Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Search results for: FPGA.

96 Design and Implementation of TMS320C31 DSP and FPGA for Conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction Machines

Authors: C. L. Toh, N. R. N. Idris, A. H. M. Yatim

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new digital logic design, which combines the DSP and FPGA to implement the conventional DTC of induction machine. The DSP will be used for floating point calculation whereas the FPGA main task is to implement the hysteresis-based controller. The emphasis is on FPGA digital logic design. The simulation and experimental results are presented and summarized.

Keywords: DTC, DSP, FPGA, induction machine

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95 Efficient Hardware Realization of Truncated Multipliers using FPGA

Authors: Muhammad H. Rais,

Abstract:

Truncated multiplier is a good candidate for digital signal processing (DSP) applications including finite impulse response (FIR) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Through truncated multiplier a significant reduction in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) resources can be achieved. This paper presents for the first time a comparison of resource utilization of Spartan-3AN and Virtex-5 implementation of standard and truncated multipliers using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The Virtex-5 FPGA shows significant improvement as compared to Spartan-3AN FPGA device. The Virtex-5 FPGA device shows better performance with a percentage ratio of number of occupied slices for standard to truncated multipliers is increased from 40% to 73.86% as compared to Spartan- 3AN is decreased from 68.75% to 58.78%. Results show that the anomaly in Spartan-3AN FPGA device average connection and maximum pin delay have been efficiently reduced in Virtex-5 FPGA device.

Keywords: Digital Signal Processing (DSP), FieldProgrammable Gate Array (FPGA), Spartan-3AN, TruncatedMultiplier, Virtex-5, VHDL.

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94 Power Optimization Techniques in FPGA Devices: A Combination of System- and Low-Levels

Authors: Pawel P. Czapski, Andrzej Sluzek

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results regarding system-level power awareness for FPGA implementations in wireless sensor networks. Re-configurability of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) allows for significant flexibility in its applications to embedded systems. However, high power consumption in FPGA becomes a significant factor in design considerations. We present several ideas and their experimental verifications on how to optimize power consumption at high level of designing process while maintaining the same energy per operation (low-level methods can be used additionally). This paper demonstrates that it is possible to estimate feasible power consumption savings even at the high level of designing process. It is envisaged that our results can be also applied to other embedded systems applications, not limited to FPGA-based.

Keywords: Power optimization, FPGA, system-level designing, wireless sensor networks.

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93 Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA

Authors: S. Heydarzadeh, A. Kadivarian, P. Torkzadeh

Abstract:

Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) on FPGA is presented in this paper.The design and modeling of a high performance SAR analog to digital converter are based on monotonic capacitor switching procedure algorithm .Spartan 3 FPGA is chosen for implementing SAR analog to digital converter algorithm. SAR VHDL program writes in Xilinx and modelsim uses for showing results.

Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Successive approximation, Capacitor switching algorithm, FPGA

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92 Position Control of an AC Servo Motor Using VHDL and FPGA

Authors: Kariyappa B. S., Hariprasad S. A., R. Nagaraj

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method of controlling position of AC Servomotor using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). FPGA controller is used to generate direction and the number of pulses required to rotate for a given angle. Pulses are sent as a square wave, the number of pulses determines the angle of rotation and frequency of square wave determines the speed of rotation. The proposed control scheme has been realized using XILINX FPGA SPARTAN XC3S400 and tested using MUMA012PIS model Alternating Current (AC) servomotor. Experimental results show that the position of the AC Servo motor can be controlled effectively. KeywordsAlternating Current (AC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

Keywords: Alternating Current (AC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

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91 Faster FPGA Routing Solution using DNA Computing

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Manjinder Singh Kahlon

Abstract:

