Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 569

Search results for: hospitals

569 Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai

Authors: Wei Fang, Jian Jun Gu, Di Xue

Abstract:

Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.

Keywords: human resource, compensation, public hospital, Shanghai

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568 Development of a Performance Measurement Model for Hospitals Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Techniques: A Case Study of Three South Australian Major Public Hospitals

Authors: Mohammad Safaeipour, Yousef Amer

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This study directs its focus on developing a conceptual model to offer a systematic and integrated method to weigh the related measures and evaluate a competence of hospitals and rank of the selected hospitals that involve and consider the stakeholders’ key performance indicators (KPI’s). The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach will use to weigh the dimensions and related sub- components. The weights and performance scores will combine by using the Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and rank the selected hospitals. The results of this study provide interesting insight into the necessity of process improvement implementation in which hospital that received the lowest ranking score.

Keywords: performance measurement system, PMS, hospitals, AHP, TOPSIS

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567 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry

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In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.

Keywords: knowledge management, hospitals, knowledge management practices, knowledge management tools, performance

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566 A Study on Websites of Public and Private Hospitals in Konya

Authors: H. Nur Görkemli, Mehmet Fidan

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After the first acquaintance with internet in April 1993, number of internet users increased rapidly in Turkey. According to Turkish Statistical Institute’s 2013 data, internet usage in Turkey between 16-74 age group is 48,9%. Hospitals are one of the areas where internet is being intensively used like many other businesses. As a part of public relations application, websites are important tools for hospitals to reach a wide range of target audience within and outside the organization. With their websites, hospitals have opportunities to give information about their organization, strengthen their image, compete with their rivals, interact with shareholders, reflect their transparency and meet with new audiences. This study examines web sites of totally 31 hospitals which are located in Konya. Institutions are categorized as public and private hospitals and then three main research categories are determined: content, visual and technical. Main and sub categories are examined by using content analysis method. Results are interpreted in terms of public and private institutions.

Keywords: websites, hospital, health communication, internet, webpages

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565 Evaluation of Institutionalization in Public Hospitals: A Province Example

Authors: Manar Aslan, Ayse Yildiz

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The study was conducted descriptively to assess their hospital institutionalization of upper and mid-level managers of 18 hospitals affiliated to Public Hospitals Association. In its simplest form institutionalization is whatever the subject matter, is dominated by the rules of articulated and determined behavior in all kinds of business, interaction, and communication. Hospital service is a type of service carried out chained together. It should not be forgotten that this kind of services is carried out without barrier, and who and what to do with definite lines, hospital management is a process, and this process can be achieved through institutionalization. With the establishment of the Public Hospitals Unions in Turkey, all the state hospitals in the provinces have been gathered under this roof. One of the goals is to establish control mechanisms to ensure that hospitals reach pre-determined financial, medical, and administrative standards. In this way, the preparations for the institutionalization of units and hospital enterprises will be completed. The data of the study were collected by institutionalization management attitude scale (cronbach alpha: 0.98) of composed of 5 sub-dimensions and 52 questions in 18 hospitals’ managers (N=310) in the largest province in Turkey. The results of the study revealed that the total score taken by managers at the institutionalization scale was 200.80, and this was close to the maximum score. In addition, it was determined that the difference between the mean score of the scale and its sub-dimensions with the gender, the hospitals, and the management position.

Keywords: institutionalization, hospital, manager, evaluation

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564 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

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Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: information security incident management, information security management, standards, hospitals

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563 Authentic and Transformational Leadership Model of the Directors of Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals Effecting to the Effectiveness of Southern Tambon Health Promoting Hospitals: The Interaction and Invariance Tests of Gender Factor

