Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3117

Search results for: waste screening

3117 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3116 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: e-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3115 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
3114 Using Econometric Methods to Explore Obesity Stigma and Avoidance of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

Authors: Stephanie A. Schauder, Gosia Sylwestrzak

Abstract:

Overweight and obese women report avoiding preventive care due to fear of weight-related bias from medical professionals. Gynecological exams, due to their sensitive and personally invasive nature, are especially susceptible to avoidance. This research investigates the association between body mass index (BMI) and screening rates for breast and cervical cancer using claims data from 1.3 million members of a large health insurance company. Because obesity is associated with increased cancer risk, screenings for these cancers should increase as BMI increases. However, this paper finds that the distribution of cancer screening rates by BMI take an inverted U-shape with underweight and obese members having the lowest screening rates. For cervical cancer screening, those in the target population with a BMI of 23 have the highest screening rate at 68%, while Obese Class III members have a screening rate of 50%. Those in the underweight category have a screening rate of 58%. This relationship persists even after controlling for health and demographic covariates in regression analysis. Interestingly, there is no association between BMI and BRCA (BReast CAncer gene) genetic testing. This is consistent with the narrative that stigma causes avoidance because genetic testing does not involve any assessment of a person’s body. More work must be done to determine how to increase cancer screening rates in those who may feel stigmatized due to their weight.

Keywords: cancer screening, cervical cancer, breast cancer, weight stigma, avoidance of care

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3113 Lean KPIs for Construction Site Waste Monitoring

Authors: Natalie Auch, Fabian Geppert

Abstract:

55 % of waste in Germany is construction and demolition waste. However, there is a great deal of confusion in the industry about these figures and how the waste can be avoided. For this purpose, a construction site in operation was visually examined for waste processes and quantitatively for the associated waste masses, and the relations were consolidated into waste indicators. With the contextualisation of the survey results, main waste sources could be discussed. These sources include planning-related waste, behaviour-related material surpluses, and transport- and product-related packaging. The potential of a separate collection of mixed construction and demolition waste was detected. Practical testing led to a 69.5 % reduction in the associated waste mass. With the calculation of waste-related cost ratios, economic potentials for a collective waste collection and the separate collection of mixed construction and demolition waste could be detected and verified. Combined, 68.1 % of the transfer costs can be saved. These metrics are to be incorporated into targets via Lean Construction methods in order to monitor them visually and individually on construction sites. Methods to increase the awareness of resource waste are to be established in order to bring about an improvement.

Keywords: sustainable construction site, construction site waste, lean construction, key performance indicator, waste monitoring

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3112 Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening in China: A Discrete Choice Experiment

Authors: Zixuan Zhao, Lingbin Du, Le Wang, Youqing Wang, Yi Yang, Jingjun Chen, Hengjin Dong

Abstract:

Objectives: Few results from public attitudes for lung cancer screening are available both in China and abroad. This study aimed to identify preferred lung cancer screening modalities in a Chinese population and predict uptake rates of different modalities. Materials and Methods: A discrete choice experiment questionnaire was administered to 392 Chinese individuals aged 50–74 years who were at high risk for lung cancer. Each choice set had two lung screening options and an option to opt-out, and respondents were asked to choose the most preferred one. Both mixed logit analysis and stepwise logistic analysis were conducted to explore whether preferences were related to respondent characteristics and identify which kinds of respondents were more likely to opt out of any screening. Results: On mixed logit analysis, attributes that were predictive of choice at 1% level of statistical significance included the screening interval, screening venue, and out-of-pocket costs. The preferred screening modality seemed to be screening by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) + blood test once a year in a general hospital at a cost of RMB 50; this could increase the uptake rate by 0.40 compared to the baseline setting. On stepwise logistic regression, those with no endowment insurance were more likely to opt out; those who were older and housewives/househusbands, and those with a health check habit and with commercial endowment insurance were less likely to opt out from a screening programme. Conclusions: There was considerable variance between real risk and self-perceived risk of lung cancer among respondents, and further research is required in this area. Lung cancer screening uptake can be increased by offering various screening modalities, so as to help policymakers further design the screening modality.

