Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 236

Search results for: synchronous stimulation.

236 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

Abstract:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: Asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation, muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation.

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235 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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234 An Algorithm for Preventing the Irregular Operation Modes of the Drive Synchronous Motor Providing the Ore Grinding

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The current scientific and engineering interest concerning the problems of preventing the emergency manifestations of drive synchronous motors, ensuring the ore grinding technological process has been justified. The analysis of the known works devoted to the abnormal operation modes of synchronous motors and possibilities of protection against them, has shown that their application is inexpedient for preventing the impermissible displays arising in the electrical drive synchronous motors ensuring the ore-grinding process. The main energy and technological factors affecting the technical condition of synchronous motors are evaluated. An algorithm for preventing the irregular operation modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor applied in the ore-grinding technological process has been developed and proposed for further application which gives an opportunity to provide smart solutions, ensuring the safe operation of the drive synchronous motor by a comprehensive consideration of the energy and technological factors.

Keywords: Synchronous motor, abnormal operating mode, electric drive, algorithm, energy factor, technological factor.

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233 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: Electrical drive system, synchronous motor, regulator, stability, transition process.

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232 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: Bioheat transfer, Electrode, Neuroprosthetics, TENS, Transcutaneous stimulation.

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231 Analysis of Synchronous Machine Excitation Systems: Comparative Study

Authors: Shewit Tsegaye, Kinde A. Fante

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison and performance evaluation of synchronous machine excitation models. The two models, DC1A and AC4A, are among the IEEE standardized model structures for representing the wide variety of synchronous machine excitation systems. The performance evaluation of these models is done using SIMULINK simulation software. The simulation results obtained using transient analysis show that the DC1A excitation system is more reliable and stable than AC4A excitation system.

Keywords: Excitation system, synchronous machines, AC and DC regulators.

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230 A Chaotic Study on Tremor Behavior of Parkinsonian Patients under Deep Brain Stimulation

Authors: M. Sadeghi, A.H. Jafari, S.M.P. Firoozabadi

Abstract:

Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is a surgical treatment for Parkinson-s Disease with three stimulation parameters: frequency, pulse width, and voltage. The parameters should be selected appropriately to achieve effective treatment. This selection now, performs clinically. The aim of this research is to study chaotic behavior of recorded tremor of patients under DBS in order to present a computational method to recognize stimulation optimum voltage. We obtained some chaotic features of tremor signal, and discovered embedding space of it has an attractor, and its largest Lyapunov exponent is positive, which show tremor signal has chaotic behavior, also we found out, in optimal voltage, entropy and embedding space variance of tremor signal have minimum values in comparison with other voltages. These differences can help neurologists recognize optimal voltage numerically, which leads to reduce patients' role and discomfort in optimizing stimulation parameters and to do treatment with high accuracy.

Keywords: Chaos, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson's Disease, Stimulation Parameters, tremor.

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229 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar

Abstract:

For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, mathematical model, power system stability, synchronous generator.

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228 An Algorithm for Estimating the Stable Operation Conditions of the Synchronous Motor of the Ore Mill Electric Drive

Authors: M. Baghdasaryan, A. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor of the ore mill electric drive is proposed. The stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor are revealed, taking into account the estimation of the q angle change and the technological factors. The stability condition obtained allows to ensure the stable operation of the motor in the synchronous mode, taking into account the nonlinear character of the mill loading. The developed algorithm gives an opportunity to present the undesirable phenomena, arising in the electric drive system. The obtained stability condition can be successfully applied for the optimal control of the electromechanical system of the mill.

Keywords: Electric drive, synchronous motor, ore mill, stability, technological factors.

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227 Temporal Analysis of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation–Towards Enhanced Systems via Virtualisation

Authors: Stefan M. Goetz, Thomas Weyh, Hans-Georg Herzog

Abstract:

The triumph of inductive neuro-stimulation since its rediscovery in the 1980s has been quite spectacular. In lots of branches ranging from clinical applications to basic research this system is absolutely indispensable. Nevertheless, the basic knowledge about the processes underlying the stimulation effect is still very rough and rarely refined in a quantitative way. This seems to be not only an inexcusable blank spot in biophysics and for stimulation prediction, but also a fundamental hindrance for technological progress. The already very sophisticated devices have reached a stage where further optimization requires better strategies than provided by simple linear membrane models of integrate-and-fire style. Addressing this problem for the first time, we suggest in the following text a way for virtual quantitative analysis of a stimulation system. Concomitantly, this ansatz seems to provide a route towards a better understanding by using nonlinear signal processing and taking the nerve as a filter that is adapted for neuronal magnetic stimulation. The model is compact and easy to adjust. The whole setup behaved very robustly during all performed tests. Exemplarily a recent innovative stimulator design known as cTMS is analyzed and dimensioned with this approach in the following. The results show hitherto unforeseen potentials.