Authors: Suphap Sikkhaphan, Muwanga Zake, Johnnie Wycliffe Frank

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The purposes of the study included a) investigating the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals b) evaluating the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals and c) assessing the invariance test of the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. All 400 southern tambon health promoting hospital directors were enrolled into the study. Half were males (200), and another half were females (200). They were sampled via a stratified method. A research tool was a questionnaire paper containing 4 different sections. The Alpha-Cronbach’s Coefficient was equally to .98. Descriptive analysis was used for demographic data, and inferential statistics was used for the relation and invariance tests of authentic and transformational leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals. The findings revealed overall the authentic and transformation leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals has the relation to the effectiveness of the hospitals. Only the factor of “strong community support” was statistically significantly related to the authentic leadership (p < .05). However, there were four latent variables statistically related to the transformational leadership including, competency and work climate, management system, network cooperation, and strong community support (p = .01). Regarding the relation between the authentic and transformation leadership of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals and the effectiveness of their hospitals, four casual variables of authentic leadership were not related to those latent variables. In contrast, all four latent variables of transformational leadership has statistically significantly related to the effectiveness of tambon health promoting hospitals (p = .001). Furthermore, only management system variable was significantly related to those casual variables of the authentic leadership (p < .05). Regarding the invariance test, the result found no statistical significance of the authentic and transformational leadership model of the directors of tambon health promoting hospitals, especially between male and female genders (p > .05).

Keywords: authentic leadership, transformational leadership, tambon health promoting hospital

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562 The Hospitals Residents Problem with Bounded Length Preference List under Social Stability

Authors: Ashish Shrivastava, C. Pandu Rangan

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In this paper, we consider The Hospitals Residents problem with Social Stability (HRSS), where hospitals and residents can communicate only through the underlying social network. Those residents and hospitals which don not have any social connection between them can not communicate and hence they cannot be a social blocking pair with respect to a socially stable matching in an instance of hospitals residents problem with social stability. In large scale matching like NRMP or Scottish medical matching scheme etc. where set of agents, as well as length of preference lists, are very large, social stability is a useful notion in which members of a blocking pair could block a matching if and only if they know the existence of each other. Thus the notion of social stability in hospitals residents problem allows us to increase the cardinality of the matching without taking care of those blocking pairs which are not socially connected to each other. We know that finding a maximum cardinality socially stable matching, in an instance, of HRSS is NP-hard. This motivates us to solve this problem with bounded length preference lists on one side. In this paper, we have presented a polynomial time algorithm to compute maximum cardinality socially stable matching in a HRSS instance where residents can give at most two length and hospitals can give unbounded length preference list. Preference lists of residents and hospitals will be strict in nature.

Keywords: matching under preference, socially stable matching, the hospital residents problem, the stable marriage problem

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561 The Development of Electronic Health Record Adoption in Indonesian Hospitals: 2008-2015

Authors: Adistya Maulidya, Mujuna Abbas, Nur Assyifa, Putri Dewi Gutiyani

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Countries are moving forward to develop databases from electronic health records for monitoring and research. Since the issuance of Information and Electonic Transaction Constitution No. 11 of 2008 as well as Minister Regulation No. 269 of 2008, there has been a gradual progress of Indonesian hospitals adopting Electonic Health Record (EHR) in its systems. This paper is the result of a literature study about the progress that has been made in Indonesia to develop national health information infrastructure through EHR within the hospitals. The purpose of this study was to describe trends in adoption of EHR systems among hospitals in Indonesia from 2008 to 2015 as well as to assess the preparedness of Indonesian national health information infrastructure facing ASEAN Economic Community.

Keywords: adoption, Indonesian hospitals, electronic health record, ASEAN economic community

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560 Animal Welfare Violations during Treatment at Different Level of Veterinary Hospitals

