Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: composting

55 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, F. Gorini, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: agriculture, biopile, compost, soil clean-up, waste recycling

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54 The Effect of Parameter Controls for Manure Composting in Waste Recycling Process

Authors: Junyoung Kim, Shangwha Cha, Soomee Kang, Jake S. Byun

Abstract:

This study shows the effect of parameter controls for livestock manure composting in waste recycling process for the development of a new design of a microorganism-oriented- composting system. Based on the preliminary studies, only the temperature control by changing mechanical mixing can reduce microorganisms’ biodegradability from 3 to 6 months to 15 days, saving the consumption of energy and manual labor. The final degree of fermentation in just 5 days of composting increased to ‘3’ comparing the compost standard level ‘4’ in Korea, others standards were all satisfied. This result shows that the controlling the optimum microorganism parameter using an ICT device connected to mixing condition can increase the effectiveness of fermentation system and reduce odor to nearly zero, and lead to upgrade the composting method than the conventional

Keywords: manure composting, odor removal, parameter control, waste recycling

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53 Valorization of Beer Brewing Wastes by Composting

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters. The compost quality was assessed by the heavy metals content and phytotoxicity. Both piles reached a thermophilic phase in the first day, however having different trends. The pH showed a slight alkaline character. The C/N reached values lower than 19 at the end of composting process. Generally, all the piles exhibited absence of heavy metals. However, the pile SM exhibited phytotoxicity. This study showed that RYDE slurry can be valorized by composting with cow manure.

Keywords: beer brewing wastes, compost, valorization, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
52 Wastewater from the Food Industry: Characteristics and Possibilities of Sediments on the Basis of the Dairy Industry

Authors: Monika Gałwa-Widera, Anna Kwarciak–Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak

Abstract:

Issues relating to management of sewage sludge from small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants is a vital issue, which deal with such scholars as well as those directly involved in the issue of wastewater treatment and management of sedimentary. According to the Law on Waste generating waste is responsible for such processing to the product obtained impacted on the environment minimally. In small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants have to deal with the technology of sludge management technology is far from drying and incineration of sewage sludge. So here you can use other technologies. One of them is the composting of sewage sludge. It is a process of processing and disposal of sewage sludge that effectively their disposal. By composting, we can obtain a product that contains significant amounts of organic matter to assess the fertilizing qualities. Modifications to the ongoing process in biological reactors allow for more rapid receipt of a wholesome product. The research presented and discussed in this publication relate to assist the composting process of sewage sludge and biomass structural material in the shares of rates: 35% biomass, 55% sludge, 10% structural material using a method which involves the re-spawning batch composting physical methods leachate from the composting process.

Keywords: biomass, composting, industry, sewage sludge

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51 Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás

Abstract:

To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, compost quality, organic ammendment, poultry manure

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50 Effect of Windrow Management on Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Swine Manure Composting

Authors: Nanh Lovanh, John Loughrin, Kimberly Cook, Phil Silva, Byung-Taek Oh

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In the era of sustainability, utilization of livestock wastes as soil amendment to provide micronutrients for crops is very economical and sustainable. It is well understood that livestock wastes are comparable, if not better, nutrient sources for crops as chemical fertilizers. However, the large concentrated volumes of animal manure produced from livestock operations and the limited amount of available nearby agricultural land areas necessitated the need for volume reduction of these animal wastes. Composting of these animal manures is a viable option for biomass and pathogenic reduction in the environment. Nevertheless, composting also increases the potential loss of available nutrients for crop production as well as unwanted emission of anthropogenic air pollutants due to the loss of ammonia and other compounds via volatilization. In this study, we examine the emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide from swine manure windrows to evaluate the benefit of biomass reduction in conjunction with the potential loss of available nutrients. The feedstock for the windrows was obtained from swine farm in Kentucky where swine manure was mixed with wood shaving as absorbent material. Static flux chambers along with photoacoustic gas analyzer were used to monitor ammonia and nitrous oxide concentrations during the composting process. The results show that ammonia and nitrous oxide fluxes were quite high during the initial composting process and after the turning of each compost pile. Over the period of roughly three months of composting, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) decreased by about 90%. Although composting of animal waste is quite beneficial for biomass reduction, composting may not be economically feasible from an agronomical point of view due to time, nutrient loss (N loss), and potential environmental pollution (ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess and validate the economics and environmental impact of animal (swine) manure composting (e.g., crop yield or impact on climate change).

