Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9667

Search results for: solid waste management

9667 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

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9666 Analysis of the Impacts and Challenges of Conventional Solid Waste Management in Urban Centers of Developing Countries

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, J. Mohammed Umar, U. M. Bashir

Abstract:

Solid waste management continued to be the biggest threat to the sustainability of urban centers of developing countries. Most streets corners of these urban centers are characterized by heaps of uncollected wastes at drains, public spaces and road sides destroying the aesthetic qualities and environmental ecosystems of these cities. Also, harboring disease vectors and rodents putting the health of the populace at risk, thus posing a serious challenge to the municipalities who are in most cases responsible for the solid waste management in these cities. The typical or commonest method adapted by these agencies in dealing with the solid waste management is the conventional approach; focusing mainly on waste collection ,treatment(composting and incineration)and disposal giving little consideration to the 3RS, of waste reduce, re-used and recycled. The resultant consequence being huge budget spending in solid waste management as high as 80% but little collection rate as low as 50%. This paper attempt to analyze the impacts and effects of the conventional solid waste management practices on the stakeholders in solid waste management; the municipal authorities, the communities, formal and informal waste managers, the NGOs and CBOs and suggests appropriate measures that would lessen the effects.

Keywords: conventional waste management, solid waste, waste stakeholders, developing countries

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9665 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

Abstract:

This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: environment, waste, waste composition, waste stream, policy, waste categories, sanitary landfill, waste collection, integrated solid waste management

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9664 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

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9663 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policy

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9662 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian

Abstract:

One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic waste

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9661 When the Poor Do Not Matter: Environmental Justice and Solid Waste Management in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

Authors: N. S. Kubanza, D. Simatele, D. K. Das

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to understand the urban environmental problems in Kinshasa and the consequences of these for the poor. This paper particularly examines the concept of environmental injustice in solid waste management in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The urban low-income communities in Kinshasa face multiple consequences of poor solid waste management associated with unhealthy living conditions. These situations stemmed from overcrowding, poor sanitary, accumulation of solid waste, resulting in the prevalence of water and air borne diseases. Using a mix of reviewed archival records, scholarly literature, a semi-structured interview conducted with the local community members and qualitative surveys among stakeholders; it was found that solid waste management challenge in Kinshasa is not only an environmental and health risk issues, but also, a problem that generates socio-spatial disparities in the distribution of the solid waste burden. It is argued in the paper that the urban poor areas in Kinshasa are often hardest affected by irregularities of waste collection. They lack sanitary storage capacities and have undermined organizational capacity for collective action within solid waste management. In view of these observations, this paper explores mechanisms and stakeholders’ engagement necessary to lessen environmental injustice in solid waste management (SWM) in Kinshasa.

Keywords: environmental justice, solid waste management, urban environmental problems, urban poor

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9660 Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential in Hawassa University, Ethiopia

Authors: Hunachew Beyene Mengesha, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw

Abstract:

Owing to the dramatic expansion of universities in Ethiopia, understanding the composition and nature of solid waste at the source of generation plays an important role in designing a program for an integrated waste management program. In this study, we report the quantity, quality and recycling potential of the waste generated in the three campuses of the Hawassa University, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 3.5 tons of waste was generated per day in the three campuses of the university. More than 95% of the waste constituents were with potential to be recovered. It was a lesson from the study that there was no source reduction, recycling, composting, proper land filling or incineration practices in-place. The considerably high waste generation associated with the expansion of educational programs in the university appears worthwhile requiring implementation of programs for an integrated solid waste management to minimize health risk to humans and reduce environmental implications as a result of improper handling and disposal of wastes.

Keywords: Hawassa University, integrated solid waste management, solid waste generation, energy management, waste management

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9659 Design of Collection and Transportation System of Municipal Solid Waste in Meshkinshahr City

Authors: Ebrahim Fataei, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Zahra Arabi, Habib farhadi, Mehdi Aalipour Erdi, Seiied Taghi Seiied Safavian

Abstract:

Solid waste production is an integral part of human life and management of waste require full scientific approach and essential planning. The allocation of most management cost to collection and transportation and also the necessity of operational efficiency in this system, by limiting time consumption, and on the other hand optimum collection system and transportation is the base of waste design and management. This study was done to optimize the exits collection and transportation system of solid waste in Meshkinshahr city. So based on the analyzed data of municipal solid waste components in seven zones of Meshkinshahr city, and GIS software, applied to design storage place based on origin recycling and a route to collect and transport. It was attempted to represent an appropriate model to store, collect and transport municipal solid waste. The result shows that GIS can be applied to locate the waste container and determine a waste collection direction in an appropriate way.