There are many classical algorithms for finding routing in FPGA. But Using DNA computing we can solve the routes efficiently and fast. The run time complexity of DNA algorithms is much less than other classical algorithms which are used for solving routing in FPGA. The research in DNA computing is in a primary level. High information density of DNA molecules and massive parallelism involved in the DNA reactions make DNA computing a powerful tool. It has been proved by many research accomplishments that any procedure that can be programmed in a silicon computer can be realized as a DNA computing procedure. In this paper we have proposed two tier approaches for the FPGA routing solution. First, geometric FPGA detailed routing task is solved by transforming it into a Boolean satisfiability equation with the property that any assignment of input variables that satisfies the equation specifies a valid routing. Satisfying assignment for particular route will result in a valid routing and absence of a satisfying assignment implies that the layout is un-routable. In second step, DNA search algorithm is applied on this Boolean equation for solving routing alternatives utilizing the properties of DNA computation. The simulated results are satisfactory and give the indication of applicability of DNA computing for solving the FPGA Routing problem.

Keywords: FPGA, Routing, DNA Computing.

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90 FPGA Implementation of the BB84 Protocol

Authors: Jaouadi Ikram, Machhout Mohsen

Abstract:

The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.

Keywords: QKD, BB84, protocol, cryptography, FPGA, key, security, communication.

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89 Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformions on FPGA Technology

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahmoud, Moawad I. M. Dessouky, Salah Deyab, Fatma H. Elfouly

Abstract:

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the comparison between the Haar and Daubechies wavelets is investigated. The Bit Error Rat (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. It is seen that the BER using Daubechies wavelet techniques is less than Haar wavelet. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-of-art Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Keywords: Daubechies wavelet, discrete wavelet transform, Haar wavelet, Xilinx FPGA.

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88 Fully Parameterizable FPGA based Crypto-Accelerator

Authors: Iqbalur Rahman, Miftahur Rahman, Abul L Haque, Mostafizur Rahman,

Abstract:

In this paper, RSA encryption algorithm and its hardware implementation in Xilinx-s Virtex Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is analyzed. The issues of scalability, flexible performance, and silicon efficiency for the hardware acceleration of public key crypto systems are being explored in the present work. Using techniques based on the interleaved math for exponentiation, the proposed RSA calculation architecture is compared to existing FPGA-based solutions for speed, FPGA utilization, and scalability. The paper covers the RSA encryption algorithm, interleaved multiplication, Miller Rabin algorithm for primality test, extended Euclidean math, basic FPGA technology, and the implementation details of the proposed RSA calculation architecture. Performance of several alternative hardware architectures is discussed and compared. Finally, conclusion is drawn, highlighting the advantages of a fully flexible & parameterized design.

Keywords: Crypto Accelerator, FPGA, Public Key Cryptography, RSA.

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87 Real-Time Digital Oscilloscope Implementation in 90nm CMOS Technology FPGA

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Jens Ogniewski, Vinodh Ravinath

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a real-time audiorange digital oscilloscope and its implementation in 90nm CMOS FPGA platform. The design consists of sample and hold circuits, A/D conversion, audio and video processing, on-chip RAM, clock generation and control logic. The design of internal blocks and modules in 90nm devices in an FPGA is elaborated. Also the key features and their implementation algorithms are presented. Finally, the timing waveforms and simulation results are put forward.

Keywords: CMOS, VLSI, Oscilloscope, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), VHDL, Video Graphics Array (VGA)

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86 Comparison between Haar and Daubechies Wavelet Transformations on FPGA Technology

Authors: Fatma H. Elfouly, Mohamed I. Mahmoud, Moawad I. M. Dessouky, Salah Deyab

Abstract:

Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the Bit Error Rate (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. From the BER, it is seen that the implementations execute the operation of the wavelet transform correctly and satisfying the perfect reconstruction conditions. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-ofart Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.

Keywords: Daubechies wavelet, discrete wavelet transform, Haar wavelet, Xilinx FPGA.