Keywords: windrow, swine manure, ammonia, nitrous oxide, fluxes, management

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49 Comparative Analysis of Pit Composting and Vermicomposting in a Tropical Environment

Authors: E. Ewemoje Oluseyi, T. A. Ewemoje, A. A. Adedeji

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Biodegradable solid waste disposal and management has been a major problem in Nigeria and indiscriminate dumping of this waste either into watercourses or drains has led to environmental hazards affecting public health. The study investigated the nutrients level of pit composting and vermicomposting. Wooden bins 60 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm3 in size were constructed and bedding materials (sawdust, egg shell, paper and grasses) and red worms (Eisenia fetida) introduced to facilitate the free movement and protection of the worms against harsh weather. A pit of 100 cm × 100 cm × 100 cm3 was dug and worms were introduced into the pit, which was turned every two weeks. Food waste was fed to the red worms in the bin and pit, respectively. The composts were harvested after 100 days and analysed. The analyses gave: nitrogen has average value 0.87 % and 1.29 %; phosphorus 0.66 % and 1.78 %; potassium 4.35 % and 6.27 % for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. Higher nutrient status of vermicomposting over pit composting may be attributed to the secretions in the intestinal tracts of worms which are more readily available for plant growth. However, iron and aluminium were more in the pit compost than the vermin compost and this may be attributed to the iron and aluminium already present in the soil before the composting took place. Other nutrients in ppm concentrations were aluminium 4,999.50 and 3,989.33; iron 2,131.83 and 633.40 for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. These nutrients are only needed by plants in small quantities. Hence, vermicomposting has the higher concentration of essential nutrients necessary for healthy plant growth.

Keywords: food wastes, pit composting, plant nutrient status, tropical environment, vermicomposting

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48 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad

Abstract:

Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

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47 Production and Application of Organic Waste Compost for Urban Agriculture in Emerging Cities

Authors: Alemayehu Agizew Woldeamanuel, Mekonnen Maschal Tarekegn, Raj Mohan Balakrishina

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Composting is one of the conventional techniques adopted for organic waste management, but the practice is very limited in emerging cities despite the most of the waste generated is organic. This paper aims to examine the viability of composting for organic waste management in the emerging city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by addressing the composting practice, quality of compost, and application of compost in urban agriculture. The study collects data using compost laboratory testing and urban farm households’ survey and uses descriptive analysis on the state of compost production and application, physicochemical analysis of the compost samples, and regression analysis on the urban farmer’s willingness to pay for compost. The findings of the study indicated that there is composting practice at a small scale, most of the producers use unsorted feedstock materials, aerobic composting is dominantly used, and the maturation period ranged from four to ten weeks. The carbon content of the compost ranges from 30.8 to 277.1 due to the type of feedstock applied, and this surpasses the ideal proportions for C:N ratio. The total nitrogen, pH, organic matter, and moisture content are relatively optimal. The levels of heavy metals measured for Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr⁶⁺ in the compost samples are also insignificant. In the urban agriculture sector, chemical fertilizer is the dominant type of soil input in crop productions but vegetable producers use a combination of both fertilizer and other organic inputs, including compost. The willingness to pay for compost depends on income, household size, gender, type of soil inputs, monitoring soil fertility, the main product of the farm, farming method and farm ownership. Finally, this study recommends the need for collaboration among stakeholders’ along the value chain of waste, awareness creation on the benefits of composting and addressing challenges faced by both compost producers and users.

Keywords: composting, emerging city, organic waste management, urban agriculture

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46 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

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The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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45 Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes of Organic Fertilizers after Compositing Processes under Arid Conditions

