Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: consolidation

201 Determination and Evaluation of the Need of Land Consolidation for Nationalization Purpose with the Survey Results

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay, Demet Ayten


In this research, nationalization method for obtaining land on the destination of Ankara-Konya High Speed Train in Turkey; Land consolidation for nationalization purpose as an alternative solution on obtaining land; a survey prepared for land owners whose lands were nationalized and institution officials who carries out the nationalization and land consolidation was applied, were investigated and the need for land consolidation for nationalization purpose is tried to be put forth. Study area is located in the Konya city- Kadınhanı district-Kolukısa and Sarikaya neighbourhood in Turkey and land consolidation results of the selected field which is on the destination of the high-speed train route were obtained. The data obtained was shared with the landowners in the research area, their choice between the nationalization method and land consolidation for nationalization method was questioned. In addition, the organization and institution officials who are accepted to used primarily by the state for obtaining land that are needed for the investments of state, and institution officials who make land consolidation were investigated on the issues of the efficiency of the methods they used and if they tried different methods.

Keywords: nationalization, land consolidation, land consolidation for nationalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
200 Predicting Consolidation Coefficient of Busan Clay by Time-Displacement-Velocity Methods

Authors: Thang Minh Le, Hadi Khabbaz


The coefficient of consolidation is a parameter governing the rate at which saturated soil particularly clay undergoes consolidation when subjected to an increase in pressure. The rate and amount of compression in soil varies with the rate that pore water is lost; and hence depends on soil permeability. Over many years, various methods have been proposed to determine the coefficient of consolidation, cv, which is an indication of the rate of foundation settlement on soft ground. However, defining this parameter is often problematic and heavily relies on graphical techniques, which are subject to some uncertainties. This paper initially presents an overview of many well-established methods to determine the vertical coefficient of consolidation from the incremental loading consolidation tests. An array of consolidation tests was conducted on the undisturbed clay samples, collected at various depths from a site in Nakdong river delta, Busan, South Korea. The consolidation test results on these soft sensitive clay samples were employed to evaluate the targeted methods to predict the settlement rate of Busan clay. In relationship of time-displacement-velocity, a total of 3 method groups from 10 common procedures were classified and compared together. Discussions on study results will be also provided.

Keywords: Busan clay, coefficient of consolidation, constant rate of strain, incremental loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
199 Effects of the Purpose Expropriation of Land Consolidation to Landholding

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay


In the current expropriation of Turkey, the state acquires necessary lands for its investment without permission of the owners and not searching for alternative solutions, so it is determined that neither processor nor processed is not happy. In this study, interactions of enterprises in Turkey are analysed in case the necessary land for public investments are acquired by expropriation purposed land consolidation. Legal basis, positive and negative sides, financial effects to enterprises of this method is evaluated according to Konya Kadınhanı, Kolukısa avenue which is on the Konya-Ankara High-Speed Train Route.

Keywords: expropriation, land consolidation, land consolidation for expropriation purpose, sustainable rural development

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
198 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff


The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: geological setting, shear modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
197 Computer Server Virtualization

Authors: Pradeep M. C. Chand


Virtual infrastructure initiatives often spring from data center server consolidation projects, which focus on reducing existing infrastructure “box count”, retiring older hardware or life-extending legacy applications. Server consolidation benefits result from a reduction in the overall number of systems and related recurring costs (power, cooling, rack space, etc.) and also helps in the reduction of heat to the environment.