Authors: Aparna Datta, Mahabub Alam

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Animal welfare is comparatively new area of research in Bangladesh and welfare concern for animal is increasing day by day. The study was conducted to investigate the animal welfare violations during treatment at different level of hospitals in Bangladesh and India. This study was conducted between January and May, 2017. The recorded data (N=180) were categorized into eight major types of violation like - delay in starting treatment, non-specific treatment, surgery without anesthesia, use of unsterilized needle, rough and painful handling, fearful approach, multiple pricking during injection and use of blunt needle. Categorized groups were analyzed according to different hospitals like Upazila Veterinary Hospitals, Bangladesh (UVHs), SAQ-Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Bangladesh (SAQTVH) and Veterinary College and Research Institute, India (VCRI). Among all hospitals, violation during treatment more frequently occurred in UVH. Among all violations, surgery without anesthesia was only found in UVH (80%) and it was belong to considerable number of cases (80%). In the view of other major violations like - non-specific treatment was 69% in UVHs, 13% in SAQTVH and 5% in VCRI. Use of unsterilized instruments during treatment was also higher in UVHs (65%) than SAQTVH (5%) and VCRI (1%). But delay in starting treatment varied insignificantly and it was 26-42% across the different levels of hospitals. Although multiple pricking during injection was found 30% cases in UVH, but statistical variations with other level of hospitals were unnoticed (p>0.05). The findings of this study will help to take necessary steps to control violation against animal welfare during treatment. A comprehensive study considering all levels of hospitals including field treatment is also recommended to find out the welfare violations during treatment.

Keywords: animal welfare, treatment, veterinary hospitals, violations

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559 The Effect of Vertical Integration on Operational Performance: Evaluating Physician Employment in Hospitals

Authors: Gary Young, David Zepeda, Gilbert Nyaga

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This study investigated whether vertical integration of hospitals and physicians is associated with better care for patients with cardiac conditions. A dramatic change in the U.S. hospital industry is the integration of hospital and physicians through hospital acquisition of physician practices. Yet, there is little evidence regarding whether this form of vertical integration leads to better operational performance of hospitals. The study was conducted as an observational investigation based on a pooled, cross-sectional database. The study sample comprised over hospitals in the State of California. The time frame for the study was 2010 to 2012. The key performance measure was hospitals’ degree of compliance with performance criteria set out by the federal government for managing patients with cardiac conditions. These criteria relate to the types of clinical tests and medications that hospitals should follow for cardiac patients but hospital compliance requires the cooperation of a hospital’s physicians. Data for this measure was obtained from a federal website that presents performance scores for U.S. hospitals. The key independent variable was the percentage of cardiologists that a hospital employs (versus cardiologists who are affiliated but not employed by the hospital). Data for this measure was obtained from the State of California which requires hospitals to report financial and operation data each year including numbers of employed physicians. Other characteristics of hospitals (e.g., information technology for cardiac care, volume of cardiac patients) were also evaluated as possible complements or substitutes for physician employment by hospitals. Additional sources of data included the American Hospital Association and the U.S. Census. Empirical models were estimated with generalized estimating equations (GEE). Findings suggest that physician employment is positively associated with better hospital performance for cardiac care. However, findings also suggest that information technology is a substitute for physician employment.

Keywords: physician employment, hospitals, verical integration, cardiac care

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558 Ophthalmic Services Covered by Albasar International Foundation in Sudan

Authors: Mohammad Ibrahim

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The study was conducted at Albasar international foundation ophthalmic hospitals in Sudan to study the burden and patterns of ophthalmic disorder in the sector. Review of the hospitals records revealed that the total number of patient examined in the hospitals and outreached camps conducted by the hospitals is 10,513,874, the total number of surgeries is 694,015 and the total number of pupils at school program is 230,382. The organization working with the highest management system and standards and quality result based planning. The study yielded that the ophthalmic problem in Sudan are of great percentage and the temporal blindness disorder are high since major cases and surgeries were Cataract (57.8%). Retinal problem (2.9%), Glaucoma (2.4%), Orbit and Occulo-plastic disorders (2.2%) other disorders are refractive errors, squint and strabismus, Corneal, Pediatrics and minor ophthalmic disorders.

Keywords: hospitals and outreach ophthalmic services, largest coverage of ophthalmic services, nonprofitable ophthalmic services, strong management system and standards

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557 Level of Awareness of Genetic Counselling in Benue State Nigeria: Its Advocacy on the Inheritance of Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Agi Sunday

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A descriptive analysis of reported cases of sickle cell disease and the level of awareness about genetic counselling in 30 hospitals were carried out. Additionally, 150 individuals between ages 16-45 were randomly selected for evaluation of genetic counselling awareness. The main tools for this study were questionnaires which were taken to hospitals, and individuals completed the others. The numbers of reported cases of sickle cell disease recorded in private, public and teaching hospitals were 14 and 57; 143 and 89; 272 and 57 for the periods of 1995-2000 and 2001-2005, respectively. A general informal genetic counselling took place mostly in the hospitals visited. 122 (86%) individuals had the knowledge of genetic disease and only 43 (30.3%) individuals have been exposed to genetic counselling. 64% of individuals agreed that genetic counselling would help in the prevention of genetic disease.