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85 FPGA Implementation of RSA Encryption Algorithm for E-Passport Application

Authors: Khaled Shehata, Hanady Hussien, Sara Yehia

Abstract:

Securing the data stored on E-passport is a very important issue. RSA encryption algorithm is suitable for such application with low data size. In this paper the design and implementation of 1024 bit-key RSA encryption and decryption module on an FPGA is presented. The module is verified through comparing the result with that obtained from MATLAB tools. The design runs at a frequency of 36.3 MHz on Virtex-5 Xilinx FPGA. The key size is designed to be 1024-bit to achieve high security for the passport information. The whole design is achieved through VHDL design entry which makes it a portable design and can be directed to any hardware platform.

Keywords: RSA, VHDL, FPGA, modular multiplication, modular exponential.

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84 FPGA Implement of a Vision Based Lane Departure Warning System

Authors: Yu Ren Lin, Yi Feng Su

Abstract:

Using vision based solution in intelligent vehicle application often needs large memory to handle video stream and image process which increase complexity of hardware and software. In this paper, we present a FPGA implement of a vision based lane departure warning system. By taking frame of videos, the line gradient of line is estimated and the lane marks are found. By analysis the position of lane mark, departure of vehicle will be detected in time. This idea has been implemented in Xilinx Spartan6 FPGA. The lane departure warning system used 39% logic resources and no memory of the device. The average availability is 92.5%. The frame rate is more than 30 frames per second (fps).

Keywords: Lane departure warning system, image, FPGA.

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83 Field Programmable Gate Array Based Infinite Impulse Response Filter Using Multipliers

Authors: Rajesh Mehra, Bharti Thakur

Abstract:

In this paper, an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter has been designed and simulated on an Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). The implementation is based on Multiply Add and Accumulate (MAC) algorithm which uses multiply operations for design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of target device. The designed filter has been synthesized on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The proposed design is simulated with Matlab, synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool, and implemented on FPGA devices. The Virtex 5 FPGA based design can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP based design. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Butterworth, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGA.

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82 A Multi Cordic Architecture on FPGA Platform

Authors: Ahmed Madian, Muaz Aljarhi

Abstract:

Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) is a unique digital computing unit intended for the computation of mathematical operations and functions. This paper presents A multi CORDIC processor that integrates different CORDIC architectures on a single FPGA chip and allows the user to select the CORDIC architecture to proceed with based on what he wants to calculate and his needs. Synthesis show that radix 2 CORDIC has the lowest clock delay, radix 8 CORDIC has the highest LUT usage and lowest register usage while Hybrid Radix 4 CORDIC had the highest clock delay.

Keywords: Multi, CORDIC, FPGA, Processor.

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81 An FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Visual Based Fall Detection

Authors: Peng Shen Ong, Yoong Choon Chang, Chee Pun Ooi, Ettikan K. Karuppiah, Shahirina Mohd Tahir

Abstract:

Falling has been one of the major concerns and threats to the independence of the elderly in their daily lives. With the worldwide significant growth of the aging population, it is essential to have a promising solution of fall detection which is able to operate at high accuracy in real-time and supports large scale implementation using multiple cameras. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a highly promising tool to be used as a hardware accelerator in many emerging embedded vision based system. Thus, it is the main objective of this paper to present an FPGA-based solution of visual based fall detection to meet stringent real-time requirements with high accuracy. The hardware architecture of visual based fall detection which utilizes the pixel locality to reduce memory accesses is proposed. By exploiting the parallel and pipeline architecture of FPGA, our hardware implementation of visual based fall detection using FGPA is able to achieve a performance of 60fps for a series of video analytical functions at VGA resolutions (640x480). The results of this work show that FPGA has great potentials and impacts in enabling large scale vision system in the future healthcare industry due to its flexibility and scalability.

Keywords: Fall detection, FPGA, hardware implementation.

