Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Mashhad

31 Evaluating the Probability of Foreign Tourists' Return to the City of Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Amir Ali Kharazmi, Safiye Rokni

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The tourism industry will be the most important unlimited, sustainable source of income after the oil and automotive industries by 2020 and not only countries, but cities are striving to apprehend its various facets. In line with this objective, the present descriptive-analytical study, through survey and using a questionnaire, seeks to evaluate the probability of tourists’ return and their recommendation to their countrymen to travel to Mashhad, Iran. The population under study is a sample of 384 foreign tourists who, in 2016, arrived at Mashhad, the second metropolis in Iran and its biggest religious city. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to analyze the data. Twenty-six percent of the tourists are female and 74% are male. On average, each tourist has had 3.02 trips abroad and 2.1 trips to Mashhad. Tourists from 14 different countries have arrived at Mashhad. Kuwait (15.9%), Armenia (15.6%), and Iraq (10.9%) were the countries where most tourists originated. Seventy-six percent of the tourists traveled with family and 90% of the tourists arrived at Mashhad via airplane. Major purposes of tourists’ trip include pilgrimage (27.9%), treatment (22.1%) followed by pilgrimage and treatment combined (35.4%). Major issues for tourists, in the order of priority, include quality of goods and services (30.2%), shopping (18%), and inhabitants’ treatment of foreigners (15.9%). Main tourist attractions, in addition to the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza, include Torqabeh and Shandiz (Torqabeh 40.9% and Shandiz 29.9%), Neyshabour (18.2%) followed by Kalat, 4.4%. The average willingness to return among tourists is 3.13, which is higher than the mean 3, indicating satisfaction with the stay in Mashhad. Similarly, the average for tourists’ recommending to their countrymen to visit Mashhad is 3.42, which is also an indicator of tourists’ satisfaction with their presence in Mashhad. According to the findings of the Kaplan-Meier estimator, an increase in the number of tourists’ trips to Mashhad, and an increase in the number of tourists’ foreign trips, reduces the probability of recommending a trip to Mashhad by tourists. Similarly, willingness to return is higher among those who stayed at a relatives’ home compared with other patterns of residence (hotels, self-catering accommodation, and pilgrim houses). Therefore, addressing the issues raised by tourists is essential for their return and their recommendation to others to travel to Mashhad.

Keywords: international tourist, probability of return, satisfaction, Mashhad

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30 Identification and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. in Pre-Wean Dairy Calves in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Asadpour, Gholamreza Razmi, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Abolghasem Naghibi

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Cryptosporidium Spp., protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, have a wide spectrum of hosts including humans, domestic animals and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. In this study, a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the Small-Subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium Spp. in 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-wean calves in 10 farms in Mashhad, Iran. Eighty five (28.3%) and forty five (15%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium by microscopic and PCR examination respectively. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by VSPI and Ssp1 restriction enzymes and analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of C. parvum, bovine genotype in all isolates. Our findings suggest that cattle can be a source of Cryptosporidial infections for humans and animals in Mashhad area. This is the first published description of Cryptosporidium sub genotyping in Mashhad.

Keywords: cryptosporidium, genotype, dairy calves, 18S rRNA, Mashhad

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29 Using Monte Carlo Model for Simulation of Rented Housing in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama

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The study employs Monte Carlo method for simulation of rented housing in Mashhad second largest city in Iran. A total number of 334 rental residential units in Mashhad, including both apartments and houses (villa), were randomly selected from advertisements placed in Khorasan Newspapers during the months of July and August of 2015. In order to simulate the monthly rent price, the rent index was calculated through combining the mortgage and the rent price. In the next step, the relation between the variables of the floor area and that of the number of bedrooms for each unit, in both apartments and houses(villa), was calculated through multivariate regression using SPSS and was coded in XML. The initial model was called using simulation button in SPSS and was simulated using triangular and binominal algorithms. The findings revealed that the average simulated rental index was 548.5$ per month. Calculating the sensitivity of rental index to a number of bedrooms we found that firstly, 97% of units have three bedrooms, and secondly as the number of bedrooms increases from one to three, for the rent price of less than 200$, the percentage of units having one bedroom decreases from 10% to 0. Contrariwise, for units with the rent price of more than 571.4$, the percentage of bedrooms increases from 37% to 48%. In the light of these findings, it becomes clear that planning to build rental residential units, overseeing the rent prices, and granting subsidies to rental residential units, for apartments with two bedrooms, present a felicitous policy for regulating residential units in Mashhad.