Keywords: sickle disease, genetic counseling, genetic testing, advocacy

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556 Job Satisfaction Levels of Nurses Working in Public Hospitals

Authors: S. Kurt, B. C. Demirbag

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Meeting employees’ expectations from an organization physically and mentally is a result of one’s assessing his or her work and its environment as well as his feeling about them. It was to determine the job satisfaction levels of the nurses in public hospitals. This descriptive study was carried out with 404 nurses (60%) accepting to take part in the study voluntarily and working in the same hospital for at least three months from 673 nurses working in hospitals depending on The Secretaryship of Public Hospital Association in Rize. The study aimed to reach the whole population by not taking samples. The data were collected by the personal information form (16 questions) prepared by the researcher, and the job satisfaction scale (36 articles) between June 1st and August 30th, 2014. According to scale, mean scores of nurses’ job satisfaction were 3.23±0.51. In addition, it was determined that the factors such as nurses’s age, marital status, childbearing, place of duty, position in workplace, being liked of job, education status, work experience, weekly working hours, maturing in professional practice, unit worked, hospital worked and colleagues affected the job satisfaction levels of nurses (p <0.05). In conclusion; the nurses’ general job satisfaction levels were moderate level.

Keywords: hospitals, job satisfaction level, nurses, public hospitals

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555 Using Knowledge Management and Visualisation Concepts to Improve Patients and Hospitals Staff Workflow

Authors: A. A. AlRasheed, A. Atkins, R. Campion

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This paper focuses on using knowledge management and visualisation concepts to improve the patients and hospitals employee’s workflow. Hospitals workflow is a complex and complicated process and poor patient flow can put both patients and a hospital’s reputation at risk, and can threaten the facility’s financial sustainability. Healthcare leaders are under increased pressure to reduce costs while maintaining or increasing patient care standards. In this paper, a framework is proposed to help improving patient experience, staff satisfaction, and operational efficiency across hospitals by using knowledge management based visualisation concepts. This framework is using real-time visibility to track and monitor location and status of patients, staff, rooms, and medical equipment.

Keywords: knowledge management, improvements, visualisation, workflow

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554 Cultural Resources Management of the Early Hospitals in Jordan between: 1890-1950

Authors: Jawdat Goussous, Samer Abu Ghazaleh

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Heritage is closely linked with the national identity and because Jordan is a rich country of heritage where many civilizations had lived from early beginning of history ,therefore the conservation of this heritage is national task that gives many benefits as correlation between local inhabitance and enhance the linked with spirit of place . This study takes into account the most important concentration on some of old hospitals in Jordan ,which were constructed between 1890-1950 ,looking in their historical and architectural heritage values gained by their architectural distinguished ,longevity and their linked with events that happened in the region. then Focus on the study and analysis of some of them in terms of conservation methodology that have been followed to conserve the early hospitals such as preservation ,maintenance ,adaptive reuse , And their positive effects on these buildings, emphasize the importance of these buildings because of their historical and architectural values.

Keywords: evangelical missionary, early hospitals, medical services, renovation

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553 Risk of Occupational Exposure to Cytotoxic Drugs: The Role of Handling Procedures of Hospital Workers

Authors: J. Silva, P. Arezes, R. Schierl, N. Costa

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In order to study environmental contamination by cytostatic drugs in Portugal hospitals, sampling campaigns were conducted in three hospitals in 2015 (112 samples). Platinum containing drugs and fluorouracil were chosen because both were administered in high amounts. The detection limit was 0.01 pg/cm² for platinum and 0.1 pg/cm² for fluorouracil. The results show that spills occur mainly on the patient`s chair, while the most referenced occurrence is due to an inadequately closed wrapper. Day hospitals facilities were detected as having the largest number of contaminated samples and with higher levels of contamination.

