FPGA.

Keywords: Asynchronous, Microcontroller, VHDL, FPGA.

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198 Conditions for Fault Recovery of Interconnected Asynchronous Sequential Machines with State Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, fault recovery for parallel interconnected asynchronous sequential machines is studied. An adversarial input can infiltrate into one of two submachines comprising parallel composition of the considered asynchronous sequential machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The control objective is to elucidate the condition for the existence of a corrective controller that makes the closed-loop system immune against any occurrence of adversarial inputs. In particular, an efficient existence condition is presented that does not need the complete modeling of the interconnected asynchronous sequential machine.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, corrective control, fault tolerance.

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197 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: Sallem F., Dahhou B., Kamoun A.

Abstract:

In this work, the main problem considered is the  detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of  the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator  fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation  of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in  cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the  conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability  conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An  example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation  illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault  diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

 

Keywords: Actuator fault, Fault detection, left invertibility, nuclear reactor, observability, parameter intervals, system inversion.

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196 Performance Analysis of QS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

In the paper, the performance of quasi-synchronous CDMA (QS-CDMA) system, which can allow an increased timing error in synchronized access, is discussed. Average BER performance of the system is analyzed in the condition of different access timing error and different asynchronous users by simulation in AWGN channel. The results show that QS-CDMA system is shown to have great performance gain over the asynchronous system when access timing error is within a few chips and asynchronous users is tolerable. However, with access timing error increasing and asynchronous users increasing, the performance of QS-CDMA will degrade. Also, we can determine the number of tolerable asynchronous users for different access timing error by simulation figures.

Keywords: Code-division multiple access, Quasi-SynchronousCDMA, Access timing error

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195 Bowden Cable Based Powered Ball and Socket Wrist Actuator

Authors: Samee Ahmad, Adnan Masood, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

A 2-Degrees of freedom powered prosthetic wrist actuator has been proposed that can provide the Abduction/Adduction & Flexion/Extension movements of the human wrist. The basic structure of the actuator is a Ball and Socket joint and the force is transmitted from the DC geared servo motors to the joint through the Bowden cables. The proposed design is capable of providing the required DOF in both axes i.e. 85° & 90° in flexion extension axis. The size and weight of the actuator lies within the ranges of an average human being-s wrist.

Keywords: Actuator, Ball & Socket, Bowden Cable, Prosthetic, Wrist

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194 Optimal Controllers with Actuator Saturation for Nonlinear Structures

Authors: M. Mohebbi, K. Shakeri

Abstract:

Since the actuator capacity is limited, in the real application of active control systems under sever earthquakes it is conceivable that the actuators saturate, hence the actuator saturation should be considered as a constraint in design of optimal controllers. In this paper optimal design of active controllers for nonlinear structures by considering actuator saturation, has been studied. The proposed method for designing optimal controllers is based on defining an optimization problem which the objective has been to minimize the maximum displacement of structure when a limited capacity for actuator has been used. To this end a single degree of freedom (SDF) structure with a bilinear hysteretic behavior has been simulated under a white noise ground acceleration of different amplitudes. Active tendon control mechanism, comprised of prestressed tendons and an actuator, and extended nonlinear Newmark method based instantaneous optimal control algorithm have been used. To achieve the best results, the weights corresponding to displacement, velocity, acceleration and control force in the performance index have been optimized by the Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA). Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in considering actuator saturation. Also based on the numerical simulations it can be concluded that the actuator capacity and the average value of required control force are two important factors in designing nonlinear controllers which consider the actuator saturation.

Keywords: Active control, Actuator Saturation, Distributedgeneticalgorithms, Nonlinear.

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193 Prediction of the Performance of a Bar-Type Piezoelectric Vibration Actuator Depending on the Frequency Using an Equivalent Circuit Analysis

Authors: J. H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, J. S. Park, K. J. Lim

Abstract:

This paper has been investigated a technique that predicts the performance of a bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency. This paper has been proposed an equivalent circuit that can be easily analyzed for the bar-type unimorph piezoelectric vibration actuator. In the dynamic analysis, rigidity and resonance frequency, which are important mechanical elements, were derived using the basic beam theory. In the equivalent circuit analysis, the displacement and bandwidth of the piezoelectric vibration actuator depending on the frequency were predicted. Also, for the reliability of the derived equations, the predicted performance depending on the shape change was compared with the result of a finite element analysis program.