Keywords: Theory of magnetic stimulation, inversion, optimization, high voltage oscillator, TMS, cTMS.

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226 A Method to Saturation Modeling of Synchronous Machines in d-q Axes

Authors: Mohamed A. Khlifi, Badr M. Alshammari

Abstract:

This paper discusses the general methods to saturation in the steady-state, two axis (d & q) frame models of synchronous machines. In particular, the important role of the magnetic coupling between the d-q axes (cross-magnetizing phenomenon), is demonstrated. For that purpose, distinct methods of saturation modeling of dumper synchronous machine with cross-saturation are identified, and detailed models synthesis in d-q axes. A number of models are given in the final developed form. The procedure and the novel models are verified by a critical application to prove the validity of the method and the equivalence between all developed models is reported. Advantages of some of the models over the existing ones and their applicability are discussed.

Keywords: Cross-magnetizing, models synthesis, synchronous machine, saturated modeling, state-space vectors.

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225 A Novel Zero Voltage Transition Synchronous Buck Converter for Portable Application

Authors: S. Pattnaik, A. K. Panda, Aroul K., K. K. Mahapatra

Abstract:

This paper proposes a zero-voltage transition (ZVT) PWM synchronous buck converter, which is designed to operate at low output voltage and high efficiency typically required for portable systems. To make the DC-DC converter efficient at lower voltage, synchronous converter is an obvious choice because of lower conduction loss in the diode. The high-side MOSFET is dominated by the switching losses and it is eliminated by the soft switching technique. Additionally, the resonant auxiliary circuit designed is also devoid of the switching losses. The suggested procedure ensures an efficient converter. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and experimental results are presented to explain the proposed schemes.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter, Switching loss, Synchronous Buck, Soft switching, ZVT.

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224 Design of Synchronous Torque Couplers

Authors: M. H. Nagrial, J. Rizk, A. Hellany

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, analysis and development of permanent magnet (PM) torque couplers. These couplers employ rare-earth magnets. Based on finite element analysis and earlier analytical works both concentric and face-type synchronous type couplers have been designed and fabricated. The experimental performance has good correlation with finite element calculations.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Synchronous TorqueCouplers, Permanent Magnet Torque Couplers

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223 Wireless Neural Stimulator with Adjustable Electrical Quantity

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The neural stimulation has been gaining much interest in neuromodulation research and clinical trials. For efficiency, there is a need for variable electrical stimulation such as current and voltage stimuli as well as wireless framework. In this regard, we develop the wireless neural stimulator capable of voltage and current stimuli. The system consists of ZigBee which is a wireless communication module and stimulus generator. The stimulus generator with 8-bits resolution enable both mono-polar and bi-polar waveform in voltage (-3.3~3.3V) and current(-330~330µA) stimulus mode which is controllable. The experimental results suggest that the proposed neural stimulator can play a role as an effective approach for neuromodulation.

Keywords: Neural stimulator, current stimulation, voltage stimulation, neuromodulation

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222 Improvement of Synchronous Machine Dynamic Characteristics via Neural Network Based Controllers

Authors: S. A. Gawish, F. A. Khalifa, R. M. Mostafa

Abstract:

This paper presents Simulation and experimental study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of an adaptive artificial neural network stabilizer on enhancing the damping torque of a synchronous generator. For this purpose, a power system comprising a synchronous generator feeding a large power system through a short tie line is considered. The proposed adaptive neuro-control system consists of two multi-layered feed forward neural networks, which work as a plant model identifier and a controller. It generates supplementary control signals to be utilized by conventional controllers. The details of the interfacing circuits, sensors and transducers, which have been designed and built for use in tests, are presented. The synchronous generator is tested to investigate the effect of tuning a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) on its dynamic stability. The obtained simulation and experimental results verify the basic theoretical concepts.

Keywords: Adaptive artificial neural network, power system stabilizer, synchronous generator.

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221 Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement

Authors: J. Ritonja, R. Brezovnik, M. Petrun, B. Polajžer

Abstract:

Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.

Keywords: Control theory, power system stabilizer, robust control, sliding mode control, stability, synchronous generator.

