Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10963

Search results for: environmental impact

10963 Optimising GIS in Cushioning the Environmental Impact of Infrastructural Projects

Authors: Akerele Akintunde Hareef

Abstract:

GIS is an integrating tool for storing, retrieving, manipulating, and analyzing spatial data. It is a tool which defines an area with respect to features and other relevant thematic delineations. On the other hand, Environmental Impact Assessment in short is both positive and negative impact of an infrastructure on an environment. Impact of infrastructural projects on the environment is an aspect of development that barely get extensive portion of pre-project execution phase and when they do, the effects are most times not implemented to cushion the impact they have on human and the environment. In this research, infrastructural projects like road constructions, water reticulation projects, building constructions, bridge etc. have immense impact on the environment and the people that reside in location of construction. Hence, the need for this research tends to portray the relevance of Environmental Impact assessment in calculating the vulnerability of human and the environment to imbalance necessitated by this infrastructural development and how the use of GIS application can be optimally applied to annul or minimize the effect.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment (EIA), geographic information system (GIS), infrastructural projects, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
10962 Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Selected Small Heat and Power Plants Operating in Poland

Authors: M. Stelmachowski, M. Wojtczak

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to assess the environmental impact of the selected small and medium-sized companies supplying heat and electricity to the cities with a population of about 50,000 inhabitants. Evaluation and comparison of the impact on the environment have been carried out for the three plants producing heat and two CHP plants with particular attention to emissions into the atmosphere and the impact of introducing a system of trading carbon emissions of these companies.

Keywords: CO2 emission, district heating, heat and power plant, impact on environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
10961 Rotorcraft Performance and Environmental Impact Evaluation by Multidisciplinary Modelling

Authors: Pierre-Marie Basset, Gabriel Reboul, Binh DangVu, Sébastien Mercier

Abstract:

Rotorcraft provides invaluable services thanks to their Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL), hover and low speed capabilities. Yet their use is still often limited by their cost and environmental impact, especially noise and energy consumption. One of the main brakes to the expansion of the use of rotorcraft for urban missions is the environmental impact. The first main concern for the population is the noise. In order to develop the transversal competency to assess the rotorcraft environmental footprint, a collaboration has been launched between six research departments within ONERA. The progress in terms of models and methods are capitalized into the numerical workshop C.R.E.A.T.I.O.N. “Concepts of Rotorcraft Enhanced Assessment Through Integrated Optimization Network”. A typical mission for which the environmental impact issue is of great relevance has been defined. The first milestone is to perform the pre-sizing of a reference helicopter for this mission. In a second milestone, an alternate rotorcraft concept has been defined: a tandem rotorcraft with optional propulsion. The key design trends are given for the pre-sizing of this rotorcraft aiming at a significant reduction of the global environmental impact while still giving equivalent flight performance and safety with respect to the reference helicopter. The models and methods have been improved for catching sooner and more globally, the relative variations on the environmental impact when changing the rotorcraft architecture, the pre-design variables and the operation parameters.

Keywords: environmental impact, flight performance, helicopter, multi objectives multidisciplinary optimization, rotorcraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
10960 Impact Characteristics of Fragile Cover Based on Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification

Authors: Dejin Chen, Bin Lin, Xiaohui LI, Haobin Tian

Abstract:

In order to acquire stable impact performance of cover, the factors influencing the impact force of the cover were analyzed and researched. The influence of impact factors such as impact velocity, impact weight and fillet radius of warhead was studied by Orthogonal experiment. Through the range analysis and numerical simulation, the results show that the impact velocity has significant influences on impact force of cover. The impact force decreases with the increase of impact velocity and impact weight. The test results are similar to the numerical simulation. The cover broke up into four parts along the groove.

Keywords: fragile cover, numerical simulation, impact force, epoxy foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
10959 Optimal Diesel Engine Technology Analysis Matching the Platform of the Helicopter

Authors: M. Wendeker, K. Siadkowska, P. Magryta, Z. Czyz, K. Skiba

Abstract:

In the paper environmental impact analysis the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter was performed. The paper consist an answer to the question of what the optimal Diesel engine for a light helicopter is, taking into consideration its expected performance and design capacity. The use of turbocharged engine with self-ignition and an electronic control system can substantially reduce the negative impact on the environment by decreasing toxic substance emission, fuel consumption and therefore carbon dioxide emission. In order to establish the environmental benefits of the diesel engine technologies, mathematical models were created, providing additional insight on the environmental impact and performance of a classic turboshaft and an advanced diesel engine light helicopter, incorporating technology developments.

