Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1022

Search results for: Amplifier class D

1022 Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology

Authors: Renbin Dai, Rana Arslan Ali Khan

Abstract:

The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was implemented by using inter-stage configuration, the Class A amplifier was chosen for driver stage i.e. the first amplifier focusing on the gain and the output amplifier conducted at Class AB with more emphasis on output power.

Keywords: Power amplifier, Class AB, Class A, MMIC, 2-stage, X band.

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1021 Novel Approach to Design of a Class-EJ Power Amplifier Using High Power Technology

Authors: F. Rahmani, F. Razaghian, A. R. Kashaninia

Abstract:

This article proposes a new method for application in communication circuit systems that increase efficiency, PAE, output power and gain in the circuit. The proposed method is based on a combination of switching class-E and class-J and has been termed class-EJ. This method was investigated using both theory and simulation to confirm ∼72% PAE and output power of >39dBm. The combination and design of the proposed power amplifier accrues gain of over 15dB in the 2.9 to 3.5GHz frequency bandwidth. This circuit was designed using MOSFET and high power transistors. The loadand source-pull method achieved the best input and output networks using lumped elements. The proposed technique was investigated for fundamental and second harmonics having desirable amplitudes for the output signal.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), GaN HEMT, Class-J and Class-E, High Efficiency.

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1020 High Efficiency Class-F Power Amplifier Design

Authors: Abdalla Mohamed Eblabla

Abstract:

Due to the high increase in and demand for a wide assortment of applications that require low-cost, high-efficiency, and compact systems, RF power amplifiers are considered the most critical design blocks and power consuming components in wireless communication, TV transmission, radar, and RF heating. Therefore, much research has been carried out in order to improve the performance of power amplifiers. Classes-A, B, C, D, E and F are the main techniques for realizing power amplifiers.

An implementation of high efficiency class-F power amplifier with Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) was realized in this paper. The simulation and optimization of the class-F power amplifier circuit model was undertaken using Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS). The circuit was designed using lumped elements.

Keywords: Power Amplifier (PA), Gallium Nitride (GaN), Agilent’s Advanced Design system (ADS) and lumped elements.

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1019 Efficiency Improvement of Wireless Power Transmission for Bio-Implanted Devices

Authors: Saad Mutashar, M. A. Hannan, S. A. Samad, A. Hussain

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modified wireless power transmission system for biomedical implanted devices. The system consists of efficient class-E power amplifier and inductive power links based on spiral circular transmitter and receiver coils. The model of the class-E power amplifier operated with 13.56 MHz is designed, discussed and analyzed in which it is achieved 87.2% of efficiency. The inductive coupling method is used to achieve link efficiency up to 73% depending on the electronic remote system resistance. The improved system powered with 3.3 DC supply and the voltage across the transmitter side is 40 V whereas, cross the receiver side is 12 V which is rectified to meet the implanted micro-system circuit requirements. The system designed and simulated by NI MULTISIM 11.02.

Keywords: Wireless Transmission, inductive coupling, implanted devices, class-E power amplifier, coils design.

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1018 CAD Tools Broadband Amplifier Design

Authors: Salwa M. Salah Eldeen, Fathi A. Farag, Abd Allah M. Moselhy

Abstract:

This paper proposed a new CAD tools for microwave amplifier design. The proposed tool is based on survey about the broadband amplifier design methods, such as the Feedback amplifiers, balanced amplifiers and Compensated Matching Network The proposed tool is developed for broadband amplifier using a compensated matching network "unconditional stability amplifier". The developed program is based on analytical procedures with ability of smith chart explanation. The C# software is used for the proposed tools implementation. The program is applied on broadband amplifier as an example for testing. The designed amplifier is considered as a broadband amplifier at the range 300-700 MHz. The results are highly agreement with the expected results. Finally, these methods can be extended for wide band amplifier design.

Keywords: Broadband amplifier (BBA), Compensated Matching Network, Microwave Amplifier.