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220 Effects of Combined Stimulation on the Autonomic Nervous System: A Pilot Study

Authors: Dae Won Lee, Ji Hyung Park, Sinae Eom, Syung Hyun Cho, Jong Soo Lee, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The autonomic nervous system has a regulatory structure that helps people adapt to changes in their environment by adjusting or modifying some functions in response to stress, and regulating involuntary function of human organs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined stimulation, both far-infrared heating and chiropractic, on the autonomic nervous system activities using thermal image and heart rate variability. Six healthy subjects participated in this test. We compared the before and after autonomic nervous system activities through obtaining thermal image and photoplethysmogram signal. The thermal images showed that the combined stimulation changed subject-s body temperature more highly and widely than before. The result of heart rate variability indicated that LF/HF ratio decreased. We concluded that combined stimulation activates autonomic nervous system, and expected other possibilities of this combined stimulation.

Keywords: Far-infrared heating, Chiropractic, Autonomic nervous system, Heart rate variability

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219 Design of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Authors: Arash Hassanpour Isfahani, Siavash Sadeghi

Abstract:

Permanent magnet synchronous machines are known as a good candidate for hybrid electric vehicles due to their unique merits. However they have two major drawbacks i.e. high cost and small speed range. In this paper an optimal design of a permanent magnet machine is presented. A reduction of permanent magnet material for a constant torque and an extension in speed and torque ranges are chosen as the optimization aims. For this purpose the analytical model of the permanent magnet synchronous machine is derived and the appropriate design algorithm is devised. The genetic algorithm is then employed to optimize some machine specifications. Finally the finite element method is used to validate the designed machine.

Keywords: Design, Finite Element, Hybrid electric vehicle, Optimization, Permanent magnet synchronous machine.

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218 A Fuzzy System to Analyze SIVD Diseases Using the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Authors: A. Faro, D. Giordano, M. Pennisi, G. Scarciofalo, C. Spampinato, F. Tramontana

Abstract:

The paper proposes a methodology to process the signals coming from the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in order to identify the pathology and evaluate the therapy to treat the patients affected by demency diseases. In particular, a fuzzy model is developed to identify the demency of the patients affected by Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia (SIVD) and to measure the effect of a repetitive TMS on their motor performances. A tool is also presented to support the mentioned analysis.

Keywords: TMS, EMG, fuzzy logic, transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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217 Synchronous Courses Attendance in Distance Higher Education: Case Study of a Computer Science Department

Authors: Thierry Eude

Abstract:

The use of videoconferencing platforms adapted to teaching offers students the opportunity to take distance education courses in much the same way as traditional in-class training. The sessions can be recorded and they allow students the option of following the courses synchronously or asynchronously. Three typical profiles can then be distinguished: students who choose to follow the courses synchronously, students who could attend the course in synchronous mode but choose to follow the session off-line, and students who follow the course asynchronously as they cannot attend the course when it is offered because of professional or personal constraints. Our study consists of observing attendance at all distance education courses offered in the synchronous mode by the Computer Science and Software Engineering Department at Laval University during 10 consecutive semesters. The aim is to identify factors that influence students in their choice of attending the distance courses in synchronous mode. It was found that participation tends to be relatively stable over the years for any one semester (fall, winter summer) and is similar from one course to another, although students may be increasingly familiar with the synchronous distance education courses. Average participation is around 28%. There may be deviations, but they concern only a few courses during certain semesters, suggesting that these deviations would only have occurred because of the composition of particular promotions during specific semesters. Furthermore, course schedules have a great influence on the attendance rate. The highest rates are all for courses which are scheduled outside office hours.

Keywords: Attendance, distance undergraduate education in computer science, student behavior, synchronous e-learning.

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216 Effects of Synchronous Music on Gymnastics' Motor Skills Performance among Undergraduate Female Students in Physical Education College

Authors: Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in Gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10) experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 6 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.

Keywords: Performance, motor skill, music, synchronous.

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215 Phasor Analysis of a Synchronous Generator: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Israel Núñez-Hernández, Peter C. Breedveld, Paul B. T. Weustink, Gilberto Gonzalez-A

Abstract:

This paper presents the use of phasor bond graphs to obtain the steady-state behavior of a synchronous generator. The phasor bond graph elements are built using 2D multibonds, which represent the real and imaginary part of the phasor. The dynamic bond graph model of a salient-pole synchronous generator is showed, and verified viz. a sudden short-circuit test. The reduction of the dynamic model into a phasor representation is described. The previous test is executed on the phasor bond graph model, and its steady-state values are compared with the dynamic response. Besides, the widely used power (torque)-angle curves are obtained by means of the phasor bond graph model, to test the usefulness of this model.

Keywords: Bond graphs, complex power, phasors, synchronous generator, short-circuit, open-circuit, power-angle curve.