Keywords: cytostatic, contamination, hospital, procedures, handling

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552 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Care Professionals and Factors Associated with Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in Public and Private Hospitals of Islamabad

Authors: Zaka Nisa, Farooq Sher

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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) underreporting is a great challenge to Pharmacovigilance. Health care professionals have to consider ADR reporting as their professional obligation, an effective system of ADR reporting is important to improve patient health care and safety. The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and factors associated with ADR reporting by health care professionals (physicians and pharmacists) in public and private hospitals of Pakistan. A pretested questionnaire was administered to 384 physicians and pharmacists in public and private hospitals. Respondents were evaluated for their knowledge, attitude, and practice related to ADR reporting. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, the factors which encourage and discourage respondents in reporting ADRs were determined. Most of the respondents have shown a positive attitude towards ADR reporting. The response rate was 95.32%. Of the 367 questionnaires, including 333 (86.5%) physicians and 34 (8.8%) pharmacists with the mean age 28.34 (SD= 6.69), most of the respondents showed poor ADR reporting knowledge (83.1%). The majority of respondents (78.2%) showed positive attitude towards ADR reporting and only (12.3%) hospitals have good ADR reporting practice. Knowledge of respondents in public hospitals (8.6%) was less as compare to those in the private hospitals (29.7%) (P < 0.001). Attitude of respondents in private hospitals was more positive (92.4%) than those in public hospitals (68.8%) (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in practicing of ADR reporting in public (11.8%) and private hospitals (13.1%) (P value 0.89). Seriousness of ADR, unusualness of reaction, new drug involvement and confidence in diagnosis of ADR were the factors which encourage respondents to report ADR, however, lack of knowledge regarding where and how to report ADR, lack of access to ADR reporting form, managing patients was more important than reporting ADR, legal liability issues were the factors which discourage respondents to report ADR. The study reveals poor knowledge and practice regarding ADR reporting. However positive attitude was seen regarding ADR reporting. There is a need of educational training for health care professionals as well as genuine and continuous efforts are required by Government and health authorities to ensure the proper implementation of ADR reporting system in all of the hospitals.

Keywords: adverse drugs reactions (ADR), pharmacovigilance, spontaneous ADR reporting, knowledge of ADR, attitude of health care profesionals, practice of ADR reporting

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551 Internal Audit and the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Operations in Hospitals

Authors: Naziru Suleiman

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The ever increasing cases of financial frauds and corporate accounting scandals in recent years have raised more concern on the operation of internal control mechanisms and performance of the internal audit departments in organizations. In most cases the seeming presence of both the internal control system and internal audit in organizations do not prove useful as frauds errors and irregularities are being perpetuated. The aim of this study, therefore, is to assess the role of internal audit in achieving the objectives of internal control system of federal hospitals in Kano State from the perception of the respondents. The study used survey research design and generated data from primary source by means of questionnaire. A total number of 100 copies of questionnaire were administered out of which 68 were duly completed and returned. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the internal validity of the various items in the constructs. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were employed for the analysis of data. The study finds that from the perception of the respondents, internal audit departments in Federal Hospitals in Kano State are effective and that they contribute positively to the overall attainment of the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals. There is no significant difference found on the views of the respondents from the three hospitals. Hence, the study concludes that strong and functional internal audit department is a basic requirement for effectiveness of operations of the internal control system. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that internal audit should continue to ensure that the objectives of internal control system of these hospitals are achieved through proper and adequate evaluation and review of the system.

Keywords: internal audit, internal control, federal hospitals, financial frauds

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550 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

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The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: nurse, public hospitals, working conditions, working schedules

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549 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

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The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: assessment framework, cyber resilience, cyber security, mobile field hospital

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548 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro

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Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

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547 Measuring Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Implementation in Riyadh Hospitals

Authors: A. Alrasheed, I. Connerton

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Daily provision of high quality food and hygiene to patients is a challenging goal of the healthcare. In Saudi Arabia, matters related to food safety and hygiene are regulated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Saudi Food and Drugs Authority (SFDA). The purpose of this research is to discuss the food safety management inconsistencies and flaws, in particular the ones related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in Riyadh’s MOH hospitals. As required by law, written HACCP regulations must be implemented, and food handlers need to receive the training accordingly. However, in Saudi hospitals, this is not a requirement, and the food handlers do not need to hold training certificates in food safety or HACCP. Nowadays, the matter of food safety and hygiene have become increasingly important since the decision makers want to align these regulations with the majority of the world and to implement HACCP fully and for this purpose, the SFDA was established. 