Keywords: municipal solid waste management, transportation, optimizing, GIS, Iran

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9658 Level of Knowledge, Attitude, Perceived Behavior Control, Subjective Norm and Behavior of Household Solid Waste towards Zero Waste Management among Malaysian Consumer

Authors: M. J. Zuroni, O. Syuhaily, M. A. Afida Mastura, M. S. Roslina, A. K. Nurul Aini

Abstract:

The impact of country development has caused an increase of solid waste. The increase in population causes of excess usage thus effecting the sustainable environment. Zero waste management involves maximizing practices of recycling and minimizing residual waste. This paper seeks to analyze the relationship between knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm and behavior of household solid waste towards household solid waste management among urban households in 8 states that have been implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act 2007 (Act 672) in Malaysia. A total of respondents are 605 and we used a purposive sampling for location and simple sampling for sample size. Data collected by using self-administered questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS software. The Pearson Correlation Test is to examine the relationship between four variables. Results show that knowledge scores are high because they have an awareness of the importance of managing solid waste. For attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm and behavioral scores at a moderate level in solid waste management activities. The findings show that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior of household solid waste (r = 0.136 **, p = 0.001), there is a significant relationship between attitude and behavior (r = 0.238 **, p = 0.000), there is a significant relationship between perceived behavior control and behavior (r = 0.516 **, p = 0.000) and there is a significant relationship between subjective norm and behavior (r = 0.494 **, p = 0.000). The conclusion is that there is a relationship between knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control and subjective norm toward the behavior of household solid waste management. Therefore, in the findings of the study, all parties including the government should work together to enhance the knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control and behavior of household solid waste management in other states that have not implemented and enforced regulations under the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 (Act 672).

Keywords: solid waste management, knowledge, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norm, behavior

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9657 Management Options and Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste in Madinah, KSA

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed, Ayed E. Alluqmani

Abstract:

The population growth in the KSA beside the increase in the urbanization level and standard of living improvement have resulted in the rapid growth of the country’s Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation. Municipalities are managing the MSW system in the KSA by collecting and getting rid of it by dumping it in nearest open landfill sites. Solid waste management is one of the main critical issues considered worldwide due to its significant impact on the environment and the public health. In this study, municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, composition and collection of Madinah city, as one of largest cities in KSA, were examined to provide an overview of current state of MSW management, an analysis of existing problem in MSW management, and recommendations for improving the waste treatment and management system in this area. These recommendations would be not specific to Madinah region, but also would be applied to other cities in KSA or any other regions with similar features. The trend of waste generation showed that current waste generation would be increased as much as two to three folds in 2030. Approximately 25% of total generated waste is disposed to a sanitary landfill, while 75% is sent to normal dumpsites. This study also investigated the environmental impacts of MSW through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste generations and related processes. LCA results revealed that among the seven scenarios, recycling and composting are the best scenario for the solid waste management in Madinah and similar regions.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, waste recycling and land-filling, waste management, life cycle assessment

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9656 A Case Study at Lara's Landfill: Solid Waste Management and Energy Recovery

Authors: Kelly Danielly Da Silva Alcantara, Daniel Fernando Molina Junqueira, Graziella Colato Antonio

Abstract:

The Law No. 12,305/10, established by the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), provides major changes in the management and managing scenario of solid waste in Brazil. The PNRS established since changes from population behavior as environmental and the consciousness and commitment of the companies with the waste produced. The objective of this project is to conduct a benchmarking study of the management models of Waste Management Municipal Solid (MSW) in national and international levels emphasizing especially in the European Union (Portugal, France and Germany), which are reference countries in energy development, sustainability and consequently recovery of waste generated. The management that encompasses all stages that are included in this sector will be analyzed by benchmarking, as the collection, transportation, processing/treatment and final disposal of waste. Considering the needs to produce clean energy in Brazil, this study will allow the determination to the best treatment of the waste in order to reduce the amount of waste and increase the lifetime of the landfill. Finally, it intends to identify the energy recovery potential through a study analysis of economic viability, energy and sustainable based on a holistic approach.