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214 Sliding-Mode Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Mostafa.A. Fellani, Dawo.E. Abaid

Abstract:

This paper presents a controller design technique for Synchronous Reluctance Motor to improve its dynamic performance with fast response and high accuracy. The sliding mode control is the most attractive and suitable method to use for this purpose, since it is simple in design and for its insensitivity to parameter variations or external disturbances. When this method implemented it yields fast dynamic response without overshoot and a zero steady-state error. The current loop control with decentralized sliding mode is presented in this paper. The mathematical model for the synchronous machine, the inverter and the controller is developed. The stability of the sliding mode controller is analyzed. Simulation of synchronous reluctance motor and the controller with PWM-inverter has been curried out, using the SIMULINK software package of MATLAB. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.

Keywords: Dynamic Simulation, MATLAB, PWM-inverter, Reluctance Machine, Sliding-mode.

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213 Optimizing Voltage Parameter of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinsonian Patients by Modeling

Authors: M. Sadeghi, A.H. Jafari, S.M.P. Firoozabadi

Abstract:

Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is the second solution for Parkinson's Disease. Its three parameters are: frequency, pulse width and voltage. They must be optimized to achieve successful treatment. Nowadays it is done clinically by neurologists and there is not certain numerical method to detect them. The aim of this research is to introduce simulation and modeling of Parkinson's Disease treatment as a computational procedure to select optimum voltage. We recorded finger tremor signals of some Parkinsonian patients under DBS treatment at constant frequency and pulse width but variable voltages; then, we adapted a new model to fit these data. The optimum voltages obtained by data fitting results were the same as neurologists- commented voltages, which means modeling can be used as an engineering method to select optimum stimulation voltages.

Keywords: modeling, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson'sdisease, tremor.

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212 A Novel EMG Feedback Control Method in Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling System for Stroke Patients

Authors: Chien-Chih Chen, Ya-Hsin Hsueh, Zong-Cian He

Abstract:

With getting older in the whole population, the prevalence of stroke and its residual disability is getting higher and higher recently in Taiwan. The functional electrical stimulation cycling system (FESCS) is useful for hemiplegic patients. Because that the muscle of stroke patients is under hybrid activation. The raw electromyography (EMG) represents the residual muscle force of stroke subject whereas the peak-to-peak of stimulus EMG indicates the force enhancement benefiting from ES. It seems that EMG signals could be used for a parameter of feedback control mechanism. So, we design the feedback control protocol of FESCS, it includes physiological signal recorder, FPGA biomedical module, DAC and electrical stimulation circuit. Using the intensity of real-time EMG signal obtained from patients, as a feedback control method for the output voltage of FES-cycling system.

Keywords: Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling system EMG, control protocol.

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211 Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Noe Barrera-G

Abstract:

An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph modelling, synchronous generator, singular perturbations

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210 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: Laser, Partial Vibration, Osteoporosis, in vivo micro-CT, mice.

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209 A Design of Array Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil System

Authors: Sheng Ge, Jian-Peng Wang, Hai-Ying Tang, Xi Xiao, Wen Wu

Abstract:

This research proposed a new design of helmet-shaped array transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system. It was constructed using several sagittal directional wires and several coronal directional wires. By varying the current direction and strength on each wire, this array coil system could be constructed into the circular coil and figure-eight coil of different size. Also, this proposed coil system can flexibly not only change the stimulation location, range, type and strength, but also change the shape and the channel number of coil dynamically.

Keywords: TMS, circular coils, figure-eight coil, array coil

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208 Matlab/Simulink-Based Transient Stability Analysis Of A Sensorless Synchronous Reluctance Motor

Authors: Mostafa.A. Fellani, Daw .E. Abaid

Abstract:

This paper deals with stability analysis for synchronous reluctance motors drive. Special attention is paid to the transient performance with variations in motor's parameters such as Ld and Rs. A study of the dynamic control using d-q model is presented first in order to clarify the stability of the motor drive system. Based on the experimental parameters of the synchronous reluctance motor, this paper gives some simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK software packages. It is concluded that the motor parameters, especially Ld, affect the estimator stability and hence the whole drive system.

Keywords: Dynamic Simulation, MATLAB, PWM-inverter, Reluctance Machine, Sensorless Control

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207 Comparison of Field-Oriented Control and Direct Torque Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)

Authors: M. S. Merzoug, F. Naceri

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on two most popular control strategies for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives: field-oriented control (FOC) and direct torque control (DTC). The comparison is based on various criteria including basic control characteristics, dynamic performance, and implementation complexity. The study is done by simulation using the Simulink Power System Blockset that allows a complete representation of the power section (inverter and PMSM) and the control system. The simulation and evaluation of both control strategies are performed using actual parameters of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor fed by an IGBT PWM inverter.

Keywords: PMSM, FOC, DTC, hysteresis, PWM.

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