Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 331

Search results for: muscle fatigue

331 Complex Method for Localized Muscle Fatigue Evaluation

Authors: Vasilescu M., Rusu L., Nestianu V., Romanescu F., Dragomir M

Abstract:

The research was designed to examine the relationship between the development of muscle fatigue and the effect it has on sport performance, specifically during maximal voluntary contraction. This kind of this investigation using simultaneous electrophysiological and mechanical recordings, based on advanced mathematical processing, allows us to get parameters, and indexes in a short time, and finally, the mapping to use for the thorough investigation of the muscle contraction force, respectively the phenomenon of local muscle fatigue, both for athletes and other subjects.

Keywords: Electromyography, mechanomyography, musclefatigue

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330 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue

Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue.

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329 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

Abstract:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: Asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation, muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation.

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328 New Wavelet Indices to Assess Muscle Fatigue during Dynamic Contractions

Authors: González-Izal M., Rodríguez-Carreño I, Mallor-Giménez F, Malanda A, Izquierdo M

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare new indices based on the discrete wavelet transform with another spectral parameters proposed in the literature as mean average voltage, median frequency and ratios between spectral moments applied to estimate acute exercise-induced changes in power output, i.e., to assess peripheral muscle fatigue during a dynamic fatiguing protocol. 15 trained subjects performed 5 sets consisting of 10 leg press, with 2 minutes rest between sets. Surface electromyography was recorded from vastus medialis (VM) muscle. Several surface electromyographic parameters were compared to detect peripheral muscle fatigue. These were: mean average voltage (MAV), median spectral frequency (Fmed), Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue (FInsm5), as well as other five parameters obtained from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as ratios between different scales. The new wavelet indices achieved the best results in Pearson correlation coefficients with power output changes during acute dynamic contractions. Their regressions were significantly different from MAV and Fmed. On the other hand, they showed the highest robustness in presence of additive white gaussian noise for different signal to noise ratios (SNRs). Therefore, peripheral impairments assessed by sEMG wavelet indices may be a relevant factor involved in the loss of power output after dynamic high-loading fatiguing task.

Keywords: Median Frequency, EMG, wavelet transform, muscle fatigue

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327 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability.

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326 A New Muscle Architecture Model with Non-Uniform Distribution of Muscle Fiber Types

Authors: Javier Navallas, Armando Malanda, Luis Gila, Javier Rodriguez, Ignacio Rodriguez

Abstract:

According to previous studies, some muscles present a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of its muscle fiber types and motor unit types. However, available muscle models only deal with muscles with homogeneous distributions. In this paper, a new architecture muscle model is proposed to permit the construction of non-uniform distributions of muscle fibers within the muscle cross section. The idea behind is the use of a motor unit placement algorithm that controls the spatial overlapping of the motor unit territories of each motor unit type. Results show the capabilities of the new algorithm to reproduce arbitrary muscle fiber type distributions.

Keywords: muscle model, muscle architecture, motor unit, EMG simulation.

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325 Myotonometry Method for Assessment Muscle Performance

Authors: Rusu Ligia, Cosma Germina, Lica Eliana, Marin Mihnea, Cernăianu Sorina, Copilusi Petre Cristian, Rusu Petre Florinel

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the role of myotonometry in assessment muscle viscoelasticity by measurement of force index (IF) and stiffness (S) at thigh muscle groups. The results are used for improve the muscle training. The method is based on mechanic impulse on the muscle group, that involve a muscle response like acceleration, speed and amplitude curves. From these we have information about elasticity, stiffness beginning from mechanic oscillations of muscle tissue. Using this method offer the possibility for monitoring the muscle capacity for produce mechanic energy, that allows a efficiency of movement with a minimal tissue deformation.

Keywords: assessment, infraspinatus syndrome, kinetic therapy, rehabilitation

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324 Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation through Residual Stress Field

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack initiation and propagation in notched plate under constant amplitude loading through tensile residual stress field of 2024 T351 Al-alloy plate were investigated. Residual stress field was generated by plastic deformation using finite element method (FEM) where isotropic hardening in Von Mises model was applied. Simulation of fatigue behavior was made on AFGROW code. It was shown that the fatigue crack initiation and propagation were affected by level of residual stress filed. In this investigation, the presence of tensile residual stresses at notch (hole) reduces considerably the total fatigue life. It was shown that the decreasing in stress reduces the fatigue crack growth rates.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, Al-alloy.

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323 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to find the effect of load ratio on probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack size and to confirm the good probability distribution in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: Load ratio, fatigue crack propagation life, Magnesium alloys, probability distribution.

