Search results for: biomedical waste
2762 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero
Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal
Abstract:Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.
Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitalsProcedia PDF Downloads 366
2761 Estimation of Biomedical Waste Generated in a Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi
Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Manoj Jais, Poonam Gupta, Suraiya K. Ansari, Ravinder Kaur
Abstract:Introduction: As much as the Health Care is necessary for the population, so is the management of the Biomedical waste produced. Biomedical waste is a wide terminology used for the waste material produced during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings and animals, in research or in the production or testing of biological products. Biomedical waste management is a chain of processes from the point of generation of Biomedical waste to its final disposal in the correct and proper way, assigned for that particular type of waste. Any deviation from the said processes leads to improper disposal of Biomedical waste which itself is a major health hazard. Proper segregation of Biomedical waste is the key for Biomedical Waste management. Improper disposal of BMW can cause sharp injuries which may lead to HIV, Hepatitis-B virus, Hepatitis-C virus infections. Therefore, proper disposal of BMW is of upmost importance. Health care establishments segregate the Biomedical waste and dispose it as per the Biomedical waste management rules in India. Objectives: This study was done to observe the current trends of Biomedical waste generated in a tertiary care Hospital in Delhi. Methodology: Biomedical waste management rounds were conducted in the hospital wards. Relevant details were collected and analysed and sites with maximum Biomedical waste generation were identified. All the data was cross checked with the commons collection site. Results: The total amount of waste generated in the hospital during January 2014 till December 2014 was 6,39,547 kg, of which 70.5% was General (non-hazardous) waste and the rest 29.5% was BMW which consisted highly infectious waste (12.2%), disposable plastic waste (16.3%) and sharps (1%). The maximum quantity of Biomedical waste producing sites were Obstetrics and Gynaecology wards with a total Biomedical waste production of 45.8%, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 21.2 %, 4.6% and 4.3% respectively. The maximum average Biomedical waste generated was by Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward with 0.7 kg/bed/day, followed by Paediatrics, Surgery and Medicine wards with 0.29, 0.28 and 0.18 kg/bed/day respectively. Conclusions: Hospitals should pay attention to the sites which produce a large amount of BMW to avoid improper segregation of Biomedical waste. Also, induction and refresher training Program of Biomedical waste management should be conducted to avoid improper management of Biomedical waste. Healthcare workers should be made aware of risks of poor Biomedical waste management.
Keywords: biomedical waste, biomedical waste management, hospital-tertiary care, New DelhiProcedia PDF Downloads 189
2760 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste
Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova
Abstract:Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.
Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 218
2759 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review
Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc
Abstract:During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.
Keywords: e-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulationsProcedia PDF Downloads 188
2758 Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)
Authors: Fatima M. Kabbashi, Abdalla M. Abdalla, Hussam K. Hamad, Elias S. Hassan
Abstract:This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.
Keywords: renewable energy, biogas, biomedical waste, blood, anaerobic digestion, eco-friendly disposalProcedia PDF Downloads 240
2757 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey
Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu
Abstract:Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.
Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, TurkeyProcedia PDF Downloads 356
2756 Analysis of Histogram Asymmetry for Waste Recognition
Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Kamila Pasternak
Abstract:Despite many years of effort and research, the problem of waste management is still current. So far, no fully effective waste management system has been developed. Many programs and projects improve statistics on the percentage of waste recycled every year. In these efforts, it is worth using modern Computer Vision techniques supported by artificial intelligence. In the article, we present a method of identifying plastic waste based on the asymmetry analysis of the histogram of the image containing the waste. The method is simple but effective (94%), which allows it to be implemented on devices with low computing power, in particular on microcomputers. Such de-vices will be used both at home and in waste sorting plants.
Keywords: waste management, environmental protection, image processing, computer visionProcedia PDF Downloads 51
2755 Circular Economy in Relation to Waste Management Development
Authors: Kwok Tak Kit
Abstract:Construction and demolition (C&D) waste generated in the process of urbanization which only contribute to approx. 25–35 per cent of municipal solid waste (MSW), and the action to reduce the generation of other MSW is considered more critical. Developed and cities produce a higher percentage of inorganic waste rather than organic waste. Most of the MSW was disposed in landfill, and a large number of the landfills are not effectively and efficiently operated to receive the untreated incoming waste. It is also a global problem that the demands for enhancement of basic infrastructure for waste collection, treatment, and disposal, including rehabilitation of the dump sites, is the urgent priority. This paper is to review the factors taken into consideration of waste management development in relation to circular economy development on development countries and green recovery in the post-pandemic era for further researches use.