Keywords: server virtualization, data center, consolidation, project

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
196 Shear Strength and Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil with Vertical and Radial Drainage

Authors: R. Pillai Aparna, S. R. Gandhi


Soft clay deposits having low strength and high compressibility are found all over the world. Preloading with vertical drains is a widely used method for improving such type of soils. The coefficient of consolidation, irrespective of the drainage type, plays an important role in the design of vertical drains and it controls accurate prediction of the rate of consolidation of soil. Also, the increase in shear strength of soil with consolidation is another important factor considered in preloading or staged construction. To our best knowledge no clear guidelines are available to estimate the increase in shear strength for a particular degree of consolidation (U) at various stages during the construction. Various methods are available for finding out the consolidation coefficient. This study mainly focuses on the variation of, consolidation coefficient which was found out using different methods and shear strength with pressure intensity. The variation of shear strength with the degree of consolidation was also studied. The consolidation test was done using two types of highly compressible clays with vertical, radial and a few with combined drainage. The test was carried out at different pressures intensities and for each pressure intensity, once the target degree of consolidation is achieved, vane shear test was done at different locations in the sample, in order to determine the shear strength. The shear strength of clayey soils under the application of vertical stress with vertical and radial drainage with target U value of 70% and 90% was studied. It was found that there is not much variation in cv or cr value beyond 80kPa pressure intensity. Correlations were developed between shear strength ratio and consolidation pressure based on laboratory testing under controlled condition. It was observed that the shear strength of sample with target U value of 90% is about 1.4 to 2 times than that of 70% consolidated sample. Settlement analysis was done using Asaoka’s and hyperbolic method. The variation of strength with respect to the depth of sample was also studied, using large-scale consolidation test. It was found, based on the present study that the gain in strength is more on the top half of the clay layer, and also the shear strength of the sample ensuring radial drainage is slightly higher than that of the vertical drainage.

Keywords: consolidation coefficient, degree of consolidation, PVDs, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
195 On Flow Consolidation Modelling in Urban Congested Areas

Authors: Serban Stere, Stefan Burciu


The challenging and continuously growing competition in the urban freight transport market emphasizes the need for optimal planning of transportation processes in terms of identifying the solution of consolidating traffic flows in congested urban areas. The aim of the present paper is to present the mathematical framework and propose a methodology of combining urban traffic flows between the distribution centers located at the boundary of a congested urban area. The three scenarios regarding traffic flow between consolidation centers that are taken into consideration in the paper are based on the same characteristics of traffic flows. The scenarios differ in terms of the accessibility of the four consolidation centers given by the infrastructure, the connections between them, and the possibility of consolidating traffic flows for one or multiple destinations. Also, synthetical indicators will allow us to compare the scenarios considered and chose the indicated for our distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, single and multiple destinations, urban consolidation centers, traffic flow consolidation schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
194 Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS

Authors: Anjana R. Menon, Anjana Bhasi


This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, consolidation, plane strain, prefabricated horizontal drain

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
193 Consolidation Behavior of Lebanese Soil and Its Correlation with the Soil Parameters

Authors: Robert G. Nini


Soil consolidation is one of the biggest problem facing engineers. The consolidation process has an important role in settlement analysis for the embankments and footings resting on clayey soils. The settlement amount is related to the compression and the swelling indexes of the soil. Because the predominant upper soil layer in Lebanon is consisting mainly of clay, this layer is a real challenge for structural and highway engineering. To determine the effect of load and drainage on the engineering consolidation characteristics of Lebanese soil, a full experimental and synthesis study was conducted on different soil samples collected from many locations. This study consists of two parts. During the first part which is an experimental one, the Proctor test and the consolidation test were performed on the collected soil samples. After it, the identifications soil tests as hydrometer, specific gravity and Atterberg limits are done. The consolidation test which is the main test in this research is done by loading the soil for some days then an unloading cycle was applied. It takes two weeks to complete a typical consolidation test. Because of these reasons, during the second part of our research which is based on the analysis of the experiments results, some correlations were found between the main consolidation parameters as compression and swelling indexes with the other soil parameters easy to calculate. The results show that the compression and swelling indexes of Lebanese clays may be roughly estimated using a model involving one or two variables in the form of the natural void ratio and the Atterberg limits. These correlations have increasing importance for site engineers, and the proposed model also seems to be applicable to a wide range of clays worldwide.