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Med Tahar

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The physico-chemical properties of poultry droppings indicate that this waste can be an excellent way to enrich the soil with low fertility that is the case in arid soils (low organic matter content), but its concentrations in some microbial and chemical components make them potentially dangerous and toxic contaminants if they are used directly in fresh state. On other hand, the accumulation of plant residues in the crop areas can become a source of plant disease and affects the quality of the environment. The biotechnological processes that we have identified appear to alleviate these problems. It leads to the stabilization and processing of wastes into a product of good hygienic quality and high fertilizer value by the composting test. In this context, a trial was conducted in composting operations in the region of Ouargla located in southern Algeria. Composing test was conducted in a completely randomized design experiment. Three mixtures were prepared, in pits of 1 m3 volume for each mixture. Each pit is composed by mixture of poultry droppings and crushed plant residues in amount of 40 and 60% respectively: C1: Droppings + Straw (P.D +S) , C2: Poultry Droppings + Olive Wastes (P.D+O.W) , C3: Poultry Droppings + Date palm residues (P.D+D.P). Before and after the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 90 days. The results of physico-chemical and microbiological compost obtained from three mixtures: C1: (P.D +S) , C2: (P.D+O.W) and C3: (P.D +D.P) shows at the end of composting process, three composts characterized by the final products were characterized by their high agronomic and environmental interest with a good physico chemical characteristics in particularly a low C/N ratio with 15.15, 10.01 and 15.36 % for (P.D + S), (P.D. + O.W) and (P.D. +D.P), respectively, reflecting a stabilization and maturity of the composts. On the other hand, a significant increase of temperature was recorded at the first days of composting for all treatments, which is correlated with a strong reduction of the pathogenic micro flora contained in poultry dropings.

Keywords: Arid environment, Composting, Date palm residues, Olive wastes, pH, Pathogenic microorganisms, Poultry Droppings, Straw

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44 The Role of Home Composting in Waste Management Cost Reduction

Authors: Nahid Hassanshahi, Ayoub Karimi-Jashni, Nasser Talebbeydokhti

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Due to the economic and environmental benefits of producing less waste, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduces source reduction as one of the most important means to deal with the problems caused by increased landfills and pollution. Waste reduction involves all waste management methods, including source reduction, recycling, and composting, which reduce waste flow to landfills or other disposal facilities. Source reduction of waste can be studied from two perspectives: avoiding waste production, or reducing per capita waste production, and waste deviation that indicates the reduction of waste transfer to landfills. The present paper has investigated home composting as a managerial solution for reduction of waste transfer to landfills. Home composting has many benefits. The use of household waste for the production of compost will result in a much smaller amount of waste being sent to landfills, which in turn will reduce the costs of waste collection, transportation and burial. Reducing the volume of waste for disposal and using them for the production of compost and plant fertilizer might help to recycle the material in a shorter time and to use them effectively in order to preserve the environment and reduce contamination. Producing compost in a home-based manner requires very small piece of land for preparation and recycling compared with other methods. The final product of home-made compost is valuable and helps to grow crops and garden plants. It is also used for modifying the soil structure and maintaining its moisture. The food that is transferred to landfills will spoil and produce leachate after a while. It will also release methane and greenhouse gases. But, composting these materials at home is the best way to manage degradable materials, use them efficiently and reduce environmental pollution. Studies have shown that the benefits of the sale of produced compost and the reduced costs of collecting, transporting, and burying waste can well be responsive to the costs of purchasing home compost machine and the cost of related trainings. Moreover, the process of producing home compost may be profitable within 4 to 5 years and as a result, it will have a major role in reducing waste management.

Keywords: compost, home compost, reducing waste, waste management

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43 Impact of Compost Application with Different Rates of Chemical Fertilizers on Corn Growth and Production

Authors: Reda Abdel-Aziz

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Agricultural activities in Egypt generate annually around 35 million tons of waste. Composting is one of the most promising technologies to turnover waste in a more economical way, for many centuries. Composting has been used as a mean of recycling organic matter back into the soil to improve soil structure and fertility. Field experiments were conducted in two governorates, Giza and Al-Monofia, to find out the effect of compost with different rates of chemical fertilizers on growth and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) during two constitutive seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experiment, laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), was carried out on five farmers’ fields in each governorate. The treatments were: unfertilized control, full dose of NPK (120, 30, and 50 kg/acre, respectively), compost at rate of 20 ton/acre, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 25% of chemical fertilizer, compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of chemical fertilizer and compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 75% of chemical fertilizer. Results revealed a superiority of the treatment of compost at rate of 10 ton/acre + 50% of NPK that caused significant improvement in growth, yield and nutrient uptakes of corn in the two governorates during the two constitutive seasons. Results showed that agricultural waste could be composted into value added soil amendment to enhance efficiency of chemical fertilizer. Composting of agricultural waste could also reduce the chemical fertilizers potential hazard to the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, compost, chemical fertilizers, corn production, environment

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42 Identification and Characterisation of Oil Sludge Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Compost