Keywords: Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.Actuator, performance, piezoelectric, unimorph.

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192 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: Sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator time delay.

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191 Dynamics Characterizations of Dielectric Electro-Active Polymer Pull Actuator for Vibration Control

Authors: A. M. Wahab, E. Rustighi

Abstract:

Elastomeric dielectric material has recently become a new alternative for actuator technology. The characteristics of dielectric elastomers placed between two electrodes to withstand large strain when electrodes are charged has attracted the attention of many researcher to study this material for actuator technology. Thus, in the past few years Danfoss Ventures A/S has established their own dielectric electro-active polymer (DEAP), which was called PolyPower. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dynamic characteristics for vibration control of a PolyPower actuator folded in ‘pull’ configuration. A range of experiments was carried out on the folded actuator including passive (without electrical load) and active (with electrical load) testing. For both categories static and dynamic testing have been done to determine the behavior of folded DEAP actuator. Voltage-Strain experiments show that the DEAP folded actuator is a non-linear system. It is also shown that the voltage supplied has no effect on the natural frequency. Finally, varying AC voltage with different amplitude and frequency shows the parameters that influence the performance of DEAP folded actuator. As a result, the actuator performance dominated by the frequency dependence of the elastic response and was less influenced by dielectric properties.

Keywords: Dielectric Electro-active Polymer, Pull Actuator, Static, Dynamic, Electromechanical.

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190 Shape Memory alloy Actuator System Optimization for New Hand Prostheses

Authors: Mogeeb A. Ahmed, Mona F. Taher, Sayed M. Metwalli

Abstract:

Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators have found a wide range of applications due to their unique properties such as high force, small size, lightweight and silent operation. This paper presents the development of compact (SMA) actuator and cooling system in one unit. This actuator is developed for multi-fingered hand. It consists of nickel-titanium (Nitinol) SMA wires in compact forming. The new arrangement insulates SMA wires from the human body by housing it in a heat sink and uses a thermoelectric device for rejecting heat to improve the actuator performance. The study uses optimization methods for selecting the SMA wires geometrical parameters and the material of a heat sink. The experimental work implements the actuator prototype and measures its response.

Keywords: Optimization, Prosthetic hand, Shape memory alloy, Thermoelectric device, Actuator system

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189 Speed Sensorless Control with a Linearizationby State Feedback of Asynchronous Machine Using a Model Reference Adaptive System

Authors: A. Larabi, M. S. Boucherit

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that the association of the PI regulators for the speed and stator currents with a control strategy using the linearization by state feedback for an induction machine without speed sensor, and with an adaptation of the rotor resistance. The rotor speed is estimated by using the model reference adaptive system approach (MRAS). This method consists of using two models: The first is the reference model and the second is an adjustable one in which two components of the stator flux, obtained from the measurement of the currents and stator voltages are estimated. The estimated rotor speed is then obtained by canceling the difference between stator-flux of the reference model and those of the adjustable one. Satisfactory results of simulation are obtained and discussed in this paper to highlight the proposed approach.

Keywords: Asynchronous actuator, PI Regulator, adaptivemethod with reference model, Vector control.

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188 The effect of the Thickness of Electrical sheet on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters

Authors: Belassel Mohand-Tahar

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence thickness of electrical sheet on overvoltage compared to the carcass and between whorls (sections) of the asynchronous motors supplied with PWM converters.

Keywords: Asynchronous Motors, , PWM, Undulatory Process, Undulatory Parameters, Undulatory Voltage, electrical sheet.