Keywords: atterberg limits, clay, compression and swelling indexes, settlement, soil consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
192 Determination of Relationship among Shape Indexes Used for Land Consolidation

Authors: Firat Arslan, Hasan Degirmenci, Serife Tulin Akkaya Aslan


The aim of the current experiment was to determine the relationship among shape indexes which are used by the researchers in many fields to evaluate parcel shapes which is very important for farming even if these indexes are controversial. In the current study, land consolidation project of Halitaga village in Mersin province in Turkey which has 278 parcel and cover 894.4 ha, was taken as a material. Commonly used indicators such as fractal dimension (FD), shape index (SI), form factor (FORM), areal form factor (AFF) and two distinct area-perimeter ratio (APR-1 and APR2) in land consolidation are used to measure agricultural plot’s shape. FD was positively correlated with SI, APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. SI was positively correlated with APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. As a conclusion, it is likely that these indexes involved may be used interchangeably due to high correlations among them.

Keywords: GIS, land consolidation, parcel shape, shape index

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
191 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: Rinku Varghese, S. Chandrakaran, K. Rangaswamy


The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: consolidation, secondary compression, creep, starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
190 Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground

Authors: A. GuhaRay, C. V. S. P. Kiranmayi, S. Rudraraju


The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.

Keywords: bearing capacity, consolidation, geotechnical random variables, probability of failure, stone columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
189 A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Yasar İnceyol, Abdurrahman Özbeyaz


Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.

Keywords: land consolidation, landholding, land reallocation, optimization, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
188 Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading

Authors: Gia Lam Le, Dennis T. Bergado, Thi Ngoc Truc Nguyen


This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.

Keywords: PVD improvement, vacuum preloading, prefabricated vertical drain, thermal PVD

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
187 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei


This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
186 Influence of Some Technological Parameters on the Content of Voids in Composite during On-Line Consolidation with Filament Winding Technology

Authors: M. Stefanovska, B. Samakoski, S. Risteska, G. Maneski


In this study was performed in situ consolidation of polypropylene matrix/glass reinforced roving by combining heating systems and roll pressing. The commingled roving during hoop winding was winded on a cylindrical mandrel. The work also presents the advances made in the processing of these materials into composites by conventional technique filament winding. Experimental studies were performed with changing parameters – temperature, pressure and speed. Finally, it describes the investigation of the optimal processing conditions that maximize the mechanical properties of the composites. These properties are good enough for composites to be used as engineering materials in many structural applications.

Keywords: commingled fiber, consolidation heat, filament winding, voids

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
185 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
184 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh


In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
183 Public Financial Management in Ghana: A Move beyond Reforms to Consolidation and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai


Ghana’s Public Financial Management reforms have been going on for some two decades now (1997/98 to 2017/18). Given this long period of reforms, Ghana in 2019 is putting together both a Public Financial Management (PFM) strategy and a Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) strategy for the next 5-years (2020-2024). The primary aim of these dual strategies is assisting the country in moving beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability. In this paper we, first, examined the evolution of Ghana’s PFM reforms. We, secondly, reviewed the legal and institutional reforms undertaken to strengthen the country’s key PFM institutions. Thirdly, we summarized the strengths and weaknesses identified by the 2018 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of Ghana’s PFM system relating to its macro-fiscal framework, budget preparation and approval, budget execution, accounting and fiscal reporting as well as external scrutiny and audit. We, finally, considered what the country should be doing to achieve its intended goal of PFM consolidation and sustainability. Using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents, we, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learnt by other developing countries from Ghana’s PFM reforms experiences. These lessons included the need to: (a) undergird any PFM reform with a comprehensive PFM reform strategy; (b) undertake a legal and institutional reforms of the key PFM institutions; (c) assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms using PFM performance evaluation tools such as PEFA framework; and (d) move beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability.