Keywords: diesel engine, helicopter, simulation, environmental impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
10958 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed

Abstract:

The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
10957 Use of Focus Group Interviews to Design a Health Impact Measurement Tool: A Volunteering Case Study

Authors: Valentine Seymour

Abstract:

Environmental volunteering organisations use questionnaires to explore the relationship between environmental volunteers and their health. To the author’s best knowledge, no one has explored volunteers’ health perception, which could be considered when designing a health impact measurement tool used to increase effective communication. This paper examines environmental volunteers' perceptions of health, knowledge which can be used to design a health impact measurement tool. This study uses focus group interviews, content analysis, and a general inductive approach to explore the health perceptions of volunteers who engage in environmental volunteering activities from the perspective of UK charity The Conservation Volunteers. Findings showed that volunteer groups presented were relatively similar in how they defined the term health, with their overall conceptual model closely resembling that of the World Health Organization 1948 definition. This suggests that future health impact measurement tools in the environmental volunteering sector could base their design around the World Health Organization’s definition.

Keywords: health perception, impact measurement, mental models, tool development

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
10956 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, CO₂ reduction, ready-mixed concrete, environmental impact assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
10955 Environmental Impact Assessments in Peru: Tools for Violence

Authors: Nadia Degregori

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Peru’s Environmental Impact Assessment’s communication and participation mechanisms, whose rationale is to prevent conflictive situations by –supposedly- providing high-quality information about mining projects and their impacts to affected stakeholders. It is argued that, in fact, these mechanisms enhance citizens’ feelings of fear and/or mistrust towards mining projects and the companies behind them because their design follows a top-down perspective that limits “participation” to a passive reception of information, and which does not address power unbalances between communities and companies or government. As well, the paper contends that this way of managing the social aspects of Environmental Impact Assessments in Peru leads stakeholders who possess less power (typically communities) to incline towards maintaining the status quo and avoiding negotiations with either the central government or mining companies as a defence mechanism for avoiding a bad negotiation.

Keywords: community relations, environmental impact assessments, governance and participation, mining, Peru

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
10954 The Advancement of Environmental Impact Assessment for 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project in Thailand

Authors: Penrug Pengsombut, Worawut Hamarn, Teerawuth Suwannasri, Kittiphong Songrukkiat, Kanatip Ratanachoo

Abstract:

PTT Public Company Limited or simply PTT has played an important role in strengthening national energy security of the Kingdom of Thailand by transporting natural gas to customers in power, industrial and commercial sectors since 1981. PTT has been constructing and operating natural gas pipeline system of over 4,500-km network length both onshore and offshore laid through different area classifications i.e., marine, forest, agriculture, rural, urban, and city areas. During project development phase, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is conducted and submitted to the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) for approval before project construction commencement. Knowledge and experiences gained and revealed from EIA in the past projects definitely are developed to further advance EIA study process for newly 5th Transmission Natural Gas Pipeline Project (5TP) with approximately 415 kilometers length. The preferred pipeline route is selected and justified by SMARTi map, an advance digital one-map platform with consists of multiple layers geographic and environmental information. Sensitive area impact focus (SAIF) is a practicable impact assessment methodology which appropriate for a particular long distance infrastructure project such as 5TP. An environmental modeling simulation is adopted into SAIF methodology for impact quantified in all sensitive areas whereas other area along pipeline right-of-ways is typically assessed as an impact representative. Resulting time and cost deduction is beneficial to project for early start.