Keywords: Mashhad, Monte Carlo, simulation, rent price, residential unit

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28 A Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Women’s Mental Health and Walkability Index in Mashhad City, Iran, and Recommendations to Improve It

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Lia Shaddel

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Today, along with the development of urbanism, its negative consequences on the health of citizens are emerging. Mental disorders are common in the big cities, while mental health enables individuals to become active citizens. Meanwhile, women have a larger share of mental problems. Depression and anxiety disorders have a higher prevalence rate among women and these disorders affect the health of future generations, too. Therefore, improving women’s mental health through the potentials offered by urban spaces are of paramount importance. The present study aims to first, evaluate the spatial autocorrelation of women’s mental health and walkable spaces and then present solutions, based on the findings, to improve the walkability index. To determine the spatial distribution of women’s mental health in Mashhad, Moran's I was used and 1000 questionnaire were handed out in various sub-districts of Mashhad. Moran's I was calculated to be 0.18 which indicates a cluster distribution pattern. The walkability index was calculated using the four variables pertaining to the length of walkable routes, mixed land use, retail floor area ratio, and household density. To determine spatial autocorrelation of mental health and the walkability index, bivariate Moran’s I was calculated. Moran's I was determined to be 0.37 which shows a direct spatial relationship between variables; 4 clusters in 9 sub-districts of Mashhad were created. In High-Low cluster, there was a negative spatial relationship and hence, to identify factors affecting walkability in urban spaces semi-structures interviews were conducted with 21 women in this cluster. The findings revealed that security is the major factor influencing women’s walking behavior in this cluster. In accordance with the findings, some suggestions are offered to improve the presence of women in this sub-district.

Keywords: Mashhad, spatial autocorrelation, women’s mental health, walkability index

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27 A Review of the Environmental Impact of Physical Expansion of Shandiz City

Authors: Foruzan Taheri, Seyedeh Negar Hosseinian, Katayoon Alizadeh

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The small countryside city of Shandiz, with a population of about 13.297 is located 35 km to the west of the Mashhad metropolitan. Due to Shandiz’s natural beauty, suitable climate, and its close proximity to Mashhad which is the largest city in the eastern half of the country, many people own second houses in this area. In addition to this, Shandiz hosts millions of visitors annually. Its economic role, which is parallel and complementary to Mashhad, has caused population growth, the increase of activities, and physical expansion, all of which exceed the city’s capacity. The aim of this descriptive and analytical study was to evaluate the impact of city expansion on the environment and aid in preventing further harm to the natural environment of this perimeter. Data were collected from population and housing statistics during a different period of time-based on GIS. Results show that the existence of an integrated environmental management system in order to coordinate development projects and the expansion of tourism programs that meet environmental conditions are necessary and achieving sustainable development with quality of life in this area without considering environmental limitations and capabilities cannot be sustained.

Keywords: population growth, tourism, physical development, environmental impact, Shandiz City

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26 A Study on Architectural Characteristics‎ of Traditional Iranian Ordinary Houses in Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Rana Daneshvar Salehi