Keywords: benchmarking, energy recovery, landfill, municipal solid waste

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9655 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: high level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology

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9654 Development of Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for Industrial Estates of Pakistan

Authors: Mehak Masood

Abstract:

This paper aims to design an integrated solid waste management plan for industrial estates taking Sundar Industrial Estate as case model. The issue of solid waste management is on the rise in Pakistan especially in the industrial sector. In this regard, the concept of development and establishment of industrial estates is gaining popularity nowadays. Without proper solid waste management plan it is very difficult to manage day to day affairs of industrial estates. An industrial estate contains clusters of different types of industrial units. It is necessary to identify different types of solid waste streams from each industrial cluster within the estate. In this study, Sundar Industrial Estate was taken as a case model. Primary and secondary data collection, waste assessment, waste segregation and weighing and field surveys were essential elements of the study. Wastes from each industrial process were identified and quantified. Currently 130 industries are in production but after full colonization of industries this number would reach 385. Elaborated process flow diagrams were made to characterize the recyclable and non-recyclables waste. From the study it was calculated that about 12354.1 kg/captia/day of solid waste is being generated in Sundar Industrial Estate. After the full colonization of the industrial estate, the estimated quantity will be 4756328.5 kg/captia/day. Furthermore, solid waste generated from each industrial sector was estimated. Suggestions for collection and transportation are given. Environment friendly solid waste management practices are suggested. If an effective integrated waste management system is developed and implemented it will conserve resources, create jobs, reduce poverty, conserve natural resources, protect the environment, save collection, transportation and disposal costs and extend the life of disposal sites. A major outcome of this study is an integrated solid waste management plan for the Sundar Industrial Estate which requires immediate implementation.

Keywords: integrated solid waste management plan, industrial estates, Sundar Industrial Estate, Pakistan

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9653 Solid Waste Landfilling Practices, Related Problems and Sustainable Solutions in Turkey

Authors: Nükhet Konuk, N. Gamze Turan, Yüksel Ardalı

Abstract:

Solid waste management is the most environmental problem in Turkey as a result of the rapid increase in solid waste generation caused by the rapid population growth, urbanization, rapid industrialization and economic development. The large quantity of waste generated necessitates system of collection, transportation and disposal. The landfill method for the ultimate disposal of solid waste continues to be widely accepted and used due to its economic advantages. In Turkey, most of the disposal sites open dump areas. Open dump sites may result in serious urban, sanitary and environmental problems such as an unpleasant odor and the risk of explosion as well as groundwater contamination because of leachate percolation. Unsuitable management practices also result in the loss of resources and energy, which could be recycled and produced from a large part of the solid waste. Therefore, over the past few decades, particular attention has been drawn to the sustainable solid waste management as a response to the increase in environmental problems related to the disposal of waste. The objective of this paper is to assess the situation of landfilling practices in Turkey as a developing country and to identify any gaps in the system as currently applied. The results show that approximately 25 million tons of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. The percentage of MSW disposed to sanitary landfill is only 45% whereas more than 50% of MSW is disposed without any control.

Keywords: developing countries, open dumping, solid waste management, sustainable landfilling, sustainable solid waste management

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9652 Mechanism of Religion on Community Movement for Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sophaphan Intahphuak, Narong Pamala, Boonyaporn Yodkhong, Samuhavitayaa

Abstract:

The amount of solid waste increases each year as a result of population growth, urbanization and economic expansion; however, there was little public cooperation in the segregation of solid waste due to the lack of awareness. This study aims to encourage all sectors in the community to participate in the development of a suitable model to reduce environmental waste by emerging the cultural context that bares a close relationship with Buddhism through faith and merit-making. The monks, involving stakeholder in the entire waste management system, help publicize the campaign on Buddhist holy days, religious ceremonies and they also teach people to be responsible for the garbage problem in the community. As for the garbage brought for merit-making, they are sold and the money is used to help build the pavilion. It was found that people can separate recycled garbage and the amount of solid waste slightly decrease. The results obtained suggest that the religion is not only the moral center of the community, it is also the center of community empowerment to consciousness in waste management.