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322 Fatigue Properties and Strength Degradation of Carbon Fibber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Pasquale Verde, Giuseppe Lamanna

Abstract:

A two-parameter fatigue model explicitly accounting for the cyclic as well as the mean stress was used to fit static and fatigue data available in literature concerning carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates subjected tension-tension fatigue. The model confirms the strength–life equal rank assumption and predicts reasonably the probability of failure under cyclic loading. The model parameters were found by best fitting procedures and required a minimum of experimental tests.

Keywords: Fatigue life, strength, composites, Weibull distribution.

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321 Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Shine U P, EMS Nair

Abstract:

Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment. Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth equation are investigated.

Keywords: fatigue, fracture mechanics, fatigue testing machine

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320 Effect of Mode Loading on FCRG Plate with Double Through Crack at Hole

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui

Abstract:

The knowledge of the nature of loading is very important in order to hold account on the total behavior such as vibration, shock, fatigue, etc. Fatigue present 90% of failure when loadings fatigues are very complex. In this paper a study of double through crack at hole for plate subjected to fatigue loading is presented. Various modes loading are studied where the applied load is the same one. The fatigue life is given where the effect of stress ratio is highlighted. This work is conducted on aluminum alloy 2024 T351 used for much aerospace and aeronautics applications. The fatigue crack growth behavior with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when Forman model is applied. The fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue life for different loading modes are compared with variation of others geometrical parameter such as thickness and dimensions of notch hole.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, mode loading, aluminum alloy

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319 The Effect of Maximum Strain on Fatigue Life Prediction for Natural Rubber Material

Authors: Chang S. Woo, Hyun S. Park, Wan D. Kim

Abstract:

Fatigue life prediction and evaluation are the key technologies to assure the safety and reliability of automotive rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop the fatigue analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, which is applicable to predict fatigue life at initial product design step. Fatigue life prediction methodology of vulcanized natural rubber was proposed by incorporating the finite element analysis and fatigue damage parameter of maximum strain appearing at the critical location determined from fatigue test. In order to develop an appropriate fatigue damage parameter of the rubber material, a series of displacement controlled fatigue test was conducted using threedimensional dumbbell specimen with different levels of mean displacement. It was shown that the maximum strain was a proper damage parameter, taking the mean displacement effects into account. Nonlinear finite element analyses of three-dimensional dumbbell specimens were performed based on a hyper-elastic material model determined from the uni-axial tension, equi-biaxial tension and planar test. Fatigue analysis procedure employed in this study could be used approximately for the fatigue design.

Keywords: Rubber, Material test, Finite element analysis, Strain, Fatigue test, Fatigue life prediction.

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318 Effect of Electric Field Amplitude on Electrical Fatigue Behavior of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramic

Authors: S. Kampoosiri, S. Pojprapai, R. Yimnirunand, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

Fatigue behaviors of Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics under different amplitude of bipolar electrical loads have been investigated. Fatigue behavior is represented by the change of hysteresis loops and remnant polarization. Three levels of electrical load amplitudes (1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 kV /mm) were applied in this experimental. It was found that the remnant polarization decreased significantly with the number of loading cycles. The degree of fatigue degradation depends on the amplitude of electric field. The higher amplitude exhibits the greater fatigue degradation.

Keywords: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT), hysteresis loop, Sawyer-Tower circuit, fatigue, polarization.

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317 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy after Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Anna A. Atroshkina

Abstract:

Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increases in fatigue life of the material have been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue, structure.

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316 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of 400 Series Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 400 series ferritic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. It has been revealed that load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property. Thermal fatigue resistance of 430J1L stainless steel is found to be superior to the other steels.

Keywords: Ferritic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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315 Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth of Aeronautical Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Benachour, M. Benguediab, A. Hadjoui, N. Benachour

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack growth behavior of aeronautical aluminum alloy 2024 T351 was studied. Effects of various loading and geometrical parameters are studied such as stress ratio, amplitude loading, etc. The fatigue crack growth with constant amplitude is studied using the AFGROW code when NASGRO model is used. The effect of the stress ratio is highlighted, where one notices a shift of the curves of crack growth. The comparative study between two orientations L-T and T-L on fatigue behavior are presented and shows the variation on the fatigue life. L-T orientation presents a good fatigue crack growth resistance. Effects of crack closure are shown in Paris domain and that no crack closure phenomenons are present at high stress intensity factor.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, orientation effect, crack closure, aluminum alloy.