Keywords: waste management, waste reduction, circular economy, developed countries, sustainable design goalsProcedia PDF Downloads 46
2754 Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade on Waste Imports
Authors: Chin-Ho Lin
Abstract:This study explores the impact of technical barriers to trade(TBT) on the import value and weight of 54 types of waste products between ASEAN+6 countries and 200 trading partners from 1999–to 2018. By using disaggregated detailed product data and the gravity model, we obtained results demonstrating that implementation of TBT by importing countries is likely to enhance waste trade. After controlling for three combinations of fixed effects, the results remain robust. We consider the quality of waste products by dividing waste products into recyclable and nonrecyclable materials, revealing that imported recyclable waste is more likely to be imported than nonrecyclable waste. When waste trade isregulated by importing countries through TBT implementation, the exporting countries may export relatively valuable waste products, and recyclable waste is of greater economic value because it can be used as an input in other production processes. Finally, developed countries are more likely than developing countries to export waste to the ASEAN+6countries, a finding that supports the waste haven hypothesis.
Keywords: waste trade, ASEAN+6, technical barriers to trade, gravity model, waste haven hypothesisProcedia PDF Downloads 50
2753 Design Waste Source Evaluation: A Building Life Cycle Approach
Authors: Mohamed Osmani
Abstract:The last few years saw the development of several government-driven waste-related regulations, policies, and consultation documents to reduce construction waste production and increase reuse and recycling rates. Equally, global research on construction waste has been conducted over the last decade ranging from ‘soft’ onsite waste management tools to ‘hard’ material and recycling technologies. However, there is insufficient effort and no structured approach to examining the underlying generators of design waste. Hence, this research engaged the top 100 UK contractors and architectural practices through a questionnaire survey and 24 follow-up interviews to investigate the direct and indirect root origins and causes of construction waste across all stages of the building design process that culminated in the development of a set of design waste maps. Respondents reported that designing out waste has never been a priority in the design process. Moreover, results reveal that design waste is affected by a wide practice of not embedding waste reduction in the briefing, no waste reduction target setting, and lack of designers’ understanding of design waste causes, hindered by incoherent coordination and communication between project members; and impeded by time constraints.
Keywords: construction waste, design waste mapping, architects, contractors, UKProcedia PDF Downloads 15
2752 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia
Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir
Abstract:The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.
Keywords: e -waste, recycle, electrical, MongoliaProcedia PDF Downloads 269
2751 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite
Authors: Michael John S. Maceda
Abstract:Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.
Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policyProcedia PDF Downloads 603
2750 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell
Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu
Abstract:Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.
Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power densityProcedia PDF Downloads 156
2749 A System For A Sustainable Electronic Waste Marketplace
Authors: Arya Sarukkai
Abstract:Due to increased technological advances and the high use of phones, tablets, computers, and other electronics, we continue to see rapid growth in the volume of e-waste. There are millions just throwing out their old devices, millions who have many devices and don’t know what to do with them, and there are millions who would benefit from receiving those devices. The thesis of this paper is that by creating an ecosystem of donors and recipients and providing the right incentives, we can reduce e-waste. We discuss a system for sustainable e-waste by building a marketplace between donors and recipients. We also summarize experimental results comparing different incentives and present a live web service that allows for e-waste supplies to reach schools and nonprofit institutions.