Keywords: community empowerment, religion’s role, waste management, recycled garbage

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9651 Municipal Solid Waste Management Characteristics and Management Challenges in Bauchi Metropolitan Area, Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Abdu Usman, Bashir Usman Mohammed, Mohammed Umar Jamil

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management constitutes a serious problem bedeviling environmental protection agencies in many cities of developing countries. Most agencies do not collect the totality of the waste generated in their cities. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Bauchi metropolis, Bauchi state Nigeria. The general feature is characterized by inefficient, insufficient and irrational collection and improper disposal alternatives. The consequent environmental effects of these problems depict clogged city drains, uncollected heap of waste on road sides of residential areas, vacant plots and uncompleted buildings and highways. This contributes immensely to flooding in the city. The major challenges facing the state environmental protection agency includes; lack of collection and disposal points, technical and institutional arrangements, financial resources and general attitude of the serving public among others. The study suggested a comprehensive and integrated approach to the solid waste management which recognizes and incorporates the interventionist role of the state government, the private formal and informal waste management operators and the serving public.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, bauchi metropolitan area, environmental protection agency, solid waste management, waste disposal

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9650 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

Abstract:

Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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9649 Recyclable Household Solid Waste Generation and Collection in Beijing, China

Authors: Tingting Liu, Yufeng Wu, Xi Tian, Yu Gong, Tieyong Zuo

Abstract:

The household solid waste generated by household in Beijing is increasing quickly due to rapid population growth and lifestyle changes. However, there are no rigorous data on the generation and collection of the recyclable household solid wastes. The Beijing city government needs this information to make appropriate policies and plans for waste management. To address this information need, we undertook the first comprehensive study of recyclable household solid waste for Beijing. We carried out a survey of 500 families across sixteen districts in Beijing. We also analyzed the quantities, spatial distribution and categories of collected waste handled by curbside recyclers and permanent recycling centers for 340 of the 9797 city-defined residential areas of Beijing. From our results, we estimate that the total quantity of recyclable household solid waste was 1.8 million tonnes generated by Beijing household in 2013 and 71.6% of that was collected. The main generation categories were waste paper (24.4%), waste glass bottle (23.7%) and waste furniture (14.3%). The recycling rate was varied among different kinds of municipal solid waste. Also based on our study, we estimate there were 22.8 thousand curbside recyclers and 5.7 thousand permanent recycling centers in Beijing. The problems of household solid waste collecting system were inadequacies of authorized collection centers, skewed ratios of curbside recyclers and authorized permanent recycling centers, weak recycling awareness of residents and lack of recycling resources statistics and appraisal system. According to the existing problems, we put forward the suggestions to improve household solid waste management.

Keywords: Municipal waste; Recyclable waste; Waste categories; Waste collection

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9648 Development of a Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management for an Urban Area: Case Study from a Developing Country

Authors: Anil Kumar Gupta, Dronadula Venkata Sai Praneeth, Brajesh Dubey, Arundhuti Devi, Suravi Kalita, Khanindra Sharma

Abstract:

Increase in urbanization and industrialization have led to improve in the standard of living. However, at the same time, the challenges due to improper solid waste management are also increasing. Municipal Solid Waste management is considered as a vital step in the development of urban infrastructure. The present study focuses on developing a solid waste management plan for an urban area in a developing country. The current scenario of solid waste management practices at various urban bodies in India is summarized. Guwahati city in the northeastern part of the country and is also one of the targeted smart cities (under the governments Smart Cities program) was chosen as case study to develop and implement the solid waste management plan. The whole city was divided into various divisions and waste samples were collected according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) - D5231-92 - 2016 for each division in the city and a composite sample prepared to represent the waste from the entire city. The solid waste characterization in terms of physical and chemical which includes mainly proximate and ultimate analysis were carried out. Existing primary and secondary collection systems were studied and possibilities of enhancing the collection systems were discussed. The composition of solid waste for the overall city was found to be as: organic matters 38%, plastic 27%, paper + cardboard 15%, Textile 9%, inert 7% and others 4%. During the conference presentation, further characterization results in terms of Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), pH and water holding capacity will be discussed. The waste management options optimizing activities such as recycling, recovery, reuse and reduce will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: proximate, recycling, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), solid waste management