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314 Fretting Fatigue behavior of Bolted Single Lap Joints of Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Hadi Rezghi Maleki, Babak Abazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of bolt clamping force on the fatigue behavior of bolted single lap joints of aluminum alloy 2024- T3 have been studied using numerical finite element method. To do so, a three dimensional model according to the bolted single lap joint has been created and numerical analysis has been carried out using finite element based package. Then the stress distribution and also the slip amplitudes have been calculated in the critical regions and the outcome have been compared with the available experimental fatigue tests results. The numerical results show that in low applied clamping force, the fatigue failure of the specimens occur around the stress concentration location (the bolted hole edge) due to the tensile stresses and thus fatigue crack propagation, but with increase of the clamping force, the fatigue life increases and the cracks nucleate and propagate far from the hole edge because of fretting fatigue. In other words, with the further increase of clamping force value of the joint, the fatigue life reduces due to occurrence of the fretting fatigue in the critical location where the slip amplitude is within its critical occurs earlier.

Keywords: Fretting fatigue, bolted single lap joint, torque tightening, finite element method.

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313 Vibration Induced Fatigue Assessment in Vehicle Development Process

Authors: Fatih Kagnici

Abstract:

Improvement in CAE methods has an important role for shortening of the vehicle product development time. It is provided that validation of the design and improvements in terms of durability can be done without hardware prototype production. In recent years, several different methods have been developed in order to investigate fatigue damage of the vehicle. The intended goal among these methods is prediction of fatigue damage in a short time with reduced costs. This study developed a new fatigue damage prediction method in the automotive sector using power spectrum densities of accelerations. This study also confirmed that the weak region in vehicle can be easily detected with the method developed in this study which results were compared with conventional method.

Keywords: Fatigue damage, Power spectrum density, Vibration induced fatigue, Vehicle development

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312 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys “Effect of Heat Treatment Condition”

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 Al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress. 

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, Al-Alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state.

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311 Driver Fatigue State Recognition with Pixel Based Caveat Scheme Using Eye-Tracking

Authors: K. Thulasimani, K. G. Srinivasagan

Abstract:

Driver fatigue is an important factor in the increasing number of road accidents. Dynamic template matching method was proposed to address the problem of real-time driver fatigue detection system based on eye-tracking. An effective vision based approach was used to analyze the driver’s eye state to detect fatigue. The driver fatigue system consists of Face detection, Eye detection, Eye tracking, and Fatigue detection. Initially frames are captured from a color video in a car dashboard and transformed from RGB into YCbCr color space to detect the driver’s face. Canny edge operator was used to estimating the eye region and the locations of eyes are extracted. The extracted eyes were considered as a template matching for eye tracking. Edge Map Overlapping (EMO) and Edge Pixel Count (EPC) matching function were used for eye tracking which is used to improve the matching accuracy. The pixel of eyeball was tracked from the eye regions which are used to determine the fatigue state of the driver.

Keywords: Driver fatigue detection, Driving safety, Eye tracking, Intelligent transportation system, Template matching.

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310 Effect of Welding Processes on Fatigue Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joints

Authors: T.S.Balasubramanian, V.Balasubramanian, M.A.Muthumanikkam

Abstract:

This paper reports the fatigue crack growth behaviour of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and laser beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Centre cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behaviour. A 100kN servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine was used under constant amplitude uniaxial tensile load (stress ratio of 0.1 and frequency of 10 Hz). Crack growth curves were plotted and crack growth parameters (exponent and intercept) were evaluated. Critical and threshold stress intensity factor ranges were also evaluated. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of welds was correlated with mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of welds. Of the three joints, the joint fabricated by laser beam welding exhibited higher fatigue crack growth resistance due to the presence of fine lamellar microstructure in the weld metal.

Keywords: Fatigue, Non ferrous metals and alloys, welding

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309 Scatter Analysis of Fatigue Life and Pore Size Data of Die-Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy

Authors: S. Mohd, Y. Mutoh, Y. Otsuka, Y. Miyashita, T. Koike, T. Suzuki

Abstract:

Scatter behavior of fatigue life in die-cast AM60B alloy was investigated. For comparison, those in rolled AM60B alloy and die-cast A365-T5 aluminum alloy were also studied. Scatter behavior of pore size was also investigated to discuss dominant factors for fatigue life scatter in die-cast materials. Three-parameter Weibull function was suitable to explain the scatter behavior of both fatigue life and pore size. The scatter of fatigue life in die-cast AM60B alloy was almost comparable to that in die-cast A365-T5 alloy, while it was significantly large compared to that in the rolled AM60B alloy. Scatter behavior of pore size observed at fracture nucleation site on the fracture surface was comparable to that observed on the specimen cross-section and also to that of fatigue life. Therefore, the dominant factor for large scatter of fatigue life in die-cast alloys would be the large scatter of pore size. This speculation was confirmed by the fracture mechanics fatigue life prediction, where the pore observed at fatigue crack nucleation site was assumed as the pre-existing crack.