Keywords: lung cancer, screening, China., discrete choice experiment

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3111 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

Abstract:

Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
3110 Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade on Waste Imports

Authors: Chin-Ho Lin

Abstract:

This study explores the impact of technical barriers to trade(TBT) on the import value and weight of 54 types of waste products between ASEAN+6 countries and 200 trading partners from 1999–to 2018. By using disaggregated detailed product data and the gravity model, we obtained results demonstrating that implementation of TBT by importing countries is likely to enhance waste trade. After controlling for three combinations of fixed effects, the results remain robust. We consider the quality of waste products by dividing waste products into recyclable and nonrecyclable materials, revealing that imported recyclable waste is more likely to be imported than nonrecyclable waste. When waste trade isregulated by importing countries through TBT implementation, the exporting countries may export relatively valuable waste products, and recyclable waste is of greater economic value because it can be used as an input in other production processes. Finally, developed countries are more likely than developing countries to export waste to the ASEAN+6countries, a finding that supports the waste haven hypothesis.

Keywords: waste trade, ASEAN+6, technical barriers to trade, gravity model, waste haven hypothesis

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3109 Nurse’s Role in Early Detection of Breast Cancer through Mammography and Genetic Screening and Its Impact on Patient's Outcome

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Dorria Salem, Hoda Zaki, Suzan Atteya

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer saves many thousands of lives each year via application of mammography and genetic screening and many more lives could be saved if nurses are involved in breast care screening practices. So, the aim of the study was to identify nurse's role in early detection of breast cancer through mammography and genetic screening and its impact on patient's outcome. In order to achieve this aim, 400 women above 40 years, asymptomatic were recruited for mammography and genetic screening. In addition, 50 nurses and 6 technologists were involved in the study. A descriptive analytical design was used. Five tools were utilized: sociodemographic, mammographic examination and risk factors, women's before, during and after mammography, items relaying to technologists, and items related to nurses were also obtained. The study finding revealed that 3% of women detected for malignancy and 7.25% for fibroadenoma. Statistically, significant differences were found between mammography results and age, family history, genetic screening, exposure to smoke, and using contraceptive pills. Nurses have insufficient knowledge about screening tests. Based on these findings the present study recommended involvement of nurses in breast care which is very important to in force population about screening practices.

Keywords: mammography, early detection, genetic screening, breast cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
3108 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia

Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir

Abstract:

The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.

Keywords: e -waste, recycle, electrical, Mongolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3107 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
3106 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu

Abstract:

Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.

Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3105 A System For A Sustainable Electronic Waste Marketplace

Authors: Arya Sarukkai

Abstract:

Due to increased technological advances and the high use of phones, tablets, computers, and other electronics, we continue to see rapid growth in the volume of e-waste. There are millions just throwing out their old devices, millions who have many devices and don’t know what to do with them, and there are millions who would benefit from receiving those devices. The thesis of this paper is that by creating an ecosystem of donors and recipients and providing the right incentives, we can reduce e-waste. We discuss a system for sustainable e-waste by building a marketplace between donors and recipients. We also summarize experimental results comparing different incentives and present a live web service that allows for e-waste supplies to reach schools and nonprofit institutions.

Keywords: E-waste ecosystems, marketplaces, e-waste web app, online services

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3104 Mapping of Textile Waste Generation across the Value Chains Operating in the Textile Industry

Authors: Veena Nair, Srikanth Prakash, Mayuri Wijayasundara

Abstract:

Globally, the textile industry is a key contributor to the generation of solid waste which gets landfilled. Textile waste generation generally occurs in three stages, namely: producer waste, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. However, the different processes adopted in textile material extraction, manufacturing, and use have their respective impact in terms of the quantity of waste being diverted to landfills. The study is focused on assessing the value chains of the two most common textile fibres: cotton and polyester, catering to a broad categories of apparel products. This study attempts to identify and evaluate the key processes adopted by the textile industry at each of the stages in their value chain in terms of waste generation. The different processes identified in each of the stages in the textile value chains are mapped to their respective contribution in generating fibre waste which eventually gets diverted to landfill. The results of the study are beneficial for the overall industry in terms of improving the traceability of waste in the value chains and the selection of processes and behaviours facilitating the reduction of environmental impacts associated with landfills.