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1017 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu

Abstract:

This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: Self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier.

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1016 Design of a CMOS Differential Operational Transresistance Amplifier in 90 nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Obaid, Umais Tayyab, Shabbir Majeed Ch.

Abstract:

In this paper, a CMOS differential operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) is presented. The amplifier is designed and implemented in a standard umc90-nm CMOS technology. The differential OTRA provides wider bandwidth at high gain. It also shows much better rise and fall time and exhibits a very good input current dynamic range of 50 to 50 μA. The OTRA can be used in many analog VLSI applications. The presented amplifier has high gain bandwidth product of 617.6 THz Ω. The total power dissipation of the presented amplifier is also very low and it is 0.21 mW.

Keywords: CMOS, differential, operational transresistance amplifier, OTRA, 90 nm, VLSI.

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1015 Multi-Level Pulse Width Modulation to Boost the Power Efficiency of Switching Amplifiers for Analog Signals with Very High Crest Factor

Authors: Jan Doutreloigne

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to develop a switching amplifier with optimized power efficiency for analog signals with a very high crest factor such as audio or DSL signals. Theoretical calculations show that a switching amplifier architecture based on multi-level pulse width modulation outperforms all other types of linear or switching amplifiers in that respect. Simulations on a 2 W multi-level switching audio amplifier, designed in a 50 V 0.35 mm IC technology, confirm its superior performance in terms of power efficiency. A real silicon implementation of this audio amplifier design is currently underway to provide experimental validation.

Keywords: Audio amplifier, multi-level switching amplifier, power efficiency, pulse width modulation, PWM, self-oscillating amplifier.

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1014 Transimpedance Amplifier for Integrated 3D Ultrasound Biomicroscope Applications

Authors: Xiwei Huang, Hyouk-Kyu Cha, Dongning Zhao, Bin Guo, Minkyu Je, Hao Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated transimpedance amplifier (TIA) as the analog frontend receiver for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (CMUTs) for ultrasound biomicroscope imaging application. The amplifier is designed to amplify the received signals from 17.5MHz to 52.5MHz with a center frequency of 35MHz. The TIA was fabricated in GF 0.18μm 1P6M 30V high voltage process. The measurement results show that the designed amplifier can reach a transimpedance gain of 61.08dBΩ and operating frequency from 17.5MHz to 100MHz with 1VP-P output voltage under 6V power supply.

Keywords: 3D ultrasound biomicroscope, analog front-end, transimpedance amplifier, CMUT

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1013 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: Optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks.

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1012 A Behavior Model of Discrete Sampling and Hold Amplifier based on AC Response

Authors: Wang Xing-hua, Zhong Shun-an, Zhang Zhuo

Abstract:

A kind of behavior model for discrete sampling and hold amplifier with charge transmission is analyzed. The transfer function and behavior features are based on the main AC responses of operation amplifier. The result used in pipelined and sigma-delta ADC shows the exact of model of sampling and hold amplifier, and the non-ideal factors are taken into account.

Keywords: SHA, response, behavior, transfer function.

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1011 Characteristic of Discrete Raman Amplifier at Different Pump Configurations

Authors: Parekhan M. Jaff

Abstract:

This paper describes the gain and noise performances of discrete Raman amplifier as a function of fiber lengths and the signal input powers for different pump configurations. Simulation has been done by using optisystem 7.0 software simulation at signal wavelength of 1550 nm and a pump wavelength of 1450nm. The results showed that the gain is higher in bidirectional pumping than in counter pumping, the gain changes with increasing the fiber length while the noise figure remain the same for short fiber lengths and the gain saturates differently for different pumping configuration at different fiber lengths and power levels of the signal.

Keywords: Optical Amplifier, Raman Amplifier DiscreteRaman Amplifier (DRA), Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM).