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80 FPGA Implementation of RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Ridha Ghayoula, ElAmjed Hajlaoui, Talel Korkobi, Mbarek Traii, Hichem Trabelsi

Abstract:

In this paper, the hardware implementation of the RSA public-key cryptographic algorithm is presented. The RSA cryptographic algorithm is depends on the computation of repeated modular exponentials. The Montgomery algorithm is used and modified to reduce hardware resources and to achieve reasonable operating speed for FPGA. An efficient architecture for modular multiplications based on the array multiplier is proposed. We have implemented a RSA cryptosystem based on Montgomery algorithm. As a result, it is shown that proposed architecture contributes to small area and reasonable speed.

Keywords: RSA, Cryptosystem, Montgomery, Implementation.FPGA.

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79 FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments

Authors: Syed Manzoor Qasim, Shuja Abbasi, Saleh Alshebeili, Bandar Almashary, Ateeq Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts, known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms used for the computation of cross moments are computationally intensive and require high computational speed for real-time applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA. Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.

Keywords: Cross moments, Cumulants, FPGA, Hardware Implementation.

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78 Neural Network Implementation Using FPGA: Issues and Application

Authors: A. Muthuramalingam, S. Himavathi, E. Srinivasan

Abstract:

.Hardware realization of a Neural Network (NN), to a large extent depends on the efficient implementation of a single neuron. FPGA-based reconfigurable computing architectures are suitable for hardware implementation of neural networks. FPGA realization of ANNs with a large number of neurons is still a challenging task. This paper discusses the issues involved in implementation of a multi-input neuron with linear/nonlinear excitation functions using FPGA. Implementation method with resource/speed tradeoff is proposed to handle signed decimal numbers. The VHDL coding developed is tested using Xilinx XC V50hq240 Chip. To improve the speed of operation a lookup table method is used. The problems involved in using a lookup table (LUT) for a nonlinear function is discussed. The percentage saving in resource and the improvement in speed with an LUT for a neuron is reported. An attempt is also made to derive a generalized formula for a multi-input neuron that facilitates to estimate approximately the total resource requirement and speed achievable for a given multilayer neural network. This facilitates the designer to choose the FPGA capacity for a given application. Using the proposed method of implementation a neural network based application, namely, a Space vector modulator for a vector-controlled drive is presented

Keywords: FPGA implementation, multi-input neuron, neural network, nn based space vector modulator.

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77 FPGA Based Longitudinal and Lateral Controller Implementation for a Small UAV

Authors: Hafiz ul Azad, Dragan V.Lazic, Waqar Shahid

Abstract:

This paper presents implementation of attitude controller for a small UAV using field programmable gate array (FPGA). Due to the small size constrain a miniature more compact and computationally extensive; autopilot platform is needed for such systems. More over UAV autopilot has to deal with extremely adverse situations in the shortest possible time, while accomplishing its mission. FPGAs in the recent past have rendered themselves as fast, parallel, real time, processing devices in a compact size. This work utilizes this fact and implements different attitude controllers for a small UAV in FPGA, using its parallel processing capabilities. Attitude controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The discrete version of this controller is implemented using pipelining followed by retiming, to reduce the critical path and thereby clock period of the controller datapath. Pipelined, retimed, parallel PID controller implementation is done using rapidprototyping and testing efficient development tool of “system generator", which has been developed by Xilinx for FPGA implementation. The improved timing performance enables the controller to react abruptly to any changes made to the attitudes of UAV.

Keywords: Field Programmable gate array (FPGA), Hardwaredescriptive Language (HDL), PID, Pipelining, Retiming, XilinxSystem Generator.

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76 FPGA Implementation of a Vision-Based Blind Spot Warning System

Authors: Yu Ren Lin, Yu Hong Li

Abstract:

Vision-based intelligent vehicle applications often require large amounts of memory to handle video streaming and image processing, which in turn increases complexity of hardware and software. This paper presents an FPGA implement of a vision-based blind spot warning system. Using video frames, the information of the blind spot area turns into one-dimensional information. Analysis of the estimated entropy of image allows the detection of an object in time. This idea has been implemented in the XtremeDSP video starter kit. The blind spot warning system uses only 13% of its logic resources and 95k bits block memory, and its frame rate is over 30 frames per sec (fps).