Keywords: E-waste ecosystems, marketplaces, e-waste web app, online servicesProcedia PDF Downloads 123
2748 Waste Management and Education: The Case of York, UK
Authors: Ruijie Fan, Hao Xu
Abstract:Due to the increasing demand for resources, solid waste disposal is becoming an increasingly important issue to be addressed. Solid waste is not only hazardous to human health but also has a negative impact on the environment. The main sources of solid waste are metals, glass, food, plastics, paper, and electrical waste. Different types of waste may require different treatments. The UK currently lags behind other countries, such as Japan and Germany, in terms of waste management. Although the UK is catching up through various incentives, waste management education in the UK still faces challenges. Education requires a lot of work before the UK can achieve a circular economy. This paper first presents the latest information on the five main types of solid waste in the UK today. It delves into the current state of waste paper management in the UK, in addition to gathering information from the literature on the current state of waste management education in the UK as a whole. Potential barriers to the disposal of each waste type in the UK are identified, along with potential barriers to education in the UK. This study was based on a pragmatic philosophy to find possible solutions for these barriers, including questionnaires to conduct an in-depth investigation. In addition, the questionnaire analysis reveals a correlation between educational attainment and individual waste management behaviour and attitudes. This research guides inspiration on the current problems of waste management in the UK.
Keywords: circular economy, education, solid waste, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 35
2747 Mapping of Textile Waste Generation across the Value Chains Operating in the Textile Industry
Authors: Veena Nair, Srikanth Prakash, Mayuri Wijayasundara
Abstract:Globally, the textile industry is a key contributor to the generation of solid waste which gets landfilled. Textile waste generation generally occurs in three stages, namely: producer waste, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. However, the different processes adopted in textile material extraction, manufacturing, and use have their respective impact in terms of the quantity of waste being diverted to landfills. The study is focused on assessing the value chains of the two most common textile fibres: cotton and polyester, catering to a broad categories of apparel products. This study attempts to identify and evaluate the key processes adopted by the textile industry at each of the stages in their value chain in terms of waste generation. The different processes identified in each of the stages in the textile value chains are mapped to their respective contribution in generating fibre waste which eventually gets diverted to landfill. The results of the study are beneficial for the overall industry in terms of improving the traceability of waste in the value chains and the selection of processes and behaviours facilitating the reduction of environmental impacts associated with landfills.
Keywords: textile waste, textile value chains, landfill waste, waste mappingProcedia PDF Downloads 130
2746 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife
Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope
Abstract:Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.
Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 316
2745 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil
Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh
Abstract:In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.
Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcementProcedia PDF Downloads 98
2744 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste
Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal
Abstract:This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.
Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 149
2743 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products
Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender
Abstract:Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.
Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomaceProcedia PDF Downloads 217
2742 Industrial-Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Case of Algeria
Authors: L. Sefouhi, M. Djebabra
Abstract:Industrial operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental consequences. The industrial waste management becomes a real problem for them. The oil industry is an important sector in Algeria, from exploration to development and marketing of hydrocarbons. For this sector, industrial wastes pose a big problem. The aim of the present study is to present in a systematic way the subject of industrial waste from the point-of-view of definitions in engineering and legislation. This analysis is necessary, as many different approaches and we will attempt to diagnose the current management of industrial waste, namely an inventory of deposits and methods of sorting, packing, storage, and a description of the different disposal routes. Thus, a proposal for a reasoned and responsible management of waste by avoiding a shift towards future expenses related to the disposal of such waste, and prevents pollution they cause to the environment.
Keywords: industrial waste, environment, management, pollution, risksProcedia PDF Downloads 271
2741 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World
Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian
Abstract:One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.
Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 431
2740 Gender Perception on Food Waste within the Household and Community: Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia
Authors: Gumilar Hadiningrat, Stewart Barr, Jo Little
Abstract:In Indonesia, the majority of those who manage food waste are women. It is Indonesian culture that women act as household managers. Therefore, women as household managers hold an important role in reducing food waste within households. Meanwhile, in the community, women’s organisations are some of the most active organisations dealing with food waste. Food waste has an increasing profile and is the subject of much global attention and have economic, social and environmental impacts. Reducing food waste will improve future food availability in the context of global population growth and increasing resource scarcity. The aim of this research is to investigate women’s experience and understanding of dealing with food waste in the household and in the community. The research will use an inductive approach using in-depth qualitative methods. In terms of data collection, two methods will be used - questionnaire and interviews. All in all, it could be claimed that women, both within the household and the community in Indonesia, hold an important role in dealing with food waste.