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1010 Transcutaneous Inductive Powering Links Based on ASK Modulation Techniques

Authors: S. M. Abbas, M. A. Hannan, S. A. Samad, A. Hussain

Abstract:

This paper presented a modified efficient inductive powering link based on ASK modulator and proposed efficient class- E power amplifier. The design presents the external part which is located outside the body to transfer power and data to the implanted devices such as implanted Microsystems to stimulate and monitoring the nerves and muscles. The system operated with low band frequency 10MHZ according to industrial- scientific – medical (ISM) band to avoid the tissue heating. For external part, the modulation index is 11.1% and the modulation rate 7.2% with data rate 1 Mbit/s assuming Tbit = 1us. The system has been designed using 0.35-μm fabricated CMOS technology. The mathematical model is given and the design is simulated using OrCAD P Spice 16.2 software tool and for real-time simulation, the electronic workbench MULISIM 11 has been used.

Keywords: Implanted devices, ASK techniques, Class-E power amplifier, Inductive powering and low-frequency ISM band.

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1009 Determining the Minimum Threshold for the Functional Relatedness of Inner-Outer Class

Authors: Sim Hui Tee, Rodziah Atan, Abdul Azim Abd Ghani

Abstract:

Inner class is a specialized class that defined within a regular outer class. It is used in some programming languages such as Java to carry out the task which is related to its outer class. The functional relatedness between inner class and outer class is always the main concern of defining an inner class. However, excessive use of inner class could sabotage the class cohesiveness. In addition, excessive inner class leads to the difficulty of software maintenance and comprehension. Our research aims at determining the minimum threshold for the functional relatedness of inner-outer class. Such minimum threshold is a guideline for removing or relocating the excessive inner class. Our research provides a feasible way for software developers to define inner classes which are functionally related to the outer class.

Keywords: Cohesion, functional relatedness of inner-outer class, inner class.

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1008 Design of Low Noise Amplifiers for 10 GHz Application

Authors: Makesh Iyer, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This work deals with the designing of an efficient low noise amplifier for 10.00 GHz applications. The amplifier is designed using Gallium Arsenide High Electron Mobility Transistor (GaAs HEMT) ATF – 36077 with inductive source degeneration technique which is one of the techniques to improve the stability of the potentially unstable device and make it unconditionally stable. Also, different substrates are used for designing the LNA to identify the suitable substrate that gives optimum results. It is observed that the noise immunity is more in Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designed using RT Duroid 5880 substrate. This design resulted in noise figure of 0.859 dB and power gain of 15.530 dB. The comparative analysis of the LNA design is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Low noise amplifier, substrate, distributed components, gain, noise figure.

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1007 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma

Abstract:

This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter.

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1006 Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation

Authors: Tarun Kumar Rawat, Abhirup Lahiri, Ashish Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parameters for improved noise characteristics of the differential amplifier.

Keywords: Single-ended input differential amplifier, Noise, stochastic differential equation, mean and variance.

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1005 Design and Layout of Two Stage High Band Width Operational Amplifier

Authors: Yasir Mahmood Qureshi

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and layout of a two stage, high speed operational amplifiers using standard 0.35um CMOS technology. The design procedure involves designing the bias circuit, the differential input pair, and the gain stage using CAD tools. Both schematic and layout of the operational amplifier along with the comparison in the results of the two has been presented. The operational amplifier designed, has a gain of 93.51db at low frequencies. It has a gain bandwidth product of 55.07MHz, phase margin of 51.9º and a slew rate of 22v/us for a load of capacitor of 10pF.

Keywords: Gain bandwidth product, Operational Amplifier, phase margin, slew rate.

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1004 A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)

Authors: Karama M. AL-Tamimi, Munir A. Al-Absi

Abstract:

A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.

Keywords: LCCA, OTA, Logarithmic, VGA, Weak inversion, Current-mode

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1003 Novel Linear Autozeroing Floating-gate Amplifier for Ultra Low-voltage Applications

Authors: Yngvar Berg, Mehdi Azadmehr

Abstract:

In this paper we present a linear autozeroing ultra lowvoltage amplifier. The autozeroing performed by all ULV circuits is important to reduce the impact of noise and especially avoid power supply noise in mixed signal low-voltage CMOS circuits. The simulated data presented is relevant for a 90nm TSMC CMOS process.