Keywords: textile waste, textile value chains, landfill waste, waste mapping

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3103 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Increasing Postpartum Screening to Prevent T2D

Authors: Boma Nellie S, Nambiar Ritu, K. Kanchanmala, T. Rashida, Israell Imelda, Moul Khusnud, Michael Marina

Abstract:

Gestational diabetes (GDM) imparts an increased life long risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease in women. Once diagnosed with GDM women have up to 74% increased cumulative risk developing T2DM in 10-15 years. Identifying women at increased risk of developing T2DM and offering them pharmacological and lifestyle management interventions will delay or eliminate the development of diabetes in this population. While ADA recommends that all gestational diabetics be offered postnatal screening, worldwide the screening rates from 35-75% and Al Rahba Hospital with a robust universal antenatal screening program for GDM was at a dismal 9% in 2011. A multidisciplinary team was put together involving OB/Gyn Physicians, Midwives, Nurses (ward and OPD) Diabetic Educators, Dietitians, Medical Records, Laboratory & IT with the implementation of multiple strategies to increase the uptake of postpartum screening of the gestational diabetic.

Keywords: GDM, postnatal screening, preventing type 2 diabetes, lifestyle management

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3102 Evaluation of the Accuracy of a ‘Two Question Screening Tool’ in the Detection of Intimate Partner Violence in a Primary Healthcare Setting in South Africa

Authors: A. Saimen, E. Armstrong, C. Manitshana

Abstract:

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a global human rights violation. It is universally under diagnosed and the institution of timeous multi-faceted interventions has been noted to benefit IPV victims. Currently, the concept of using a screening tool to detect IPV has not been widely explored in a primary healthcare setting in South Africa, and it was for this reason that this study has been undertaken. A systematic random sampling of 1 in 8 women over a period of 3 months was conducted prospectively at the OPD of a Level 1 Hospital. Participants were asked about their experience of IPV during the past 12 months. The WAST-short, a two-question tool, was used to screen patients for IPV. To verify the result of the screening, women were also asked the remaining questions from the WAST. Data was collected from 400 participants, with a response rate of 99.3%. The prevalence of IPV in the sample was 32%. The WAST-short was shown to have the following operating characteristics: sensitivity 45.2%, specificity 98%,positive predictive value 98%, negative predictive value 79%. The WAST-short lacks sufficient sensitivity and therefore is not an ideal screening tool for this setting. Improvement in the sensitivity of the WAST-short in this setting may be achieved by lowering the threshold for a positive result for IPV screening, and modification of the screening questions to better reflect IPV as understood by the local population.

Keywords: domestic violence, intimate partner violence, screening, screening tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
3101 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

Abstract:

Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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3100 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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3099 Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees

Authors: David Alejandro Torres-Lopez , Lilia Albores-Gallo, Ronald Soto-Calderon, Roberto Lagunes-Cordoba

Abstract:

Autism Screening Questionnaire for Daycare Attendees (ASQ-DAT) is a screening instrument that assesses the risk of autism in children between 12 and 47 months, being the first free observational instrument created according to the criteria of the DSM-5 that can be applied by teachers in nurseries. The people in charge of answering the questionnaires are the daycare assistants. Its application presents a series of previous activities with which daycare assistants are familiar (dance, games, oral narration and breakfast), which are executed with the children and then answer a questionnaire with dichotomous questions "Yes/No" in approximately 3 minutes per child. The instrument was developed with the participation of nurseries according to the protocols of the creation of psychometric instruments of the Classical Test Theory having as a gold standard ADOS-2 Modules T and 1. The results of the investigation show that the use of ASQ-DAT combined with the application of M-CHAT / RF provides more information about the risk of ASD in young children, which allows improvements in the screening.

Keywords: diagnosis, screening, autism, daycare

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3098 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

Abstract:

This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.

Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, waste

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3097 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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3096 Industrial-Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Case of Algeria

Authors: L. Sefouhi, M. Djebabra

Abstract:

Industrial operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental consequences. The industrial waste management becomes a real problem for them. The oil industry is an important sector in Algeria, from exploration to development and marketing of hydrocarbons. For this sector, industrial wastes pose a big problem. The aim of the present study is to present in a systematic way the subject of industrial waste from the point-of-view of definitions in engineering and legislation. This analysis is necessary, as many different approaches and we will attempt to diagnose the current management of industrial waste, namely an inventory of deposits and methods of sorting, packing, storage, and a description of the different disposal routes. Thus, a proposal for a reasoned and responsible management of waste by avoiding a shift towards future expenses related to the disposal of such waste, and prevents pollution they cause to the environment.