Authors: O. Ubani, H. I. Atagana, M. S. Thantsha, R. Adeleke

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The oil sludge components (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) have been found to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic and microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi can degrade the oil sludge to less toxic compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and salts. In the present study, we isolated different bacteria with PAH-degrading potentials from the co-composting of oil sludge and different animal manure. These bacteria were isolated on the mineral base medium and mineral salt agar plates as a growth control. A total of 31 morphologically distinct isolates were carefully selected from 5 different compost treatments for identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rDNA gene with specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR). The amplicons were sequenced and sequences were compared with the known nucleotides from the gene bank database. The phylogenetical analyses of the isolates showed that they belong to 3 different clades namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. These bacteria identified were closely related to genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Variovorax, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia and Geobacillus species. The results showed that Bacillus species were more dominant in all treated compost piles. Based on their characteristics these bacterial isolates have high potential to utilise PAHs of different molecular weights as carbon and energy sources. These identified bacteria are of special significance in their capacity to emulsify the PAHs and their ability to utilize them. Thus, they could be potentially useful for bioremediation of oil sludge and composting processes.

Keywords: bioaugmentation, biodegradation, bioremediation, composting, oil sludge, PAHs, animal manures

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41 Measuring the Effect of Co-Composting Oil Sludge with Pig, Cow, Horse And Poultry Manures on the Degradation in Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations

Authors: Ubani Onyedikachi, Atagana Harrison Ifeanyichukwu, Thantsha Mapitsi Silvester

Abstract:

Components of oil sludge (PAHs) are known cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds also bacteria and fungi have been found to degrade PAHs to innocuous compounds. This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation in selected PAHs present in oil sludge. Soil spiked with oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil: manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil: wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. The mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached was 27.5 °C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced; bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77% and 99%. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

Keywords: animal manures, bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
40 Agronomic Value of Wastewater and Sugar Beet Lime Sludge Compost on Radish Crop

Authors: S. Rida, O. Saadani Hassani, Q. R’zina, N. Saadaoui, K. Fares

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Wastewater treatment stations create large quantities of sludge, whose treatment is poorly underestimated in the draft installation. However, chemical analysis of sludge reveals their important concentration in fertilizer elements including nitrogen and phosphorus. The direct application of sludge can reveal contamination of the food chain because of their chemical and organic micropollutants load. Therefore, there is a need of treatment process before use. The treatment by composting of this sludge mixed with three different proportions of sugar beet lime sludge (0%, 20%,30%) and green waste permits to obtain a stable compost rich in mineral elements, having a pleasant smell and relatively hygienic. In addition, the use of compost in agriculture positively affects the plant-soil system. Thus, this study shows that the supply of compost improves the physical properties of the soil and its agronomic quality, which results in an increase in the biomass of cultivated radish plants and a larger crop.

Keywords: agriculture, composting, soil, sugar beet lime, wastewater

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39 Online Monitoring of Airborne Bioaerosols Released from a Composting, Green Waste Site

Authors: John Sodeau, David O'Connor, Shane Daly, Stig Hellebust

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This study is the first to employ the online WIBS (Waveband Integrated Biosensor Sensor) technique for the monitoring of bioaerosol emissions and non-fluorescing “dust” released from a composting/green waste site. The purpose of the research was to provide a “proof of principle” for using WIBS to monitor such a location continually over days and nights in order to construct comparative “bioaerosol site profiles”. Current impaction/culturing methods take many days to achieve results available by the WIBS technique in seconds.The real-time data obtained was then used to assess variations of the bioaerosol counts as a function of size, “shape”, site location, working activity levels, time of day, relative humidity, wind speeds and wind directions. Three short campaigns were undertaken, one classified as a “light” workload period, another as a “heavy” workload period and finally a weekend when the site was closed. One main bioaerosol size regime was found to predominate: 0.5 micron to 3 micron with morphologies ranging from elongated to elipsoidal/spherical. The real-time number-concentration data were consistent with an Andersen sampling protocol that was employed at the site. The number-concentrations of fluorescent particles as a proportion of total particles counted amounted, on average, to ~1% for the “light” workday period, ~7% for the “heavy” workday period and ~18% for the weekend. The bioaerosol release profiles at the weekend were considerably different from those monitored during the working weekdays.