Keywords: Low-voltage, trans conductance amplifier, linearity, floating-gate.

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1002 Behavioral Modeling Accuracy for RF Power Amplifier with Memory Effects

Authors: Chokri Jebali, Noureddine Boulejfen, Ali Gharsallah, Fadhel M. Ghannouchi

Abstract:

In this paper, a system level behavioural model for RF power amplifier, which exhibits memory effects, and based on multibranch system is proposed. When higher order terms are included, the memory polynomial model (MPM) exhibits numerical instabilities. A set of memory orthogonal polynomial model (OMPM) is introduced to alleviate the numerical instability problem associated to MPM model. A data scaling and centring algorithm was applied to improve the power amplifier modeling accuracy. Simulation results prove that the numerical instability can be greatly reduced, as well as the model precision improved with nonlinear model.

Keywords: power amplifier, orthogonal model, polynomialmodel , memory effects.

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1001 A Sub-mW Low Noise Amplifier for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Gianluca Cornetta, David J. Santos, Balwant Godara

Abstract:

A 1.2 V, 0.61 mA bias current, low noise amplifier (LNA) suitable for low-power applications in the 2.4 GHz band is presented. Circuit has been implemented, laid out and simulated using a UMC 130 nm RF-CMOS process. The amplifier provides a 13.3 dB power gain a noise figure NF< 2.28 dB and a 1-dB compression point of -15.69 dBm, while dissipating 0.74 mW. Such performance make this design suitable for wireless sensor networks applications such as ZigBee.

Keywords: Current Reuse, IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee), Low NoiseAmplifiers, Wireless Sensor Networks.

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1000 Design a Low Voltage- Low Offset Class AB Op-Amp

Authors: B.Gholami, S.Gholami, A.Forouzantabar, Sh.Bazyari

Abstract:

A new design approach for three-stage operational amplifiers (op-amps) is proposed. It allows to actually implement a symmetrical push-pull class-AB amplifier output stage for wellestablished three-stage amplifiers using a feedforward transconductance stage. Compared with the conventional design practice, the proposed approach leads to a significant improvement of the symmetry between the positive and the negative op-amp step response, resulting in similar values of the positive/negative settling time. The new approach proves to be very useful in order to fully exploit the potentiality allowed by the op-amp in terms of speed performances. Design examples in a commercial 0.35-μm CMOS prove the effectiveness of theproposed strategy.

Keywords: Low-voltage op amp, design , optimum design

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999 A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier

Authors: Maninder Kaur Gill, Alpana Agarwal

Abstract:

It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.

Keywords: Device under test, open-loop voltage gain, operational amplifier, test circuit.

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998 Perturbation Based Modelling of Differential Amplifier Circuit

Authors: Rahul Bansal, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents the closed form nonlinear expressions of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) differential amplifier (DA) using perturbation method. Circuit equations have been derived using Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL). The perturbation method has been applied to state variables for obtaining the linear and nonlinear terms. The implementation of the proposed method is simple. The closed form nonlinear expressions provide better insights of physical systems. The derived equations can be used for signal processing applications.

Keywords: Differential amplifier, perturbation method, Taylor series.

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997 Analog Front End Low Noise Amplifier in 0.18-µm CMOS for Ultrasound Imaging Applications

Authors: Haridas Kuruveettil, Dongning Zhao, Cheong Jia Hao, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

We present the design of Analog front end (AFE) low noise pre-amplifier implemented in a high voltage 0.18-µm CMOS technology for  a three dimensional ultrasound  bio microscope (3D UBM) application. The fabricated chip has 4X16 pre-amplifiers implemented to interface   a 2-D array of    high frequency capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducers (CMUT). Core AFE cell consists of a high-voltage pulser in the transmit path, and a low-noise transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. Proposed system offers a high image resolution by the use of high frequency CMUTs with associated high performance imaging electronics integrated together.  Performance requirements and the design methods of the high bandwidth transimpedance amplifier are described in the paper. A single cell of transimpedance (TIA) amplifier and the bias circuit occupies a silicon area of 250X380 µm2 and the full chip occupies a total silicon area of 10x6.8 mm².