Keywords: food safety, patients, hospitals, HACCP, Saudi Arabia

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546 Generation of Medical Waste in Hospitals in Interior of São Paulo, Brazil

Authors: Silvia Carla Da Silva André, Angela Maria Magosso Takayanagui

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Introduction: The Medical Waste (MW) are responsible per 2% of total waste generated for a city and has merited attention due the risks that offers to the public health and environment, representing an important aspect in waste management. In Brazil, the Resolution 306/04 of the National Health Surveillance Agency classifies the MW into 5 groups as follows: Group A (GA) biological, Group B (GB) chemical, Group C (GC) radioactive waste, Group D (GD) common, and Group E (GE) sharps. Objective: This study aimed to determine the amount of waste generated in hospitals of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Material and Methods: This is a field research, exploratory, using quantitative variables. The survey was conducted in 11 hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is noted that the study sample included general hospitals, skilled, university, maternity, and psychiatric; public, private, and philanthropic; and large, medium, and small. To quantify the MW, the weighing of the waste was held for six days, following methodology adapted from PAHO. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, determining the average global generation of MW and for each group. This research was carried out after approval by the Ethics in Research of the University of São Paulo. Thus, in order to comply with the ethical principles of research, to present the results hospitals were numbered from 1 to 11. Results: The data revealed a greater generation of biological waste among teaching hospitals, which can be justified by the use of materials for the realization of techniques.

Keywords: environmental health, management of medical waste, medical waste, public health

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545 Comparison of Patient Satisfaction and Observer Rating of Outpatient Care among Public Hospitals in Shanghai

Authors: Tian Yi Du, Guan Rong Fan, Dong Dong Zou, Di Xue

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Background: The patient satisfaction survey is becoming of increasing importance for hospitals or other providers to get more reimbursement and/or more governmental subsidies. However, when the results of patient satisfaction survey are compared among medical institutions, there are some concerns. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate patient satisfaction in tertiary hospitals of Shanghai and to compare the satisfaction rating on physician services between patients and observers. Methods: Two hundred outpatients were randomly selected for patient satisfaction survey in each of 28 public tertiary hospitals of Shanghai. Four or five volunteers were selected to observe 5 physicians’ practice in each of above hospitals and rated observed physicians’ practice. The outpatients that the volunteers observed their physician practice also filled in the satisfaction questionnaires. The rating scale for outpatient survey and volunteers’ observation was: 1 (very dissatisfied) to 6 (very satisfied). If the rating was equal to or greater than 5, we considered the outpatients and volunteers were satisfied with the services. The validity and reliability of the measure were assessed. Multivariate regressions for each of the 4 dimensions and overall of patient satisfaction were used in analyses. Paired t tests were applied to analyze the rating agreement on physician services between outpatients and volunteers. Results: Overall, 90% of surveyed outpatients were satisfied with outpatient care in the tertiary public hospitals of Shanghai. The lowest three satisfaction rates were seen in the items of ‘Restrooms were sanitary and not crowded’ (81%), ‘It was convenient for the patient to pay medical bills’ (82%), and ‘Medical cost in the hospital was reasonable’ (84%). After adjusting the characteristics of patients, the patient satisfaction in general hospitals was higher than that in specialty hospitals. In addition, after controlling the patient characteristics and number of hospital visits, the hospitals with higher outpatient cost per visit had lower patient satisfaction. Paired t tests showed that the rating on 6 items in the dimension of physician services (total 14 items) was significantly different between outpatients and observers, in which 5 were rated lower by the observers than by the outpatients. Conclusions: The hospital managers and physicians should use patient satisfaction and observers’ evaluation to detect the room for improvement in areas such as social skills cost control, and medical ethics.