Keywords: environmental impact assessment, EIA, natural gas pipeline, sensitive area impact focus, SAIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
10953 Evaluation of Environmental, Technical, and Economic Indicators of a Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Authors: M. Yosofi, S. Ezeddini, A. Ollivier, V. Lavaste, C. Mayousse

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing processes have changed significantly in a wide range of industries and their application progressed from rapid prototyping to production of end-use products. However, their environmental impact is still a rather open question. In order to support the growth of this technology in the industrial sector, environmental aspects should be considered and predictive models may help monitor and reduce the environmental footprint of the processes. This work presents predictive models based on a previously developed methodology for the environmental impact evaluation combined with a technical and economical assessment. Here we applied the methodology to the Fused Deposition Modeling process. First, we present the predictive models relative to different types of machines. Then, we present a decision-making tool designed to identify the optimum manufacturing strategy regarding technical, economic, and environmental criteria.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, decision-makings, environmental impact, predictive models

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
10952 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Roofing System for Abu Dhabi

Authors: Iyasu Eibedingil

Abstract:

The construction industry is one of the major factors responsible for causing a negative impact on the environment. It has the largest share in the use of natural resources including land use, material extraction, and greenhouse gases emissions. For this reason, it is imperative to reduce its environmental impact through the construction of sustainable buildings with less impact. These days, it is possible to measure the environmental impact by using different tools such as the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Given this premise, this study explored the environmental impact of two types of roofing systems through comparative life cycle assessment approach. The tiles were analyzed to select the most environmentally friendly roofing system for the villa at Khalifa City A, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. These products are available in various forms; however, in this study concrete roof tiles and clay roof tiles were considered. The results showed that concrete roof tiles have lower environmental impact. In all scenarios considered, manufacturing the roof tiles locally, using recovered fuels for firing clay tiles, and using renewable energy (electricity from PV plant) showed that the concrete roof tiles were found to be excellent in terms of its embodied carbon, embodied the energy and various other environmental performance indicators.

Keywords: clay roof tile, concrete roof tile, life cycle assessment, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
10951 Multi-Objective Modeling for Time, Cost and Environmental Impact

Authors: Haidy S. Ghali, Helen S. Ghali, Eman El-Nahas, Ossama Hosny

Abstract:

With the emergence of different construction methods for each trade, choosing the optimum method is not simple; so, this paper aims to determine the most suitable construction method while minimizing project duration, total direct cost and total environmental impact. The developed model has three parts which are the scheduler model to compute the total project duration, the construction selection model where the model selects the optimum method from it and finally, the environment impact model. In this model, it is calculated regarding three categories which are the impact on the Ecosystem, human health and resource depletion. The optimization function in this model is the multi-objective function which will be computed using three methods where the optimum method is the proposed modified augment ε-constraint as it hybridized the single-objective optimization with the weighted method of the multi-objective optimization.

Keywords: optimization, project scheduling, project cost, construction methods, environmental impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
10950 Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology of the Tirana–Elbasan Road Project

Authors: Aurora Cerri, Niko Pollojani

Abstract:

The Tirana – Elbasan Road project is the most important highway project in Albania, constructed in the period May 2011 - ongoing. This project included construction of 38 km highway category road including 2.6 km of tunnel. It serves as a corridor connecting the Tirana, Capital of Albania and South-East area, and in the near future it is expected to continue in the direction of Macedonian border. Environmental Impact Assesment procedure for this project is provided by the Albanian Environmental Law No. 10431. This law establishes the regulation of procedures for identifying, assessment and reporting on the effects of certain projects on the environment, and the associated administrative procedures, during the decision-making process by the Ministry of Environment and Tourism for issuing environmental permit, and ensures that all relevant information concerning the environment are provided and considered. Due to the nature and size of the project, during the environmental impact assessment process, the European Union legislation, namely the EIA Directive 85/337 / EEC is considered. Moreover, in some cases, due to the lack of national standards and practical guidelines, when necessary those of EU member countries are considered. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA procedure followed on ‘Tirana – Elbasan’ Road project, with a focus on the application of the main stages of the procedure such as: screening, scoping, review, the EIA report; and consideration of alternatives, measures for impact prevention and reduction, and the public hearing T/discussion.