Keywords: bioaerosols, composting, fluorescence, particle counting in real-time

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38 Energy and Carbon Footprint Analysis of Food Waste Treatment Alternatives for Hong Kong

Authors: Asad Iqbal, Feixiang Zan, Xiaoming Liu, Guang-Hao Chen

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Water, food, and energy nexus is a vital subject to achieve sustainable development goals worldwide. Wastewater (WW) and food waste (FW) from municipal sources are primary contributors to their respective wastage sum from a country. Along with the loss of these invaluable natural resources, their treatment systems also consume a lot of abiotic energy and resources input with a perceptible contribution to global warming. Hence, the global paradigm has evolved from simple pollution mitigation to a resource recovery system (RRS). In this study, the prospects of six alternative FW treatment scenarios are quantitatively evaluated for Hong Kong in terms of energy use and greenhouse emissions (GHEs) potential, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Considered scenarios included: aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), combine AD and composting (ADC), co-disposal, and treatment with wastewater (CoD-WW), incineration, and conventional landfilling as base-case. Results revealed that in terms of GHEs saving, all-new scenarios performed significantly better than conventional landfilling, with ADC scenario as best-case and incineration, AD alone, CoD-WW ranked as second, third, and fourth best respectively. Whereas, composting was the worst-case scenario in terms of energy balance, while incineration ranked best and AD alone, ADC, and CoD-WW ranked as second, third, and fourth best, respectively. However, these results are highly sensitive to boundary settings, e.g., the inclusion of the impact of biogenic carbon emissions and waste collection and transportation, and several other influential parameters. The study provides valuable insights and policy guidelines for the decision-makers locally and a generic modelling template for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: food waste, resource recovery, greenhouse emissions, energy balance

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37 Compost Bioremediation of Oil Refinery Sludge by Using Different Manures in a Laboratory Condition

Authors: O. Ubani, H. I. Atagana, M. S. Thantsha

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This study was conducted to measure the reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in oil sludge by co-composting the sludge with pig, cow, horse and poultry manures under laboratory conditions. Four kilograms of soil spiked with 800 g of oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil:manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil:wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. Mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Bacteria capable of utilizing PAHs were isolated, purified and characterized by molecular techniques using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), amplification of the 16S rDNA gene using the specific primers (16S-P1 PCR and 16S-P2 PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced. Extent of reduction of PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane as the extraction solvent coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperature did not exceed 27.5O°C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78 µg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced. Bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77 and 99%. The results from the control experiments may be because it was invaded by fungi. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs. Interestingly, all bacteria isolated and identified in this study were present in all treatments, including the control.

Keywords: bioremediation, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, PAHs, bacteria spp, animal manures, molecular techniques

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36 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

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Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spp., humic-acids, fulvic-acids

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35 Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed into plastic boxes (100 g/box). Each box was provided with 10 larvae of fruit beetle, Waxworms and Tiger worms, respectively. There were 3 replicates in each treatment including the control. Bacteria were isolated weekly from both control and cow faeces to which larvae were added to determine the bacterial populations. Results revealed that the bacterial load was higher in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetles than in the control, while the bacterial load was lower in the cow faeces treated with waxworms and tiger worms than in the control. The activities of the fruit beetle larvae led to the cow faeces being liquefied which provided a more conducive growing media for bacteria. Therefore, higher bacterial load in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetle might be attributed to the liquefaction of cow faeces.

Keywords: fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms, waste conditioning, composting

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34 Influence of Synergistic/Antagonistic Mixtures of Oligomeric Stabilizers on the Biodegradation of γ-Sterilized Polyolefins

Authors: Sameh A. S. Thabit Alariqi

Abstract:

Our previous studies aimed to investigate the biodegradation of γ-sterilized polyolefins in composting and microbial culture environments at different doses and γ-dose rates. It was concluded from the previous studies that the pretreatment of γ-irradiation can accelerate the biodegradation of neat polymer matrix in biotic conditions significantly. A similar work was carried out to study the stabilization of γ-sterilized polyolefins using different mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and hydroperoxide decomposers. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency, combination and consumption of stabilizers and the synergistic and antagonistic effects was explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. In this attempt, we have aimed to study the influence of the synergistic and antagonistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins in composting and microbial culture. Neat and stabilized films of EP copolymer irradiated under γ-radiation and incubated in compost and fungal culture environments. The changes in functional groups, surface morphology, mechanical properties and intrinsic viscosity in polymer chains were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, instron, and viscometric measurements respectively. Results were discussed by comparing the effect of different stabilizers, stabilizers mixtures on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins. It was found that the biodegradation significantly depends on the components of stabilization system, mobility, interaction, and consumption of stabilizers.