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187 Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Fault Detectors

Authors: Seong Woo Kwak, Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

A strategy of fault diagnosis and tolerance for asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. With no synchronizing clock, it is difficult to diagnose an occurrence of permanent or stuck-in faults in the operation of asynchronous machines. In this paper, we present a fault detector comprised of a timer and a set of static functions to determine the occurrence of faults. In order to realize immediate fault tolerance, corrective control theory is applied to designing a dynamic feedback controller. Existence conditions for an appropriate controller and its construction algorithm are presented in terms of reachability of the machine and the feature of fault occurrences.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, fault diagnosis and tolerance, fault detector.

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186 Robust Position Control of an Electromechanical Actuator for Automotive Applications

Authors: Markus Reichhartinger, Martin Horn

Abstract:

In this paper, the position control of an electronic throttle actuator is outlined. The dynamic behavior of the actuator is described with the help of an uncertain plant model. This motivates the controller design based on the ideas of higher-order slidingmodes. As a consequence anti-chattering techniques can be omitted. It is shown that the same concept is applicable to estimate unmeasureable signals. The control law and the observer are implemented on an electronic control unit. Results achieved by numerical simulations and real world experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: higher order sliding-mode, throttle actuator, electromechanicalsystem, robust and nonlinear control.

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185 On Fault Diagnosis of Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Parallel Composition

Authors: Jung-Min Yang

Abstract:

Fault diagnosis of composite asynchronous sequential machines with parallel composition is addressed in this paper. An adversarial input can infiltrate one of two submachines comprising the composite asynchronous machine, causing an unauthorized state transition. The objective is to characterize the condition under which the controller can diagnose any fault occurrence. Two control configurations, state feedback and output feedback, are considered in this paper. In the case of output feedback, the exact estimation of the state is impossible since the current state is inaccessible and the output feedback is given as the form of burst. A simple example is provided to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, parallel composition, fault diagnosis.

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184 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: Blended Learning, Asynchronous Learning, Design, Process Management.

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183 Influence of Number Parallels Paths of a Winding on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters

Authors: Belassel Mohand-Tahar

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence of te number parallel path of a winding on overvoltage compared to the frame and between turns (sections) in a multiturn random winding of an asynchronous motors supplied with PWM- converters.

Keywords: Asynchronous Motors, Parallel path, PWMconverters, Undulatory process, Undulatory parameters, Undulatory voltage

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182 A Novel FIFO Design for Data Transfer in Mixed Timing Systems

Authors: Mansi Jhamb, R. K. Sharma, A. K. Gupta

Abstract:

In the current scenario, with the increasing integration densities, most system-on-chip designs are partitioned into multiple clock domains. In this paper, an asynchronous FIFO (First-in First-out pipeline) design is employed as a data transfer interface between two independent clock domains. Since the clocks on the either sides of the FIFO run at a different speed, the task to ensure the correct data transmission through this FIFO is manually performed. Firstly an existing asynchronous FIFO design is discussed and simulated. Gate-level simulation results depicted the flaw in existing design. In order to solve this problem, a novel modified asynchronous FIFO design is proposed. The results obtained from proposed design are in perfect accordance with theoretical expectations. The proposed asynchronous FIFO design outperforms the existing design in terms of accuracy and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the FIFO designs presented in this paper, the circuits were implemented in 0.24µ TSMC CMOS technology and simulated at 2.5V using HSpice (© Avant! Corporation). The layout design of the proposed FIFO is also presented.

Keywords: Asynchronous, Clock, CMOS, C-element, FIFO, Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous (GALS), HSpice.

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181 A High Level Implementation of a High Performance Data Transfer Interface for NoC

Authors: Mansi Jhamb, R. K. Sharma, A. K. Gupta

Abstract:

The distribution of a single global clock across a chip has become the major design bottleneck for high performance VLSI systems owing to the power dissipation, process variability and multicycle cross-chip signaling. A Network-on-Chip (NoC) architecture partitioned into several synchronous blocks has become a promising approach for attaining fine-grain power management at the system level. In a NoC architecture the communication between the blocks is handled asynchronously. To interface these blocks on a chip operating at different frequencies, an asynchronous FIFO interface is inevitable. However, these asynchronous FIFOs are not required if adjacent blocks belong to the same clock domain. In this paper, we have designed and analyzed a 16-bit asynchronous micropipelined FIFO of depth four, with the awareness of place and route on an FPGA device. We have used a commercially available Spartan 3 device and designed a high speed implementation of the asynchronous 4-phase micropipeline. The asynchronous FIFO implemented on the FPGA device shows 76 Mb/s throughput and a handshake cycle of 109 ns for write and 101.3 ns for read at the simulation under the worst case operating conditions (voltage = 0.95V) on a working chip at the room temperature.