Keywords: highway, environmental impact assesment, Tirana, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
10949 Integrated Environmental Management System and Environmental Impact Assessment in Evaluation of Environmental Protective Action

Authors: Moustafa Osman

Abstract:

The paper describes and analyses different good practice examples of protective levels, and initiatives actions (“framework conditions”) and encourages the uptake of environmental management systems (EMSs) to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Most of industries tend to take EMS as tools leading towards sustainability planning. The application of these tools has numerous environmental obligations that neither suggests decision nor recommends what a company should achieve ultimately. These set up clearly defined criteria to evaluate environmental protective action (EEPA) into sustainability indicators. The physical integration will evaluate how to incorporate traditional knowledge into baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation measures in monitoring conditions. Thereby efforts between the government, industry and community led protective action to concern with present needs for future generations, meeting the goal of sustainable development. The paper discusses how to set out distinct aspects of sustainable indicators and reflects inputs, outputs, and modes of impact on the environment.

Keywords: environmental management, sustainability, indicators, protective action

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
10948 Economic and Environmental Impact of the Missouri Grazing Schools

Authors: C. A. Roberts, S. L. Mascaro, J. R. Gerrish, J. L. Horner

Abstract:

Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) is a practice that rotates livestock through paddocks in a way that best matches the nutrient requirements of the animal to the yield and quality of the pasture. In the USA, MiG has been taught to livestock producers throughout the state of Missouri in 2- and 3-day workshops called “Missouri Grazing Schools.” The economic impact of these schools was quantified using IMPLAN software. The model included hectares of adoption, animal performance, carrying capacity, and input costs. To date, MiG, as taught in the Missouri Grazing Schools, has been implemented on more than 70,000 hectares in Missouri. The economic impact of these schools is presently $125 million USD per year added to the state economy. This magnitude of impact is the result not only of widespread adoption but also because of increased livestock carrying capacity; in Missouri, a capacity increase of 25 to 30% has been well documented. Additional impacts have been MiG improving forage quality and reducing the cost of feed and fertilizer. The environmental impact of MiG in the state of Missouri is currently being estimated. Environmental impact takes into account the reduction in the application of commercial fertilizers; in MiG systems, nitrogen is supplied by N fixation from legumes, and much of the P and K is recycled naturally by well-distributed manure. The environmental impact also estimates carbon sequestration and methane production; MiG can increase carbon sequestration and reduce methane production in comparison to default grazing practices and feedlot operations in the USA.

Keywords: agricultural education, forage quality, management-intensive grazing, nutrient cycling, stock density, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
10947 Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol from Feedstocks in Thailand

Authors: Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

An analysis of mass balance, energy performance, and environmental impact assessment were performed to evaluate bioethanol production in Thailand. Thailand is an agricultural country. Thai government plans to increase the use of alternative energy to 20 percent by 2022. One of the primary campaigns is to promote a bioethanol production from abundant biomass resources such as bitter cassava, molasses and sugarcane. The bioethanol production is composed of three stages: cultivation, pretreatment, and bioethanol conversion. All of mass, material, fuel, and energy were calculated to determine the environmental impact of three types of bioethanol production: bioethanol production from cassava (CBP), bioethanol production from molasses (MBP), and bioethanol production from rice straw (RBP). The results showed that bioethanol production from cassava has the best environmental performance. CBP contributes less impact when compared to the other processes.

Keywords: bioethanol production, biofuel, LCA, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
10946 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Tourists Activities on Yankari Resort and Safari

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Sanusi Abubakar Sadiq

Abstract:

Habitat can be degraded by tourism leisure activities for example wildlife viewing can bring abrupt stress for animals and alter their natural behaviors when tourist come too close and wildlife watching have degradation effects on the habitats as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourist as they chase wild animals. It is observed that Jos Wild Life Park is usually congested during on-peak periods which causes littering and contamination of the environment by tourist which may lead to changes in the soil nutrient. The issue of unauthorized feeding of animals by a tourist in which the food might be dangerous and harmful to their health and making them be so aggressive is also observed. The aim of the study is to investigate the environmental impact of tourists’ activities in Jos Wild Life Park, Nigeria. The study used survey questionnaires to both tourists and the staff of the wildlife park. One hundred questionnaires were self-administered to randomly selected tourists as the visit the park and some staff. The average mean score of the response was used to show agreement or disagreement. Major findings show the negative impact of tourist’s activities to the environment as air pollution, overcrowding, and congestion, solid littering of the environment, distress to animals and alteration of the ecosystem. Furthermore, the study found the positive impact of tourists activities on the environment to be income generation through tourists activities and infrastructural development. It is recommended that the impact of tourism should be minimized through admitting the right carrying capacity and impact assessment.