Keywords: patient satisfaction, observation, quality, hospital

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544 Setting up Model Hospitals in Health Care Waste Management in Madagascar

Authors: Sandrine Andriantsimietry, Hantanirina Ravaosendrasoa

Abstract:

Madagascar, in 2018, set up the first best available technology, autoclave, to treat the health care waste in public hospitals according the best environmental practices in health care waste management. Incineration of health care waste, frequently through open burning is the most common practice of treatment and elimination of health care waste across the country. Autoclave is a best available technology for non-incineration of health care waste that permits recycling of treated waste and prevents harm in environment through the reduction of unintended persistent organic pollutants from the health sector. A Global Environment Fund project supported the introduction of the non-incineration treatment of health care waste to help countries in Africa to move towards Stockholm Convention objectives in the health sector. Two teaching hospitals in Antananarivo and one district hospital in Manjakandriana were equipped respectively with 1300L, 250L and 80L autoclaves. The capacity of these model hospitals was strengthened by the donation of equipment and materials and the training of the health workers in best environmental practices in health care waste management. Proper segregation of waste in the wards to collect the infectious waste that was treated in the autoclave was the main step guaranteeing a cost-efficient non-incineration of health care waste. Therefore, the start-up of the switch of incineration into non-incineration treatment was carried out progressively in each ward with close supervision of hygienist. Emissions avoided of unintended persistent organic pollutants during these four months of autoclaves use is 9.4 g Toxic Equivalent per year. Public hospitals in low income countries can be model in best environmental practices in health care waste management but efforts must be made internally for sustainment.

Keywords: autoclave, health care waste management, model hospitals, non-incineration

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543 Quality Control Assessment of X-Ray Equipment in Hospitals of Katsina State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Yakubu Umar

Abstract:

X-ray is the major contributor to the effective dose of both the patient and the personnel. Because of the radiological risks involved, it is usually recommended that dose to patient from X-ray be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) with adequate image quality. The implementation of quality assurance in diagnostic radiology can help greatly in achieving that, as it is a technique designed to reduce X-ray doses to patients undergoing radiological examination. In this study, quality control was carried out in six hospitals, which involved KVp test, evaluation of total filtration, test for constancy of radiation output, and check for mA linearity. Equipment used include KVp meter, Rad-check meter, aluminum sheets (0.1–1.0 mm) etc. The results of this study indicate that, the age of the X-ray machines in the hospitals ranges from 3-13 years, GHI and GH2 being the oldest and FMC being the newest. In the evaluation of total filtration, the HVL of the X-ray machines in the hospitals varied, ranging from 2.3-5.2 mm. The HVL was found to be highest in AHC (5.2 mm), while it was lowest in GH3 (2.3 mm). All HVL measurements were done at 80 KVp. The variation in voltage accuracy in the hospitals ranges from 0.3%-127.5%. It was only in GH1 that the % variation was below the allowed limit. The test for constancy of radiation output showed that, the coefficient of variation ranges from 0.005–0.550. In GH3, FMC and AHC, the coefficient of linearity were less than the allowed limit, while in GH1, GH2 and GH4 the coefficient of linearity had exceeded the allowed limit. As regard to mA linearity, FMC and AHC had their coefficients of linearity as 0.12 and 0.10 respectively, which were within the accepted limit, while GH1, GH3 and GH4 had their coefficients as 0.16, 0.69 and 0.98 respectively, which exceeded the allowed limit.