Keywords: Asynchronous, FIFO, FPGA, GALS, Network-on- Chip (NoC), VHDL.

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180 Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Yi Huang, Clemens Guehmann

Abstract:

In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator. The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the stator current is nonzero current system.

Keywords: Asynchronous machine, extended Kalman filter, resistance, simulation, temperature estimation, thermal model.

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179 Conditions for Model Matching of Switched Asynchronous Sequential Machines with Output Feedback

Authors: Jung–Min Yang

Abstract:

Solvability of the model matching problem for input/output switched asynchronous sequential machines is discussed in this paper. The control objective is to determine the existence condition and design algorithm for a corrective controller that can match the stable-state behavior of the closed-loop system to that of a reference model. Switching operations and correction procedures are incorporated using output feedback so that the controlled switched machine can show the desired input/output behavior. A matrix expression is presented to address reachability of switched asynchronous sequential machines with output equivalence with respect to a model. The presented reachability condition for the controller design is validated in a simple example.

Keywords: Asynchronous sequential machines, corrective control, model matching, input/output control.

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178 Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Actuator Saturation Effect on Nonlinear Controllers

Authors: M. Mohebbi, K. Shakeri

Abstract:

In the real application of active control systems to mitigate the response of structures subjected to sever external excitations such as earthquake and wind induced vibrations, since the capacity of actuators is limited then the actuators saturate. Hence, in designing controllers for linear and nonlinear structures under sever earthquakes, the actuator saturation should be considered as a constraint. In this paper optimal design of active controllers for nonlinear structures by considering the actuator saturation has been studied. To this end a method has been proposed based on defining an optimization problem which considers the minimizing of the maximum displacement of the structure as objective when a limited capacity for actuator has been used as a constraint in optimization problem. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a single degree of freedom (SDF) structure with a bilinear hysteretic behavior has been simulated under a white noise ground acceleration of different amplitudes. Active tendon control mechanism, comprised of pre-stressed tendons and an actuator, and extended nonlinear Newmark method based instantaneous optimal control algorithm have been used as active control mechanism and algorithm. To enhance the efficiency of the controllers, the weights corresponding to displacement, velocity, acceleration and control force in the performance index have been found by using the Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA). According to the results it has been concluded that the proposed method has been effective in considering the actuator saturation in designing optimal controllers for nonlinear frames. Also it has been shown that the actuator capacity and the average value of required control force are two important factors in designing nonlinear controllers for considering the actuator saturation.

Keywords: Active control, Actuator Saturation, Nonlinear, Optimization.

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177 Design and Fabrication of an Array Microejector Driven by a Shear-Mode Piezoelectric Actuator

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, Hong-Yih Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Tung-Hsun Hsu

Abstract:

This paper reports a novel actuating design that uses the shear deformation of a piezoelectric actuator to deflect a bulge-diaphragm for driving an array microdroplet ejector. In essence, we employed a circular-shaped actuator poled radial direction with remnant polarization normal to the actuating electric field for inducing the piezoelectric shear effect. The array microdroplet ejector consists of a shear type piezoelectric actuator, a vibration plate, two chamber plates, two channel plates and a nozzle plate. The vibration, chamber and nozzle plate components are fabricated using nickel electroforming technology, whereas the channel plate is fabricated by etching of stainless steel. The diaphragm displacement was measured by the laser two-dimensional scanning vibrometer. The ejected droplets of the microejector were also observed via an optic visualization system.