Keywords: Fatigue life, Pore size, Scatter, Weibull distribution, Die-cast magnesium alloy

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308 Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Roumen Petrov, Rolf Dollevoet, Jilt Sietsma, Jun Wu

Abstract:

The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined finite element-fatigue prediction approach. The influences of loading conditions on fatigue crack initiation have been studied. Furthermore, the effects of some artificial defects (squat-shape) on fatigue lives are examined. To simulate the vehicle-track interaction by means of the test rig, a threedimensional finite element (FE) model is built up. The nonlinear material behaviour of the rail steel is modelled in the contact interface. The results of FE simulations are combined with the critical plane concept to determine the material points with the greatest possibility of fatigue failure. Based on the stress-strain responses, by employing of previously postulated criteria for fatigue crack initiation (plastic shakedown and ratchetting), fatigue life analysis is carried out. The results are reported for various loading conditions and different defect sizes. Afterward, the cyclic mechanism of the test rig is evaluated from the operational viewpoint. The results of fatigue life predictions are compared with the expected number of cycles of the test rig by its cyclic nature. Finally, the estimative duration of the experiments until fatigue crack initiation is roughly determined.

Keywords: Fatigue, test rig, crack initiation, life, rail, squats.

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307 Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Continually increasing working temperature and growing need for greater efficiency and reliability of automotive exhaust require systematic investigation into the thermal fatigue properties especially of high temperature stainless steels. In this study, thermal fatigue properties of 300 series austenitic stainless steels have been evaluated in the temperature ranges of 200-800oC and 200-900oC. Systematic methods for control of temperatures within the predetermined range and measurement of load applied to specimens as a function of temperature during thermal cycles have been established. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted under fully constrained condition, where both ends of specimens were completely fixed. Load relaxation behavior at the temperatures of thermal cycle was closely related with the thermal fatigue property.

Keywords: Austenitic stainless steel, automotive exhaust, thermal fatigue, microstructure, load relaxation.

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306 Stress Ratio and Notch Effect on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in 2024 Al-alloy

Authors: N. Benachour, A. Hadjoui, M. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

This study reports an empirical investigation of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in 2024 T351 aluminium alloy using constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was used and in stable propagation stage NASGRO model was applied. In this investigation, the flat plate of double through crack at hole is used. Based on experimental results (AFGROW Database), effect of stress ratio, R, is highlights on fatigue initiation life (FIL) and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). The increasing of dimension of hole characterizing the notch effect decrease the fatigue life.

Keywords: Fatigue crack growth, initiation life, Al-Alloy, stressratio, notch effect

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305 Fatigue Life of an Anti-Roll Bar of a Passenger Vehicle

Authors: J. Marzbanrad, A. Yadollahi

Abstract:

In the present paper, Fatigue life assessment of an anti-roll bar component of a passenger vehicle, is investigated by ANSYS 11 software. A stress analysis is also carried out by the finite element technique for the determination of highly stressed regions on the bar. Anti-roll bar is a suspension element used at the front, rear, or at both ends of a car that reduces body roll by resisting any unequal vertical motion between the pair of wheels to which it is connected. As a first stage, fatigue damage models proposed by some well-known references and the corresponding assumptions are discussed and some enhancements are proposed. Then, fracture analysis of an anti-roll bar of an automobile is carried out. The analysed type of the anti-roll bar is especially important as many cases are reported about the fracture after a 100,000 km of travel fatigue and fracture conditions. This paper demonstrates fatigue life of an anti-roll bar and then evaluated by experimental analytically results from other researcher.

Keywords: Anti-roll bar, Fracture, Fatigue life, Random loading

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304 Fatigue Strength of S275 Mild Steel under Cyclic Loading

Authors: T. Aldeeb, M. Abduelmula

Abstract:

This study examines the fatigue life of S275 mild steel at room temperature. Mechanical components can fail under cyclic loading during period of time, known as the fatigue phenomenon. In order to prevent fatigue induced failures, material behavior should be investigated to determine the endurance limit of the material for safe design and infinite life, thus leading to reducing the economic cost and loss in human lives. The fatigue behavior of S275 mild steel was studied and investigated. Specimens were prepared in accordance with ASTM E3-11, and fatigue tests of the specimen were conducted in accordance with ASTM E466-07 on a smooth plate, with a continuous radius between ends (hourglass-shaped plate). The method of fatigue testing was applied with constant load amplitude and constant frequency of 4 Hz with load ratio (Fully Reversal R= -1). Surface fractures of specimens were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The experimental results were compared with the results of a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), using simulation software. The experiment results indicated that the endurance fatigue limit of S275 mild steel was 195.47 MPa.

Keywords: Fatigue life, fatigue strength, finite element analysis, S275 mild steel, scanning electron microscope.

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303 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang

Abstract:

This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: Topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint.

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302 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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