Keywords: radiation, X-ray output, quality control, half-value layer, mA linearity, KVp variation

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542 Management of Medical Equipment Maintenance

Authors: Gholamreza Madad

Abstract:

The role of medical equipment in modern advanced hospitals is irrefutable. Despite limited financial resources, developing countries have taken an uncontrollable manner to the purchase of complex and expensive equipment, although they have not taken good maintenance to keep these huge capitals. In our country, limited studies have indicated that the irregularities exist in the management of medical equipment maintenance. Research method: The research was done as a cross-sectional one, and in this study, a questionnaire was used to collect data in 10 hospitals. After distributing and collecting questionnaires in person, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. Research findings: According to the obtained results from the four dimensions of the management of medical equipment maintenance, only (maintenance planning) was in a moderate position and other components with a score of less than 50% were at a low level. There was a direct relationship between the total score of maintenance management and guidance points and coordination of medical equipment maintenance, and as well as the age of hospital managers. Discussion and conclusion: In sum, we can say that problems such as lack of skilled staff in medical engineering departments of hospitals, lack of funds and unaware of the authorities of medical engineering units to their duties have caused that the maintenance situation of medical equipment maintenance is in poor condition (near average). The low inexperience of the authorities of the unit has also contributed to this problem.

Keywords: equipment, maintenance, medical equipment, hospitals

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541 Palliative Performance Scale Differences between Patients Referred by Specialized Cancer Center and General Hospitals to the Palliative Care Center in Kuwait

Authors: Khalid Al Saleh, Najlaa AlSayed

Abstract:

Background: Palliative care is changing from just ‘end of life care’ to care delivered earlier in the disease course. Metanalysis showed that Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) is associated with increased length of survival. The Palliative Care Center (PCC) in Kuwait is the only stand-alone center in Eastern Mediterranean Region with a capacity of 92 beds. We compared clinical characteristics between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center and general hospitals in Kuwait to PCC. Method: A cross Sectional survey was conducted since the opening of PCC in January 2011 to June 2013. Patients’ data on demographics, type of the cancer, PPS score and referring hospital were collected and analyzed. Results: Total number of the patients was 142. Mean age was 61.05±14.79 years, 66 patients (47.1%) were males and 74 (52.9%) were females. The most common cancers in males were lung (n=18, 27.3%) followed by head and neck cancers (n=8, 12.1%) and brain tumors (n=7, 10.6%) while in females, the most common cancers were breast cancer (n=12, 16.7%) followed by ovarian cancer (n=10, 13.9%) and Cancer Colon (n=8, 11.1%). Patients with PPS score 30% were 27.9% (n=39), 40% in 40.7% (n=57), and 50% in 17.1% (n=24) respectively. Patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center had significantly higher portion of patients with PPS score > 30% (73.4%, n=94), compared to patients coming from general hospitals (33.3%, n=4), P value= 0.007. Conclusion: There is significant difference in PPS scores between patients referred from the Specialized Cancer Center compared to patients referred from general hospitals. We encourage that all cancer patients should be treated in Specialized Cancer Centers and earlier involvement of Palliative Care Centers to achieve better survival. Training workshops are needed for health care professionals working in general hospitals to raise awareness about earlier referral of patients to palliative care services.

Keywords: palliative care, kuwait, performance scale differences, pps score, specialized hospitals

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540 Evaluation of Food Services by the Personnel in Hospitals of Athens, Greece

Authors: I. Mentziou, C. Delezos, D. Krikidis, A. Nestoridou, G. Boskou

Abstract:

Introduction: The systems of production and distribution of meals can have a significant impact on the food intake of hospital patients who are likely to develop malnutrition. In hospitals, the consequences of food borne infections can range from annoying to life-threatening for a patient, since they can lead up to death in vulnerable groups Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of food safety management systems implementation, as well as the general evaluation of the total quality management systems in Greek hospitals. Methods: This is a multifocal study on the implementation and evaluation of the food safety management systems in the Greek hospitals of Attica region. Eleven hospitals from the city of Athens were chosen for this purpose. The sample was derived from the high rank personnel of the nutritional department (dietician, head-chef, food technologist, public health inspector). Tailor made questionnaires on hygiene regulations were used as tools for the interviews. Results: Overall, 30 employees in the field of hospital nutrition participated. Most of the replies implied that almost always the hygiene regulations are implemented. Nevertheless, only 30% stated that there is a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points HACCP system (HACCP) in the hospital. In a small number of questionnaires there were proposals for changes by the staff. Conclusion: Measurement of the opinion of the personnel about the provided food services within a hospital can further lead to continuous improvement of the hospital nutrition.

Keywords: evaluation, food service, HACCP, hospital, personnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 307