Keywords: Actuator, nozzle, microejector, piezoelectric.

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176 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

Abstract:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: Asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation, muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation.

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175 Predictive Functional Control with Disturbance Observer for Tendon-Driven Balloon Actuator

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase, Toshiyuki Satoh, Norihiko Saga, Koichi Suzumori

Abstract:

In recent years, Japanese society has been aging, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to perform tasks such as rehabilitation, nursing elderly people, and day-to-day work support for elderly people. The pneumatic balloon actuator is a rubber artificial muscle developed for use in a robot hand in such environments. This actuator has a long stroke and a high power-to-weight ratio compared with the present pneumatic artificial muscle. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of this actuator resemble those of human muscle. This study evaluated characteristics of force control of balloon actuator using a predictive functional control (PFC) system with disturbance observer. The predictive functional control is a model-based predictive control (MPC) scheme that predicts the future outputs of the actual plants over the prediction horizon and computes the control effort over the control horizon at every sampling instance. For this study, a 1-link finger system using a pneumatic balloon actuator is developed. Then experiments of PFC control with disturbance observer are performed. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of its control of a pneumatic balloon actuator for a robot hand.

Keywords: Disturbance observer, Pneumatic balloon, Predictive functional control, Rubber artificial muscle.

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174 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

Authors: H. Yazdani, K. Ghorbanian

Abstract:

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

Keywords: Active flow control, flow field, OpenFOAM, plasma actuator.

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173 A Study of Under Actuator Dynamic System by Comparing between Minimum Energy and Minimum Jerk Problems

Authors: Tawiwat V., Phermsak S., Noppasit C.

Abstract:

This paper deals with under actuator dynamic systems such as spring-mass-damper system when the number of control variable is less than the number of state variable. In order to apply optimal control, the controllability must be checked. There are many objective functions to be selected as the goal of the optimal control such as minimum energy, maximum energy and minimum jerk. As the objective function is the first priority, if one like to have the second goal to be applied; however, it could not fit in the objective function format and also avoiding the vector cost for the objective, this paper will illustrate the problem of under actuator dynamic systems with the easiest to deal with comparing between minimum energy and minimum jerk.

Keywords: Under actuator, Dynamic optimal control, Minimumjerk, Minimum energy.

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172 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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171 Integral Tracking Control for a Piezoelectric Actuator System

Authors: J. H. Park, S. C. Jeong, J. H. Koo, H. Y. Jung, S. M. Lee

Abstract:

We propose an integral tracking control method for a piezoelectric actuator system. The proposed method achieves the output tracking without requiring any hysteresis observer or schemes to compensate the hysteresis effect. With the proposed control law, the system is converted into the standard singularly perturbed model. Using Tikhonov-s theorem, we guarantee that the tracking error can be reduced to arbitrarily small bound. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

Keywords: Piezoelectric actuator, tracking control, hysteresis effect.

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170 One-DOF Precision Position Control using the Combined Piezo-VCM Actuator

Authors: Yung-Tien Liu, Chun-Chao Wang

Abstract:

This paper presents the control performance of a high-precision positioning device using the hybrid actuator composed of a piezoelectric (PZT) actuator and a voice-coil motor (VCM). The combined piezo-VCM actuator features two main characteristics: a large operation range due to long stroke of the VCM, and high precision and heavy load positioning ability due to PZT impact force. A one-degree-of-freedom (DOF) experimental setup was configured to examine the fundamental characteristics, and the control performance was effectively demonstrated by using a switching controller. In rough positioning state, an integral variable structure controller (IVSC) was used for the VCM to conduct long range of operation; in precision positioning state, an impact force controller (IFC) for the PZT actuator coupled with presliding states of the sliding table was used to obtain high-precision position control and achieve both forward and backward actuations. The experimental results showed that the sliding table having a mass of 881g and with a preload of 10 N was successfully positioned within the positioning accuracy of 10 nm in both forward and backward position controls.

Keywords: Integral variable structure controller (IVSC), impact force, precision positioning, presliding, PZT actuator, voice-coil motor (VCM).

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