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In many Iranian cities including ‎‎Mashhad‎, the capital of ‎‎‎‎Razavi Khorasan Province‎, ‎ordinary samples of domestic architecture ‎on a ‎small scale is not ‎‎‎considered as ‎heritage. ‎While the ‎principals of house formation are ‎‎respected in all ‎‎traditional Iranian ‎‎‎‎houses‎; ‎from moderate to great ones. During the past decade, Mashhad has lost its identity, and has become a modern city. Identifying it as the capital of the Islamic Culture in 2017 by ISESCO and consequently looking for new developments and transfiguration caused to demolish a large ‎number ‎of ‎traditional modest habitation. ‎For this ‎reason, the present paper aims to introduce ‎the three ‎undiscovered houses with the ‎historical and monumental values located in the ‎oldest ‎neighborhoods of Mashhad which have been neglected in the cultural ‎heritage field. The preliminary phase of this approach will be a measured survey to identify the significant characteristics ‎of ‎selected dwellings and understand the challenges through focusing on building ‎form, orientation, ‎‎room function, space proportion and ornamental elements’ details. A comparison between the ‎‎case studies and the wealthy domestically buildings ‎presents that a house belongs to inhabitants ‎with an average income could introduce the same accurate, regular, harmonic and proportionate ‎design which can be found in the great mansions. It reveals that an ordinary traditional house can ‎be regarded as valuable construction not only for its historical characteristics but also ‎for its ‎aesthetical and architectural features that could avoid further destructions in the future.

Keywords: traditional ordinary house, architectural characteristic, proportion, heritage

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25 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian

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One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic waste

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24 Predicting the Areal Development of the City of Mashhad with the Automaton Fuzzy Cell Method

Authors: Mehran Dizbadi, Daniyal Safarzadeh, Behrooz Arastoo, Ansgar Brunn

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Rapid and uncontrolled expansion of cities has led to unplanned aerial development. In this way, modeling and predicting the urban growth of a city helps decision-makers. In this study, the aspect of sustainable urban development has been studied for the city of Mashhad. In general, the prediction of urban aerial development is one of the most important topics of modern town management. In this research, using the Cellular Automaton (CA) model developed for geo data of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and presenting a simple and powerful model, a simulation of complex urban processes has been done.

Keywords: urban modeling, sustainable development, fuzzy cellular automaton, geo-information system

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23 The Effect of Micro-Order in Family on Divorce: A Case Study on Married Offspring of the Martyr in the City of Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Maryam Eskafi

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Purpose: Frequent referrals of the martyr offspring to The Martyr Foundation and studying divorce documents revealed the depth of family quarrels among the martyr families. For this reason, conducting the research of this type can be effective. Method: Research method is survey. Statistical population is the total of married offspring of the martyr living in Mashhad City of Iran. Data were gathered by using questionnaire administered with a sample of 250 selected by using cluster sampling method. Results: Family order may lead to the ground actions for divorce through life satisfaction. Conclusion: life satisfaction with -0.62 beta value has a strong negative effect on the ground actions for divorce.

Keywords: ground actions for divorce, life satisfaction, family order, satisfaction

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22 Morphological and Molecular Studies (ITS1) of Hydatid Cysts in Slaughtered Sheep in Mashhad Area

Authors: G. R. Hashemi Tabar, G. R. Razmi, F. Mirshekar

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Echinococcus granulosus have ten strains from G1 to G9. Each strain is related to special intermediated host. The morphology, epidemiology, treatment and control in these strains are different. There are many morphological and molecular methods to differentiate of Echinococcus strains. However, using both methods were provided better information about identification of each strain. The aim of study was to identify Echinococcus granulosus strain of hydrated cysts in slaughtered sheep using morphological and molecular methods in Mashhad area. In the present study, the infected liver and lung with hydatid cysts were collected and transferred to laboratory. The hydatid cyst liquid was extracted and morphological characters of rostellar hook protosclocies were measured using micrometer ocular. The total length of large blade length of large hooks, total length of small and blade length of small hooks, and number of hooks per protoscolex were 23± 0.3μm, 11.7±0.5 μm, 19.3±1.1 μm,8±1.1 and 33.7±0.7 μm, respectively. In molecular section of the study, DNA each samples was extracted with MBST Kit and development of PCR using special primers (EgF, EgR) which amplify fragment of ITS1 gen. The PCR product was digested with Bsh1236I enzyme. Based on pattern of PCR-RLFP results (four band forming), G1, G2 and G3 strain of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained. Differentiation of three strains was done using sequencing analysis and G1 strain was diagnosed. The agreement between the molecular results with morphometric characters of rosetellar hook was confirmed the presence of G1 strain of Echinococcus in the slaughtered sheep of Mashhad area.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid cyst, PCR, sheep