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9647 The Implementation of Incineration for Waste Reduction

Authors: Kong Wing Man

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to review the waste generation and management in different parts of the world. It is undeniable that waste generation and management has become an alarming environmental issue. Solid waste generation links inextricably to the degree of industrialization and economic development. Urbanization increases with the economic wealth of the countries. As the income of people and standard of living enhances, so does their consumption of goods and services, leading to a corresponding increase in waste generation. Based on the latest statistics from What A Waste Report published by World Bank (2012), it is estimated that the current global Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation levels are about 1.3 billion tonnes per year (1.2 kg per capita per day). By 2050, it is projected that the waste generation will be doubled. Although many waste collection practices have been implemented in various countries, the amount of waste generation keeps increasing. An integrated solid waste management is needed in order to reduce the continuous significant increase in waste generation rates. Although many countries have introduced and implemented the 3Rs strategy and landfill, however, these are only the ways to diverse waste, but cannot reduce the volume. Instead, the advanced thermal treatment technology, incineration, can reduce up to 90% volume of disposed waste prior to dispose at landfills is discussed. Sweden and Tokyo were chosen as case studies, which provide an overview of the municipal solid waste management system. With the condition of escalating amount of wastes generated, it is crucial to build incinerators to relief pressing needs of landfill. Two solutions are proposed to minimize waste generation, including one incineration in one city and several small incinerators in different cities. While taking into consideration of a sustainable model and the perspectives of all stakeholders, building several incinerators at different cities and different sizes would be the best option to reduce waste. Overall, the solution to the global solid waste management should be a holistic approach with the involvement of both government and citizens.

Keywords: Incineration, Municipal Solid Waste, Thermal Treatment, Waste generation

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9646 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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9645 Recycling in Bogotá: A SWOT Analysis of Three Associations to Evaluate the Integrating the Informal Sector into Solid Waste Management

Authors: Clara Inés Pardo Martínez

Abstract:

In emerging economies, recycling is an opportunity for the cities to increase the lifespan of sanitary landfills, reduce the costs of the solid waste management, decrease the environmental problems of the waste treatment through reincorporate waste in the productive cycle and protect and develop people’s livelihoods of informal waste pickers. However, few studies have analysed the possibilities and strategies to integrate formal and informal sectors in the solid waste management for the benefit of both. This study seek to make a strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis in three recycling associations of Bogotá with the aim to understand and determine the situation of recycling from perspective of informal sector in its transition to enter as authorized waste providers. Data used in the analysis are derived from multiple strategies such as literature review, the Bogota’s recycling database, focus group meetings, governmental reports, national laws and regulations and specific interviews with key stakeholders. Results of this study show as the main stakeholders of formal and informal sector of waste management can identify the internal and internal conditions of recycling in Bogotá. Several strategies were designed based on the SWOTs determined, could be useful for Bogotá to advance and promote recycling as a key strategy for integrated sustainable waste management in the city.

Keywords: Bogotá, recycling, solid waste management, SWOT analysis

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9644 Impact of Sociocultural Factors on Management and Utilization of Solid Waste in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olufunmilayo Folaranmi

Abstract:

This research was carried out to examine the impact of socio-cultural factors on the management and utilization of solid waste in Ibadan Metropolis. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study while a systematic and stratified random sampling technique was used to select 300 respondents which were categorized into high, middle and low-density areas. Four hypothesis were tested using chi-square test on variables of unavailability of waste disposal facilities and waste management, negligence of contractors to liaise with community members, lack of adequate environmental education and waste management and utilization, low level of motivation of sanitation workers with solid wastes management, lack of community full participation with solid waste management and utilization. Results showed that significant effect of waste disposal facilities on solid waste management and utilization (X2 +16.6, P < .05). Also, there is a significant relationship between negligence of the contractors to liaise with community elites with improper disposal (X2 = 87.5, P < .05). The motivation of sanitation workers is significantly related to solid waste management (X2 = 70.4, P < .05). Adequate environmental education and awareness influenced solid waste management. There was also a significant relationship between lack of community participation with waste management disposal and improper waste disposal. Based on the findings from the study it was recommended that the quality of life in urban centers should be improved, social welfare of the populace enhanced and environment should be adequately attended to. Poverty alleviation programmes should be intensified and made to live beyond the life of a particular administration, micro-credit facilities should be available to community members to promote their welfare. Lastly, sustained environmental education programmes for citizens at all levels of education, formal and informal through the use of agencies like Ethical and Attitudinal Reorientation Commission (EARCOM) and the National Orientation Agency (NOA).

Keywords: management, social welfare, socio-cultural factors, solid waste

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9643 Solid Waste Management in the Town of Maradi in Niger Republic

Authors: Hassidou Saidou, Soulé Aminou

Abstract:

As in many towns of African countries, the waste management, in particularly solid constitutes a major problem for the municipal authorities of Maradi. The aim of this study is to make a diagnosis of the present system of waste management in the town of Maradi. The approach was consisted to some interviews with the municipal authorities, cleaning up and health technicians and some housewives investigations. According to the health technicians of the town, the causes due to the problem of waste management in Maradi town are: collecting capacity insufficient, lack of effective sensitization of people, undeveloped and uncontrolled rubbish dumps, lack of gutter and its maintenance, and insufficient and unqualified human resources. As to the authorities, they denounce always the attitude and the behavior of citizens on the waste issue. The waste evacuation is doing by municipal collecting or by depositing in wild rubbish dump. Some people eliminate their waste by burning or duping in the streets or in their houses. According to our investigations, 52% of population evacuates their waste daily. The satisfaction rate of municipal collecting is for 32%. The analysis showed that the present system of waste management in Maradi town is failing. As solutions, we proposed to equip the technical offices with appropriated material and financial means, reinforce the involved actor’s capacities and making in application the operatives regulations for the waste management.

Keywords: maradi, municipal authorities, Niger Republic, solid waste management

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9642 Solid Waste Management Challenges and Possible Solution in Kabul City

Authors: Ghulam Haider Haidaree, Nsenda Lukumwena

Abstract:

Most developing nations face energy production and supply problems. This is also the case of Afghanistan whose generating capacity does not meet its energy demand. This is due in part to high security and risk caused by war which deters foreign investments and insufficient internal revenue. To address the issue above, this paper would like to suggest an alternative and affordable way to deal with the energy problem. That is by converting Solid Waste to energy. As a result, this approach tackles the municipal solid waste issue (potential cause of several diseases), contributes to the improvement of the quality of life, local economy, and so on. While addressing the solid waste problem in general, this paper samples specifically one municipality which is District-12, one of the 22 districts of Kabul city. Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, District-12 is divided into nine different zones whose municipal solid waste is respectively collected, processed, and converted into electricity and distributed to the closest area. It is important to mention that GIS has been used to estimate the amount of electricity to be distributed and to optimally position the production plant.

Keywords: energy problem, estimation of electricity, GIS zones, solid waste management system

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9641 The Legal Framework for Solid Waste Disposal and Management in Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alabi Odunayo Mayowa, Ajayi Oluwasola Felix

Abstract:

Solid waste such as “garbage” “trash” “refuse” “slug” and “rubbish” is disposed off or is required to be disposed off in accordance with national law. The study relies on primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources include the Constitution, statutes and subsidiary legislation. The secondary sources of information include books, journals, conference proceedings, newspapers, magazines and internet materials. The information obtained from these sources is subjected to content and contextual analysis. The study examines the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency Law, 1992 and other laws on waste disposal and management in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study also examines the regulations and the agency i.e. the Kwara State Environmental Protection Agency created by the law with a view to determine the inadequacies in the law.