Keywords: Ultrasound, analog front end, medical imaging, beam forming, biomicroscope, transimpedance gain.

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996 Empirical Exploration for the Correlation between Class Object-Oriented Connectivity-Based Cohesion and Coupling

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Attributes and methods are the basic contents of an object-oriented class. The connectivity among these class members and the relationship between the class and other classes play an important role in determining the quality of an object-oriented system. Class cohesion evaluates the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods, whereas class coupling refers to the degree to which a class is related to other classes. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion and class coupling measures. However, the correlation between class coupling and class cohesion measures has not been thoroughly studied. In this paper, using classes of three open-source Java systems, we empirically investigate the correlation between several measures of connectivity-based class cohesion and coupling. Four connectivity-based cohesion measures and eight coupling measures are considered in the empirical study. The empirical study results show that class connectivity-based cohesion and coupling internal quality attributes are inversely correlated. The strength of the correlation depends highly on the cohesion and coupling measurement approaches.

Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class coupling measure.

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995 A High-Speed and Low-Energy Ternary Content Addressable Memory Design Using Feedback in Match-Line Sense Amplifier

Authors: Syed Iftekhar Ali, M. S. Islam

Abstract:

In this paper we present an energy efficient match-line (ML) sensing scheme for high-speed ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM). The proposed scheme isolates the sensing unit of the sense amplifier from the large and variable ML capacitance. It employs feedback in the sense amplifier to successfully detect a match while keeping the ML voltage swing low. This reduced voltage swing results in large energy saving. Simulation performed using 130nm 1.2V CMOS logic shows at least 30% total energy saving in our scheme compared to popular current race (CR) scheme for similar search speed. In terms of speed, dynamic energy, peak power consumption and transistor count our scheme also shows better performance than mismatch-dependant (MD) power allocation technique which also employs feedback in the sense amplifier. Additionally, the implementation of our scheme is simpler than CR or MD scheme because of absence of analog control voltage and programmable delay circuit as have been used in those schemes.

Keywords: content-addressable memory, energy consumption, feedback, peak power, sensing scheme, sense amplifier, ternary.

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994 Noise Optimization Techniques for 1V 1GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifiers Design

Authors: M. Zamin Khan, Yanjie Wang, R. Raut

Abstract:

A 1V, 1GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) has been designed and simulated using Spectre simulator in a standard TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology.With low power and noise optimization techniques, the amplifier provides a gain of 24 dB, a noise figure of only 1.2 dB, power dissipation of 14 mW from a 1 V power supply.

Keywords:

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993 A Low Power and High-Speed Conditional-Precharge Sense Amplifier Based Flip-Flop Using Single Ended Latch

Authors: Guo-Ming Sung, Naga Raju Naik R.

Abstract:

Paper presents a low power, high speed, sense-amplifier based flip-flop (SAFF). The flip-flop’s power con-sumption and delay are greatly reduced by employing a new conditionally precharge sense-amplifier stage and a single-ended latch stage. Glitch-free and contention-free latch operation is achieved by using a conditional cut-off strategy. The design uses fewer transistors, has a lower clock load, and has a simple structure, all of which contribute to a near-zero setup time. When compared to previous flip-flop structures proposed for similar input/output conditions, this design’s performance and overall PDP have improved. The post layout simulation of the circuit uses 2.91µW of power and has a delay of 65.82 ps. Overall, the power-delay product has seen some enhancements. Cadence Virtuoso Designing tool with CMOS 90nm technology are used for all designs.

Keywords: high-speed, low-power, flip-flop, sense-amplifier

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