Keywords: industrial waste, environment, management, pollution, risks

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3095 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian

Abstract:

One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic waste

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3094 Gender Perception on Food Waste within the Household and Community: Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

Authors: Gumilar Hadiningrat, Stewart Barr, Jo Little

Abstract:

In Indonesia, the majority of those who manage food waste are women. It is Indonesian culture that women act as household managers. Therefore, women as household managers hold an important role in reducing food waste within households. Meanwhile, in the community, women’s organisations are some of the most active organisations dealing with food waste. Food waste has an increasing profile and is the subject of much global attention and have economic, social and environmental impacts. Reducing food waste will improve future food availability in the context of global population growth and increasing resource scarcity. The aim of this research is to investigate women’s experience and understanding of dealing with food waste in the household and in the community. The research will use an inductive approach using in-depth qualitative methods. In terms of data collection, two methods will be used - questionnaire and interviews. All in all, it could be claimed that women, both within the household and the community in Indonesia, hold an important role in dealing with food waste.

Keywords: community waste management, food waste, gender, household waste, waste management

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3093 Need for a National Newborn Screening Programme in India: Pilot Study Data

Authors: Sudheer Moorkoth, Leslie Edward Lewis, Pragna Rao

Abstract:

Newborn screening (NBS) is a part of routine newborn care in many countries worldwide to detect early any rare treatable conditions and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). India has not started this program yet. In an attempt to understand the challenges in implementing a national newborn screening program in India, we initiated a pilot newborn screening project funded by the Government of Canada. Along with initiating the newborn screening at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal in South India, for screening six disorders (Congenital Hypothyroidism(CH), Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Galactosemia, Biotinidase deficiency, Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) and Phenylketonurea), we also studied the awareness of various stakeholders on the newborn screening. In a period of nine months from August 2017 to March 2018 we could screen 1915 newborns (999 male and 916 female). The result showed that there were seven babies screened positive. This interim result points to an incidence rate of 1 in 270 children for these rare disorders collectively. This includes three confirmed cases of CH, two cases of G-6PD deficiency, and one case each for Galctosemia and CAH. A questionnaire based study to understand the awareness among various stakeholders revealed that there is little awareness among parents, adolescents and anganwadi workers (public health worker). The interim data points to the need for a national newborn screening programme in India. There is also an immediate need to undertake large-scale awareness programme to create knowledge on NBS among the various stakeholders.

Keywords: awareness, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), newborn screening, rare disease

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3092 Modelling and Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Food Waste Using CHEMCAD Software

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Noluzuko Monakali, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

On a global scale, there is an alarming generation of food waste. Food waste is generated across the food supply chain. Worldwide urbanization, as well as global economic growth, have contributed to this amount of food waste the environment is receiving. Food waste normally ends on illegal dumping sites when not properly disposed, or disposed to landfills. This results in environmental pollution due to inadequate waste management practices. Food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable; hence, it can be utilized for the production of bioethanol, a type of biofuel. In so doing, alternative energy will be created, and the volumes of food waste will be reduced in the process. This results in food waste being seen as a precious commodity in energy generation instead of a pollutant. The main aim of the project was to simulate a biorefinery, using a software called CHEMCAD 7.12. The resulting purity of the ethanol from the simulation was 98.9%, with the feed ratio of 1: 2 for food waste and water. This was achieved by integrating necessary unit operations and optimisation of their operating conditions.

Keywords: fermentation, bioethanol, food waste, hydrolysis, simulation, modelling

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3091 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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3090 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal

Authors: T. Malmir, U. Eicker

Abstract:

Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.

Keywords: energy recovery, organic waste, urban energy modelling with INSEL, waste flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3089 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study

Authors: Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim, T. Garba

Abstract:

Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.

Keywords: medical waste, treatment, disposal, public health

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
3088 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

Procedia PDF Downloads 201