Keywords: biodegradation, γ-irradiation, polyolefins, stabilization

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33 Technologies in Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Towns

Authors: Gargi Ghosh

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an obligatory function of the local self-government as per the Indian constitution, and this paper gives a glimpse of the system in Indian towns focusing on its present state and use of technology in the system. The paper analyses the MSWM characteristics in 35 towns in the southern state of Karnataka. The lifestyle in these towns was found to be very sustainable with minimal disposal and considerable reuse. Average per capita waste generated in the towns ranged from 300 gm/person to 500 gm/person. The waste collection efficiency varied from 60% to 80%. The waste shows equal share of organic and non-organic waste composition with a low calorific value. Lack of capacity of the municipal body in terms of manpower, assets & knowledge and social consciousness were found to be two major issues in the system. Technical solutions in use in India at present are composting, organic re-reprocessing, bio-methanation, waste to energy etc. The tonnage of waste generated ranged from 8 TPD to 80 TPD. The feasibility of technology has been analysed in the context of the above characteristics. It was found that low calorific value and mixed nature of waste made waste to energy and bio methanation processes unsuitable. Composting – windrow and closed door was found best to treat the bulk of the waste. Organic–re-processors was planned for phase 2 of MSWM program in the towns with effective implementation of segregation at source. GPS and RFID technology was recommended for monitoring the collection process and increasing accountability of the citizens for effective implementation.

Keywords: solid waste management, Indian towns, waste management technology, waste charateristics

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32 Industrial Wastewater Sludge Treatment in Chongqing, China

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Yasinta John, Md. Sahadat Hossain

Abstract:

Sludge originates from the process of treatment of wastewater. It is the byproduct of wastewater treatment containing concentrated heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds, as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) which are usually difficult to treat or dispose of. China, like other countries, is no stranger to the challenges posed by an increase of wastewater. Treatment and disposal of sludge have been a problem for most cities in China. However, this problem has been exacerbated by other issues such as lack of technology, funding, and other factors. Suitable methods for such climatic conditions are still unavailable for modern cities in China. Against this background, this paper seeks to describe the methods used for treatment and disposal of sludge from industries and suggest a suitable method for treatment and disposal in Chongqing/China. From the research conducted, it was discovered that the highest treatment rate of sludge in Chongqing was 10.08%. The industrial waste piping system is not separated from the domestic system. Considering the proliferation of industry and urbanization, there is a likelihood that the production of sludge in Chongqing will increase. If the sludge produced is not properly managed, this may lead to adverse health and environmental effects. Disposal costs and methods for Chongqing were also included in this paper’s analysis. Research showed that incineration is the most expensive method of sludge disposal in China/Chongqing. Subsequent research, therefore, considered optional alternatives such as composting. Composting represents a relatively cheap waste disposal method considering the vast population, current technology and economic conditions of Chongqing, as well as China at large.

Keywords: Chongqing/China, disposal, industrial, sludge, treatment

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31 Physical Characteristics of Locally Composts Produced in Saudi Arabia and the Need for Regulations

Authors: Ahmad Al-Turki

Abstract:

Composting is the suitable way of recycling organic waste for agricultural application and environment protection. In Saudi Arabia, several composting facilities are available and producing high quantity of composts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical characteristics of composts manufactured in Saudi Arabia and acquire a comprehensive image of its quality through the comparative with international standards of compost quality such as CCQC and PAS-100. In the present study different locally produced compost were identified and most of the producing factories were visited during the manufacturing of composts. Representative samples of different compost production stage were collected and Physical characteristics were determined, which included moisture content, bulk density, percentage of sand and the size of distribution of the compost particles. Results showed wide variations in all parameters investigated. Results of the study indicated generally that there is a wide variation in the physical characteristics of the types of compost under study. The initial moister contents in composts were generally low, it was less than 60% in most samples and not sufficient for microbial activities for biodegradation in 96% of the 96% of the types of compost and this will impede the decomposition of organic materials. The initial bulk density values ranged from 117 gL-1 to 1110.0 gL-1, while the final apparent bulk density ranged from 340.0 gL-1 to 1000gL-1 and about 45.4 % did not meet the ideal bulk density value. Sand percents in composts were between 3.3 % and 12.5%. This study has confirmed the need for a standard specification for compost manufactured in Saudi Arabia for agricultural use based on international standards for compost and soil characteristics and climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: compost, maturity, Saudi Arabia, organic material