Keywords: blind-spot area, image, FPGA

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75 FPGA Implementation of the “PYRAMIDS“ Block Cipher

Authors: A. AlKalbany, H. Al hassan, M. Saeb

Abstract:

The “PYRAMIDS" Block Cipher is a symmetric encryption algorithm of a 64, 128, 256-bit length, that accepts a variable key length of 128, 192, 256 bits. The algorithm is an iterated cipher consisting of repeated applications of a simple round transformation with different operations and different sequence in each round. The algorithm was previously software implemented in Cµ code. In this paper, a hardware implementation of the algorithm, using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), is presented. In this work, we discuss the algorithm, the implemented micro-architecture, and the simulation and implementation results. Moreover, we present a detailed comparison with other implemented standard algorithms. In addition, we include the floor plan as well as the circuit diagrams of the various micro-architecture modules.

Keywords: FPGA, VHDL, micro-architecture, encryption, cryptography, algorithm, data communication security.

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74 Spacecraft Neural Network Control System Design using FPGA

Authors: Hanaa T. El-Madany, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. A. El-Rahman, Hassen T. Dorrah

Abstract:

Designing and implementing intelligent systems has become a crucial factor for the innovation and development of better products of space technologies. A neural network is a parallel system, capable of resolving paradigms that linear computing cannot. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device that owns reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application, conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffers the limitation in time and cost. With low precision artificial neural network design, FPGAs have higher speed and smaller size for real time application than the VLSI and DSP chips. So, many researchers have made great efforts on the realization of neural network (NN) using FPGA technique. In this paper, an introduction of ANN and FPGA technique are briefly shown. Also, Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic. Synthesis results for ANN controller are developed using Precision RTL. Proposed VHDL implementation creates a flexible, fast method and high degree of parallelism for implementing ANN. The implementation of multi-layer NN using lookup table LUT reduces the resource utilization for implementation and time for execution.

Keywords: Spacecraft, neural network, FPGA, VHDL.

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73 FPGA Based Implementation of Simplified Space Vector PWM Algorithm for Multilevel Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drives

Authors: Tapan Trivedi, Pramod Agarwal, Rajendrasinh Jadeja, Pragnesh Bhatt

Abstract:

Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation is popular for variable frequency drives. The method has several advantages over carried based PWM and is computation intensive. The implementation of SVPWM for multilevel inverter requires special attention and at the same time consumes considerable resources. Due to faster processing power and reduced over all computational burden, FPGAs are being investigated as an alternative for other controllers. In this paper, a space vector PWM algorithm is implemented using FPGA which requires less computational area and is modular in structure. The algorithm is verified experimentally for Neutral Point Clamped inverter using FPGA development board xc3s5000-4fg900.

Keywords: Modular structure, Multilevel inverter, Space Vector PWM, Switching States.

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72 Hardware Prototyping of an Efficient Encryption Engine

Authors: Muhammad I. Ibrahimy, Mamun B.I. Reaz, Khandaker Asaduzzaman, Sazzad Hussain

Abstract:

An approach to develop the FPGA of a flexible key RSA encryption engine that can be used as a standard device in the secured communication system is presented. The VHDL modeling of this RSA encryption engine has the unique characteristics of supporting multiple key sizes, thus can easily be fit into the systems that require different levels of security. A simple nested loop addition and subtraction have been used in order to implement the RSA operation. This has made the processing time faster and used comparatively smaller amount of space in the FPGA. The hardware design is targeted on Altera STRATIX II device and determined that the flexible key RSA encryption engine can be best suited in the device named EP2S30F484C3. The RSA encryption implementation has made use of 13,779 units of logic elements and achieved a clock frequency of 17.77MHz. It has been verified that this RSA encryption engine can perform 32-bit, 256-bit and 1024-bit encryption operation in less than 41.585us, 531.515us and 790.61us respectively.

Keywords: RSA, FPGA, Communication, Security, VHDL.