Keywords: environmental, impact, investigation, tourists, activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
10945 Experimental Study of Upsetting and Die Forging with Controlled Impact

Authors: T. Penchev, D. Karastoyanov

Abstract:

The results from experimental research of deformation by upsetting and die forging of lead specimens wit controlled impact are presented. Laboratory setup for conducting the investigations, which uses cold rocket engine operated with compressed air, is described. The results show that when using controlled impact is achieving greater plastic deformation and consumes less impact energy than at ordinary impact deformation process.

Keywords: rocket engine, forging hammer, sticking impact, plastic deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
10944 The Study of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact on the Semi-Arid Environments Using GIS in the Eastern Aurès, Algeria

Authors: Benmessaoud Hassen

Abstract:

We propose in this study to address the impact of socio-economic and environmental impact on the physical environment, especially their spatiotemporal dynamics in semi-arid and arid eastern Aurès. Including 11 municipalities, the study area spreads out over a relatively large surface area of about 60.000 ha. The hindsight is quite important and is determined by 03 days of analysis of environmental variation spread over thirty years (between 1987 and 2007). The multi-source data acquired in this context are integrated into a geographic information system (GIS).This allows, among other indices to calculate areas and classes for each thematic layer of the 4 layers previously defined by a method inspired MEDALUS (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use).The database created is composed of four layers of information (population, livestock, farming and land use). His analysis in space and time has been supplemented by a validation of the ground truth. Once the database has corrected it used to develop the comprehensive map with the calculation of the index of socio-economic and environmental (ISCE). The map supports and the resulting information does not consist only of figures on the present situation but could be used to forecast future trends.

Keywords: impact of socio-economic and environmental, spatiotemporal dynamics, semi-arid environments, GIS, Eastern Aurès

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
10943 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study

Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov

Abstract:

For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.

Keywords: briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting, controlled impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
10942 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan

Abstract:

The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
10941 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae

Abstract:

Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: human toxicity potential, major building material, life cycle assessment, production stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
10940 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour

Abstract:

The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
10939 Experimental Study of Iron Metal Powder Compacting by Controlled Impact

Authors: Todor N. Penchev, Dimitar N. Karastoianov, Stanislav D. Gyoshev

Abstract:

For compacting of iron powder are used hydraulic presses and high velocity hammers. In this paper are presented initial research on application of an innovative powder compacting method, which uses a hammer working with controlled impact. The results show that by this method achieves the reduction of rebounds and improve efficiency of impact, compared with a high-speed compacting. Depending on the power of the engine (industrial rocket engine), this effect may be amplified to such an extent as to obtain a impact without rebound (sticking impact) and in long-time action of the impact force.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, impact, iron powder compacting, rocket engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
10938 Supply Chain Network Design for Perishable Products in Developing Countries

Authors: Abhishek Jain, Kavish Kejriwal, V. Balaji Rao, Abhigna Chavda

Abstract:

Increasing environmental and social concerns are forcing companies to take a fresh view of the impact of supply chain operations on environment and society when designing a supply chain. A challenging task in today’s food industry is the distribution of high-quality food items throughout the food supply chain. Improper storage and unwanted transportation are the major hurdles in food supply chain and can be tackled by making dynamic storage facility location decisions with the distribution network. Since food supply chain in India is one of the biggest supply chains in the world, the companies should also consider environmental impact caused by the supply chain. This project proposes a multi-objective optimization model by integrating sustainability in decision-making, on distribution in a food supply chain network (SCN). A Multi-Objective Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MOMILP) model between overall cost and environmental impact caused by the SCN is formulated for the problem. The goal of MOMILP is to determine the pareto solutions for overall cost and environmental impact caused by the supply chain. This is solved by using GAMS with CPLEX as third party solver. The outcomes of the project are pareto solutions for overall cost and environmental impact, facilities to be operated and the amount to be transferred to each warehouse during the time horizon.