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30 Municipal Solid Waste Management Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: Case Study of Maku City, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

This paper aims to determine the best environmental and economic scenario for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management of the Maku city by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The functional elements of this study are collection, transportation, and disposal of MSW in Maku city. Waste composition and density, as two key parameters of MSW, have been determined by field sampling, and then, the other important specifications of MSW like chemical formula, thermal energy and water content were calculated. These data beside other information related to collection and disposal facilities are used as a reliable source of data to assess the environmental impacts of different waste management options, including landfills, composting, recycling and energy recovery. The environmental impact of MSW management options has been investigated in 15 different scenarios by Integrated Waste Management (IWM) software. The photochemical smog, greenhouse gases, acid gases, toxic emissions, and energy consumption of each scenario are measured. Then, the environmental indices of each scenario are specified by weighting these parameters. Economic costs of scenarios have been also compared with each other based on literature. As final result, since the organic materials make more than 80% of the waste, compost can be a suitable method. Although the major part of the remaining 20% of waste can be recycled, due to the high cost of necessary equipment, the landfill option has been suggested. Therefore, the scenario with 80% composting and 20% landfilling is selected as superior environmental and economic scenario. This study shows that, to select a scenario with practical applications, simultaneously environmental and economic aspects of different scenarios must be considered.

Keywords: IWM software, life cycle assessment, Maku, municipal solid waste management

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29 M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Authors: Q. Rzina, M. Lahrouni, S. Rida, N. Saadaoui, Y. Almossaid, K. Oufdou, K. Fares

Abstract:

Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.

Keywords: compost, municipal organic wastes, poultry manure, radish crop, sugar beet lime sludge

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28 Assessing the Benefits of Super Depo Sutorejo as a Model of integration of Waste Pickers in a Sustainable City Waste Management

Authors: Yohanes Kambaru Windi, Loetfia Dwi Rahariyani, Dyah Wijayanti, Eko Rustamaji

Abstract:

Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, has been struggling for years with waste production and its management. Nearly 11,000 tons of waste are generated daily by domestic, commercial and industrial areas. It is predicted that approximately 1,300 tons of waste overflew the Benowo Landfill daily in 2013 and projected that the landfill operation will be critical in 2015. The Super Depo Sutorejo (SDS) is a pilot project on waste management launched by the government of Surabaya in March 2013. The project is aimed to reduce the amount of waste dumped in landfill by sorting the recyclable and organic waste for composting by employing waste pickers to sort the waste before transported to landfill. This study is intended to assess the capacity of SDS to process and reduce waste and its complementary benefits. It also overviews the benefits of the project to the waste pickers in term of satisfaction to the job. Waste processing data-sheets were used to assess the difference between input and outputs waste. A survey was distributed to 30 waste pickers and interviews were conducted as a further insight on a particular issue. The analysis showed that SDS enable to reduce waste up to 50% before dumped in the final disposal area. The cost-benefits analysis using cost differential calculation revealed the economic benefit is considerable low, but composting may substitute tangible benefits for maintain the city’s parks. Waste pickers are mostly satisfied with their job (i.e. Salary, health coverage, job security), services and facilities available in SDS and enjoyed rewarding social life within the project. It is concluded that SDS is an effective and efficient model for sustainable waste management and reliable to be developed in developing countries. It is a strategic approach to empower and open up working opportunity for the poor urban community and prolong the operation of landfills.

Keywords: cost-benefits, integration, satisfaction, waste management

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27 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policy

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26 Waste Minimization through Vermicompost: An Alternative Approach

Authors: Mary Fabiola

Abstract:

Vermicompost is the product or process of composting using various worms. Large-scale vermicomposting is practiced in Canada, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the United States. The vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, and creating compost tea or for sale. Some of these operations produce worms for bait and/or home vermicomposting. As a processing system, The vermicomposting of organic waste is very simple. Worms ingest the waste material-break it up in their rudimentary. Gizzards, consume the digestible/putrefiable portion and then excrete a stable, Humus-like material that can be immediately marketed. Vermitechnology can be a promising technique that has shown its potential in certain challenging areas like augmentation of food production, waste recycling, management of solid wastes etc. There is no doubt that in India, where on side pollution is increasing due to accumulation of organic wastes and on the other side there is shortage of organic manure, which could increase the fertility and productivity of the land and produce nutritive and safe food. So, the scope for vermicomposting is enormous.

Keywords: pollution, solid wastes, vermicompost, waste recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 317