Keywords: public financial management, public expenditure and financial accountability, reforms, consolidation, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
182 The Role of Land Consolidation to Reduce Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky


The paper deals with positive impacts of land consolidation on decreasing soil degradation with the main emphasis on soil and water conservation in the landscape. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Soil degradation through soil erosion is causing losses in crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity for improving the quality of the environment and sustainability of the crop production by means a better soil and water conservation. The present process of the complex land consolidation is not only a reallocation of plots, but this system consists of a new layout of plots within a certain territory, aimed at establishing the integrated land-use economic units, based on the needs of individual landowners and land users. On the other hand, the interests of the general public and the environmental protection have to be solved, too. From the general point of view, a large part of the Czech landscape shall be reconstructed in the course of complex land consolidation projects. These projects will be based on new integrated soil-economic units, spatially arranged in a designed multifunctional system of soil and water conservation measures, such as path network and a territorial system of ecological stability, according to structural changes in agriculture. This new approach will be the basis of a rational economic utilization of the region which will comply with the present ecological and aesthetic demands at present.

Keywords: soil degradation, land consolidation, soil erosion, soil conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
181 Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Control Criterion in Determining Consolidation Scope in the Public Sector

Authors: Batool Zarei


This study aims to answer this question whether control criterion with two elements of power and benefit which is introduced as 'control criterion of consolidation scope' in national and international standards of accounting in public sector (and also private sector) is efficient enough or not. The methodology of this study is comparative and the results of this research are significantly generalizable, due to the given importance to the sample of countries which were studied. Findings of this study states that in spite of pervasive use of control criterion (including 2 elements of power and benefit), criteria for determining the existence of control in public sector accounting standards, are not efficient enough to determine the consolidation scope of whole of government financial statements in a way that meet decision making and accountability needs of managers, policy makers and supervisors; specially parliament. Therefore, the researcher believes that for determining consolidation scope in public sector, in addition to economic view, it is better to pay attention to budgetary, legal and statistical concepts and also to practical and financial risk and define indicators for proving the existence of control (power and benefit) which include accountability relationships (budgetary relation, legal form and nature of activity). these findings also reveals the necessity of passing a comprehensive public financial management (PFM) legislation in order to redefine the characteristics of public sector entities and whole of government financial statements scope and review Statistics organizations and central banks duties for preparing government financial statistics and national accounts in order to achieve sustainable development and resilient economy goals.

Keywords: control, consolidation scope, public sector accounting, government financial statistics, resilient economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
180 Marketing and Customer Relationship in Post Consolidation Banking Sector of Nigeria

Authors: Nnedum Obiajuru Anthony Ugochukwu, Ezechukwu Emmanuel Ntomchukwu


The research investigated the importance of marketing and customer relationship management in post-consolidated banks in achieving success and survival in the face of intense competition and global economic meltdown. The problem lies in the fact that during the pre-consolidation era in the banking industry in Nigeria, banks were comfortable transacting their businesses from their armchairs. Little attention was paid to marketing by banks as a veritable means of achieving and consolidating their profit position. This situation, no doubt sustained because banks were more or less currency exchange centers where customers buy and sell foreign exchange which was highly demanded, but in very short supply. Today, deregulation and consolidation of banks in Nigeria have tremendously increased the tempo of activities in the banking industry, and competition has become very severe among banks. The weak link in the success of post-consolidated banks in Nigeria is the utter neglect, and light or unserious consideration of customer relationship marketing by banks. Armchair banking which banks have been practicing has no regard for marketing as a means to survival. However, in order to survive, post-consolidated banks must take relationship marketing and customer relationship management seriously especially in the face of the current global economic crisis. This paper aims at exploring the role of marketing in building and managing customer relationships as a means to survival in post-consolidation banking in Nigeria.