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71 FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems

Authors: Semih Demir, Anil Celebi

Abstract:

Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

Keywords: Clock recovery on TDMoIP, FPGA, MATLAB reference model, clock synchronization.

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70 Run-Time Customisation of Soft-Core CPUs on Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Rehab Abdullah Shendi

Abstract:

The use of customised soft-core processors in which instructions can be integrated into a system in application hardware is increasing in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) field. Specifically, the partial run-time reconfiguration of FPGAs in specialised processors for a particular domain can be very beneficial. In this report, the design and implementation for the customisation of a soft-core MIPS processor using an FPGA and partial reconfiguration (PR) of FPGA technology will be addressed to achieve efficient resource use. This can be achieved using a PR design flow that helps the design fit into a smaller device. Moreover, the impact of static power consumption could be reduced due to runtime reconfiguration. This will be done by configurable custom instructions implemented in the hardware as an extension on the MIPS CPU. The aim of this project is to investigate the PR of FPGAs for run-time adaptations of the instruction set of a soft-core CPU, including the integration of custom instructions and the exploration of the potential to use the MultiBoot feature available in Xilinx FPGAs to carry out the PR process. The system will be evaluated and tested on a Nexus 3 development board featuring a Xilinx Spartran-6 FPGA. The system will be able to load reconfigurable custom instructions dynamically into user programs with the help of the trap handler when the custom instruction is called by the MIPS CPU. The results of this experiment demonstrate that custom instructions in hardware can speed up a certain function and many instructions can be saved when compared to a software implementation of the same function. Implementing custom instructions in hardware is perfectly possible and worth exploring.

Keywords: Customisation, FPGA, MIPS, partial reconfiguration.

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69 FPGA based Relative Distance Measurement using Stereo Vision Technology

Authors: Manasi Pathade, Prachi Kadam, Renuka Kulkarni, Tejas Teredesai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel concept of relative distance measurement using Stereo Vision Technology and discuss its implementation on a FPGA based real-time image processor. We capture two images using two CCD cameras and compare them. Disparity is calculated for each pixel using a real time dense disparity calculation algorithm. This algorithm is based on the concept of indexed histogram for matching. Disparity being inversely proportional to distance (Proved Later), we can thus get the relative distances of objects in front of the camera. The output is displayed on a TV screen in the form of a depth image (optionally using pseudo colors). This system works in real time on a full PAL frame rate (720 x 576 active pixels @ 25 fps).

Keywords: Stereo Vision, Relative Distance Measurement, Indexed Histogram, Real time FPGA Image Processor

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68 Study on the Self-Location Estimate by the Evolutional Triangle Similarity Matching Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: Yuji Kageyama, Shin Nagata, Tatsuya Takino, Izuru Nomura, Hiroyuki Kamata

Abstract:

In previous study, technique to estimate a self-location by using a lunar image is proposed.We consider the improvement of the conventional method in consideration of FPGA implementationin this paper. Specifically, we introduce Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for reduction of search time.In addition, we use fixed point arithmetic to enable high-speed operation on FPGA.

Keywords: SLIM, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm, Location Estimate.

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67 An Innovative Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Implementation using a Hybrid FPGA Technology

Authors: Danielle Reichel, Antoine Druilhe, Tuan Dang

Abstract:

Traditional development of wireless sensor network mote is generally based on SoC1 platform. Such method of development faces three main drawbacks: lack of flexibility in terms of development due to low resource and rigid architecture of SoC; low capability of evolution and portability versus performance if specific micro-controller architecture features are used; and the rapid obsolescence of micro-controller comparing to the long lifetime of power plants or any industrial installations. To overcome these drawbacks, we have explored a new approach of development of wireless sensor network mote using a hybrid FPGA technology. The application of such approach is illustrated through the implementation of an innovative wireless sensor network protocol called OCARI.

Keywords: Hybrid FPGA, Embedded system, Mote, flexibility, durability, OCARI protocol, SoC, Wireless Sensor Network

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