Keywords: solid waste, waste disposal, waste management, domestic waste

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9640 Solid Waste Pollution and the Importance of Environmental Planning in Managing and Preserving the Public Environment in Benghazi City and Its Surrounding Areas

Authors: Abdelsalam Omran Gebril

Abstract:

Pollution and solid waste are the most important environmental problems plaguing the city of Benghazi as well as other cities and towns in Libya. These problems are caused by the lack of environmental planning and sound environmental management. Environmental planning is very important at present for the development of projects that preserve the environment, therefore, the planning process should be prioritized over the management process. Pollution caused by poor planning and environmental management exists not only in Benghazi but also in all other Libyan cities. This study was conducted through various field visits to several neighborhoods and areas within Benghazi as well as its neighboring regions. Follow-ups in these areas were conducted from March 2013 to October 2013 and documented by photographs. The existing methods of waste collection and means of transportation were investigated. Interviews were conducted with relevant authorities, including the Environment Public Authority in Benghazi and the Public Service Company of Benghazi. The objective of this study is to determine the causes of solid waste pollution in Benghazi City and its surrounding areas. Results show that solid waste pollution in Benghazi and its surrounding areas is the result of poor planning and environmental management, population growth, and the lack of hardware and equipment for the collection and transport of waste from the city to the landfill site. One of the most important recommendations in this study is the development of a complete and comprehensive plan that includes environmental planning and environmental management to reduce solid waste pollution.

Keywords: solid waste, pollution, environmental planning, management, Benghazi, Libya

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9639 Household Knowledge, Attitude, and Determinants in Solid Waste Segregation: The Case of Sfax City

Authors: Leila Kharrat, Younes Boujelbene

Abstract:

In recent decades, solid waste management (SWM) has become a global concern because rapid population growth and overexploitation of non-renewable resources have generated enormous amounts of waste far exceeding carrying capacity; too, it poses serious threats to the environment and health. However, it is still difficult to combat the growing amount of solid waste before assessing the condition of people. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perception, and practices on the separation of solid waste in Sfax City. Nowadays, GDS is essential for sustainable development, hence the need for intensive research. Respondents from seven different districts in the city of Sfax were analyzed through a questionnaire survey with 342 households. This paper presents a qualitative exploratory study on the behavior of the citizens in the field of waste separation. The objective knows the antecedents of waste separation and the representation that individuals have about sorting waste on a specific territory which presents some characteristics regarding waste management in Sfax city. Source separation is not widely practiced and people usually sweep their places throwing waste components into the streets or neighboring plots. The results also indicate that participation in solid waste separation activities depends on the level of awareness of separating activities in the area, household income and educational level. It is, therefore, argued that increasing quality of municipal service is the best means of promoting positive attitudes to solid waste separation activities. One of the effective strategies identified by households that can be initiated by policymakers to increase the rate of participation in separation activities and eventually encourage them to participate in recycling activities is to provide a financial incentive in all residential areas in Sfax city.

Keywords: solid waste management, waste separation, public policy, econometric modelling

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9638 Assessment of Solid Waste Management in General Mohammed Inuwa Wushishi Housing Estate, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Garba Inuwa Kuta, Mohammed, Adamu, Mohammed Ahmed Emigilati, Ibrahim Ishiaku, Kudu Dangana

Abstract:

The study sought to identify the problems of solid waste management in General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. The two broad types of data, the secondary and primary data were used in the study. Questionnaires and personal observations were also used to collect some of the data. Factors impeding the effective and efficient solid waste management were identified. The study revealed that sacks disposal method and open dumping are the most commonly used method of disposal, about 30.0% of the respondent use sacks disposal method in the estate while 24.9% dump their refuse on the floor. Wrong attitudes and perceptions of the people about sanitation issues contributed to solid waste management problems of General Mohammed InuwaWushishi Housing Estate. Majority of the households did not educate their members on the need to clean their surroundings and refuse to buy drum for waste disposal from Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) on the basis that the drums are expensive. Virtually, all the people depended on Niger State Environmental Protection Agency (NISEPA) facilities for the disposal of their household refuse. Solid waste management problems were partly the results of NISEPA’s inability to cope with the situation because of lack of equipment. It was recommended that there should be an increase in enlightenment to the people on domestic waste disposal to keep the surroundings clean.

Keywords: housing estate, assessment, solid waste, disposal, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 367