Keywords: marketing, customer relationships, banking sector, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
179 The Behavior of Dam Foundation Reinforced by Stone Columns: Case Study of Kissir Dam-Jijel

Authors: Toufik Karech, Abderahmen Benseghir, Tayeb Bouzid


This work presents a 2D numerical simulation of an earth dam to assess the behavior of its foundation after a treatment by stone columns. This treatment aims to improve the bearing capacity, to increase the mechanical properties of the soil, to accelerate the consolidation, to reduce the settlements and to eliminate the liquefaction phenomenon in case of seismic excitation. For the evaluation of the pore pressures, the position of the phreatic line and the flow network was defined, and a seepage analysis was performed with the software MIDAS Soil Works. The consolidation calculation is performed through a simulation of the actual construction stages of the dam. These analyzes were performed using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and the results are compared with the actual measurements of settlement gauges implanted in the dam. An analysis of the bearing capacity was conducted to show the role of stone columns in improving the bearing capacity of the foundation.

Keywords: earth dam, dam foundation, numerical simulation, stone columns, seepage analysis, consolidation, bearing capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
178 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong


This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.

Keywords: numerical modelling, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation, soft soil

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177 Hard Sludge Formation and Consolidation in Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generators: An Experimental Study

Authors: R. Fernandez-Saavedra, M. B. Gomez-Mancebo, D. Gomez-Briceno


The gradual corrosion of PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) feedwater, condensate and drain systems results in the inevitable liberation of corrosion products, principally metallic oxides, to the secondary circuit. In addition, other contaminants and impurities are introduced into the makeup water, auxiliary feedwater and by condenser leaks. All these compounds circulating in the secondary flow can eventually be transported to steam generators and be transformed into deposits on their surfaces. Deposits that accumulate on the tube sheet are known as sludge piles and when they consolidate and harden become into hard sludge. Hard sludge is especially detrimental because it favors tube deformation or denting at the top of tube sheet and further stress corrosion cracking (SCC). These failures affect the efficiency of nuclear power plants. In a recent work, a model for the formation and consolidation of hard sludge has been formulated, highlighting the influence of aluminum and silicon compounds in the initial formation of hard sludge. In this work, an experimental study has been performed in order to get a deeper understanding of the behavior of Al and Si species in hard sludge formation and consolidation. For this purpose, the key components of hard sludge (magnetite, aluminum and/or silicon sources) have been isothermally autoclaved in representative secondary circuit conditions during one week, and the resulting products have been chemically and structurally characterized by XRF and XRD techniques, respectively.

Keywords: consolidation, hard sludge, secondary circuit, steam generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
176 Alternation of Executive Power and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: The Role of Independent National Electoral Commission, 1999-2014

Authors: J. Tochukwu Omenma


Buzzword in Nigeria is that democracy has “come to stay”. Politicians in their usual euphoria consider democracy as already consolidated in the country. Politicians linked this assumption to three fundamental indicators – (a) multiparty system; (b) regular elections and (c) absence of military coup after 15 years of democracy in Nigeria. Beyond this assumption, we intend to empirically verify these claims and assumptions, by relying on Huntington’s conceptualization of democratic consolidation. Though, Huntington asserts that multipartism, regular elections and absence of any major obstacle leading to reversal of democracy are significant indicators of democratic consolidation, but the presence of those indicators must result to alternation of executive power for democratic consolidation to occur. In other words, regular conduct of election and existence of multiple political parties are not enough for democratic consolidation, rather free and fair elections. Past elections were characterized of massive fraud and irregularities casting doubts on integrity of electoral management body (EMB) to conduct free and fair elections in Nigeria. There are three existing perspectives that have offered responses to the emasculation of independence of EMB. One is a more popular position indicating that the incumbent party, more than the opposition party, influence the EMB activities with the aim of rigging elections; the other is a more radical perspective that suggests that weakening of EMB power is more associated with the weakest party than with the incumbent; and the last, is that godfather(s) are in direct control of EMB members thereby controlling the process of electoral process to the advantage of the godfather(s). With empirical evidence sourced from the reports of independent election monitors, (European Union, Election Observation Mission in Nigeria) this paper shows at different electoral periods that, in terms of influencing election outcomes, the incumbent and godfather have been more associated with influencing election results than the opposition. The existing nature of executive power in Nigeria provides a plausible explanation for the incumbent’s overbearing influence thereby limiting opportunity for free and fair elections and by extension undermining the process of democratic consolidation in Nigeria.