Keywords: multi-objective mixed linear programming, food supply chain network, GAMS, multi-product, multi-period, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
10937 Evaluation of the Architect-Friendliness of LCA-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Tools

Authors: Elke Meex, Elke Knapen, Griet Verbeeck

Abstract:

The focus of sustainable building is gradually shifting from energy efficiency towards the more global environmental impact of building design during all life-cycle stages. In this context, many tools have been developed that use a LCA-approach to assess the environmental impact on a whole building level. Since the building design strongly influences the final environmental performance and the architect plays a key role in the design process, it is important that these tools are adapted to his work method and support the decision making from the early design phase on. Therefore, a comparative evaluation of the degree of architect-friendliness of some LCA tools on building level is made, based on an evaluation framework specifically developed for the architect’s viewpoint. In order to allow comparison of the results, a reference building has been designed, documented for different design phases and entered in all software tools. The evaluation according to the framework shows that the existing tools are not very architect-friendly. Suggestions for improvement are formulated.

Keywords: architect-friendliness, design supportive value, evaluation framework, tool comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
10936 Globalisation's Effect on Environmental Activism: A Multi-Level Analysis of Individuals in European Countries

Authors: Dafni Kalatzi Pantera

Abstract:

How globalisation affects environmental activism? Existing research on this relationship focuses on the influence of the world polity on individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental movements. However, globalisation is a multidimensional process which promotes pro-environmental ideas through the world polity, but it also fosters economic growth which is considered antagonistic to the environment. This article models the way that globalisation as a whole affects individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental activism, and the main argument is that globalisation’s impact is conditional on political ideology. To test the above hypothesis, individual and country level data are used for European countries between 1981-2020. The results support the expectation of the article that although globalisation has a positive impact on individuals’ willingness to participate in environmental activism when it interacts with political ideology, its influence differs between ideological spectrums.

Keywords: environmental activism, globalisation, political ideology, world polity

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
10935 Evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment of Dam Using GIS/Remote Sensing-Review

Authors: Ntungamili Kenosi, Moatlhodi W. Letshwenyo

Abstract:

Negative environmental impacts due to construction of large projects such as dams have become an important aspect of land degradation. This paper will review the previous literature on the previous researches or study in the same area of study in the other parts of the world. After dam has been constructed, the actual environmental impacts are investigated and compared to the predicted results of the carried out Environmental Impact Assessment. GIS and Remote Sensing, play an important role in generating automated spatial data sets and in establishing spatial relationships. Results from other sources shows that the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) analysis was used to detect the spatial and temporal change of vegetation biomass in the study area. The result indicated that the natural vegetation biomass is declining. This is mainly due to the expansion of agricultural land and escalating human made structures in the area. Urgent environmental conservation is necessary when adjoining projects site. Less study on the evaluation of EIA on dam has been conducted in Botswana hence there is a need for the same study to be conducted and then it will be easy to be compared to other studies around the world.

Keywords: Botswana, dam, environmental impact assessment, GIS, normalized vegetation index (NDVI), remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
10934 A Review of the Environmental Impact of Physical Expansion of Shandiz City

Authors: Foruzan Taheri, Seyedeh Negar Hosseinian, Katayoon Alizadeh

Abstract:

The small countryside city of Shandiz, with a population of about 13.297 is located 35 km to the west of the Mashhad metropolitan. Due to Shandiz’s natural beauty, suitable climate, and its close proximity to Mashhad which is the largest city in the eastern half of the country, many people own second houses in this area. In addition to this, Shandiz hosts millions of visitors annually. Its economic role, which is parallel and complementary to Mashhad, has caused population growth, the increase of activities, and physical expansion, all of which exceed the city’s capacity. The aim of this descriptive and analytical study was to evaluate the impact of city expansion on the environment and aid in preventing further harm to the natural environment of this perimeter. Data were collected from population and housing statistics during a different period of time-based on GIS. Results show that the existence of an integrated environmental management system in order to coordinate development projects and the expansion of tourism programs that meet environmental conditions are necessary and achieving sustainable development with quality of life in this area without considering environmental limitations and capabilities cannot be sustained.

Keywords: population growth, tourism, physical development, environmental impact, Shandiz City

Procedia PDF Downloads 222