Keywords: community waste management, food waste, gender, household waste, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 169
2739 Modelling and Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Food Waste Using CHEMCAD Software
Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Noluzuko Monakali, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng
Abstract:On a global scale, there is an alarming generation of food waste. Food waste is generated across the food supply chain. Worldwide urbanization, as well as global economic growth, have contributed to this amount of food waste the environment is receiving. Food waste normally ends on illegal dumping sites when not properly disposed, or disposed to landfills. This results in environmental pollution due to inadequate waste management practices. Food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable; hence, it can be utilized for the production of bioethanol, a type of biofuel. In so doing, alternative energy will be created, and the volumes of food waste will be reduced in the process. This results in food waste being seen as a precious commodity in energy generation instead of a pollutant. The main aim of the project was to simulate a biorefinery, using a software called CHEMCAD 7.12. The resulting purity of the ethanol from the simulation was 98.9%, with the feed ratio of 1: 2 for food waste and water. This was achieved by integrating necessary unit operations and optimisation of their operating conditions.
Keywords: fermentation, bioethanol, food waste, hydrolysis, simulation, modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 189
2738 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana
Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui
Abstract:This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.
Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 126
2737 Energy Recovery Potential from Food Waste and Yard Waste in New York and Montréal
Abstract:Landfilling of organic waste is still the predominant waste management method in the USA and Canada. Strategic plans for waste diversion from landfills are needed to increase material recovery and energy generation from waste. In this paper, we carried out a statistical survey on waste flow in the two cities New York and Montréal and estimated the energy recovery potential for each case. Data collection and analysis of the organic waste (food waste, yard waste, etc.), paper and cardboard, metal, glass, plastic, carton, textile, electronic products and other materials were done based on the reports published by the Department of Sanitation in New York and Service de l'Environnement in Montréal. In order to calculate the gas generation potential of organic waste, Buswell equation was used in which the molar mass of the elements was calculated based on their atomic weight and the amount of organic waste in New York and Montréal. Also, the higher and lower calorific value of the organic waste (solid base) and biogas (gas base) were calculated. According to the results, only 19% (598 kt) and 45% (415 kt) of New York and Montréal waste were diverted from landfills in 2017, respectively. The biogas generation potential of the generated food waste and yard waste amounted to 631 million m3 in New York and 173 million m3 in Montréal. The higher and lower calorific value of food waste were 3482 and 2792 GWh in New York and 441 and 354 GWh in Montréal, respectively. In case of yard waste, they were 816 and 681 GWh in New York and 636 and 531 GWh in Montréal, respectively. Considering the higher calorific value, this amount would mean a contribution of around 2.5% energy in these cities.
Keywords: energy recovery, organic waste, urban energy modelling with INSEL, waste flowProcedia PDF Downloads 65
2736 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study
Authors: Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim, T. Garba
Abstract:Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.
Keywords: medical waste, treatment, disposal, public healthProcedia PDF Downloads 250
2735 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq
Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali
Abstract:The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.
Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human healthProcedia PDF Downloads 223
2734 Current Status and a Forecasting Model of Community Household Waste Generation: A Case Study on Ward 24 (Nirala), Khulna, Bangladesh
Authors: Md. Nazmul Haque, Mahinur Rahman
Abstract:The objective of the research is to determine the quantity of household waste generated and forecast the future condition of Ward No 24 (Nirala). For performing that, three core issues are focused: (i) the capacity and service area of the dumping stations; (ii) the present waste generation amount per capita per day; (iii) the responsibility of the local authority in the household waste collection. This research relied on field survey-based data collection from all stakeholders and GIS-based secondary analysis of waste collection points and their coverage. However, these studies are mostly based on the inherent forecasting approaches, cannot predict the amount of waste correctly. The findings of this study suggest that Nirala is a formal residential area introducing a better approach to the waste collection - self-controlled and collection system. Here, a forecasting model proposed for waste generation as Y = -2250387 + 1146.1 * X, where X = year.
Keywords: eco-friendly environment, household waste, linear regression, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 222
2733 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site
Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi
Abstract:The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.
Keywords: construction-waste, effective management, reduce, reuseProcedia PDF Downloads 109