Keywords: political party, democracy, democratic consolidation, election, godfatherism

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
175 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář


The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: complex land consolidation, degradation, land use, soil and water conservation, surface water resources

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174 Active Part of the Burnishing Tool Effect on the Physico-Geometric Aspect of the Superficial Layer of 100C6 and 16NC6 Steels

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah


Burnishing is a mechanical surface treatment that combines several beneficial effects on the two steel grades studied. The application of burnishing to the ball or to the tip favors a better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the consolidation of the surface layers through work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the treatment parameters and the active part of the device. With an improvement of 78% on the roughness, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation in the machining range. With a 44% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an effective process for material consolidation. These effects are affected by several factors. The factors V, f, P, r, and i have the most significant effects on both roughness and hardness. Ball or tip burnishing leads to the consolidation of the surface layers of both grades 100C6 and 16NC6 steels by work hardening. For each steel grade and its mechanical treatment, the rational tensile curve has been drawn. Lüdwick's law is used to better plot the work hardening curve. For both grades, a material hardening law is established. For 100C6 steel, these results show a work hardening coefficient and a consolidation rate of 0.513 and 44, respectively, compared to the surface layers processed by turning. When 16NC6 steel is processed, the work hardening coefficient is about 0.29. Hardness tests characterize well the burnished depth. The layer affected by work hardening can reach up to 0.4 mm. Simulation of the tests is of great importance to provide the details at the local scale of the material. Conventional tensile curves provide a satisfactory indication of the toughness of 100C6 and 16NC6 materials. A simulation of the tensile curves revealed good agreement between the experimental and simulation results for both steels.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, 16NC6 steel, burnishing, work hardening, roughness, hardness

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173 A Hierarchical Bayesian Calibration of Data-Driven Models for Composite Laminate Consolidation

Authors: Nikolaos Papadimas, Joanna Bennett, Amir Sakhaei, Timothy Dodwell


Composite modeling of consolidation processes is playing an important role in the process and part design by indicating the formation of possible unwanted prior to expensive experimental iterative trial and development programs. Composite materials in their uncured state display complex constitutive behavior, which has received much academic interest, and this with different models proposed. Errors from modeling and statistical which arise from this fitting will propagate through any simulation in which the material model is used. A general hyperelastic polynomial representation was proposed, which can be readily implemented in various nonlinear finite element packages. In our case, FEniCS was chosen. The coefficients are assumed uncertain, and therefore the distribution of parameters learned using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. In engineering, the approach often followed is to select a single set of model parameters, which on average, best fits a set of experiments. There are good statistical reasons why this is not a rigorous approach to take. To overcome these challenges, A hierarchical Bayesian framework was proposed in which population distribution of model parameters is inferred from an ensemble of experiments tests. The resulting sampled distribution of hyperparameters is approximated using Maximum Entropy methods so that the distribution of samples can be readily sampled when embedded within a stochastic finite element simulation. The methodology is validated and demonstrated on a set of consolidation experiments of AS4/8852 with various stacking sequences. The resulting distributions are then applied to stochastic finite element simulations of the consolidation of curved parts, leading to a distribution of possible model outputs. With this, the paper, as far as the authors are aware, represents the first stochastic finite element implementation in composite process modelling.

Keywords: data-driven , material consolidation, stochastic finite elements, surrogate models

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172 Burnishing Effect on the Mechanical Characteristics of 100C6

Authors: Ouahiba Taamallah, Tarek Litim


This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 100C6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The application of tip diamond burnishing promotes better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the surface layers to be consolidated by work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the parameters of the treatment and the active part of the device. With an 80% improvement in roughness resulting from the treatment, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation within the machining range. With a 40% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an efficient process for material consolidation.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

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