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21 Estimating Housing Prices Using Automatic Linear Modeling in the Metropolis of Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama

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Market-transaction price for housing is the main criteria for determining municipality taxes and is determined and announced on an annual basis. Of course, there is a discrepancy between the actual value of transactions in the Bureau of Finance (P for short) or municipality (P´ for short) and the real price on the market (P˝). The present research aims to determine the real price of housing in the metropolis of Mashhad and to pinpoint the price gap with those of the aforementioned apparatuses and identify the factors affecting it. In order to reach this practical objective, Automatic Linear Modeling, which calls for an explanatory research, was utilized. The population of the research consisted of all the residential units in Mashhad, from which 317 residential units were randomly selected. Through cluster sampling, out of the 170 income blocks defined by the municipality, three blocks form high-income (Kosar), middle-income (Elahieh), and low-income (Seyyedi) strata were surveyed using questionnaires during February and March of 2015 and the information regarding the price and specifications of residential units were gathered. In order to estimate the effect of various factors on the price, the relationship between independent variables (8 variables) and the dependent variable of the housing price was calculated using Automatic Linear Modeling in SPSS. The results revealed that the average for housing price index is 788$ per square meter, compared to the Bureau of Finance’s prices which is 10$ and that of municipality’s which is 378$. Correlation coefficient among dependent and independent variables was calculated to be R²=0.81. Out of the eight initial variables, three were omitted. The most influential factor affecting the housing prices is the quality of Quality of construction (Ordinary, Full, Luxury). The least important factor influencing the housing prices is the variable of number of sides. The price gap between low-income (Seyyedi) and middle-income (Elahieh) districts was not confirmed via One-Way ANOVA but their gap with the high-income district (Kosar) was confirmed. It is suggested that city be divided into two low-income and high-income sections, as opposed three, in terms of housing prices.

Keywords: automatic linear modeling, housing prices, Mashhad, Iran

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20 The Study of Stable Isotopes (18O, 2H & 13C) in Kardeh River and Dam Reservoir, North-Eastern Iran

Authors: Hossein Mohammadzadeh, Mojtaba Heydarizad

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Among various water resources, the surface water has a dominant role in providing water supply in the arid and semi-arid region of Iran. Andarokh-Kardeh basin is located in 50 km from Mashhad city - the second biggest city of Iran (NE of Iran), draining by Kardeh river which provides a significant portion of potable and irrigation water needs for Mashhad. The stable isotopes (18O, 2H,13C-DIC, and 13C-DOC), as reliable and precious water fingerprints, have been measured in Kardeh river (Kharket, Mareshk, Jong, All and Kardeh stations) and in Kardeh dam reservoirs (at five different sites S1 to S5) during March to June 2011 and June 2012. On δ18O vs. δ2H diagram, the river samples were plotted between Global and Eastern Mediterranean Meteoric Water lines (GMWL and EMMWL) which demonstrate that various moisture sources are providing humidity for precipitation events in this area. The enriched δ18O and δ2H values (-6.5 ‰ and -44.5 ‰ VSMOW) of Kardeh dam reservoir are compared to Kardeh river (-8.6‰and-54.4‰), and its deviation from Mashhad meteoric water line (MMWL- δ2H=7.16δ18O+11.22) is due to evaporation from the open surface water body. The enriched value of δ 13C-DIC and high amount of DIC values (-7.9 ‰ VPDB and 57.23 ppm) in the river and Kardeh dam reservoir (-7.3 ‰ VPDB and 55.53 ppm) is due to dissolution of Mozdooran Carbonate Formation lithology (Jm1 to Jm3 units) (contains enriched δ13C DIC values of 9.2‰ to 27.7‰ VPDB) in the region. Because of the domination of C3 vegetations in Andarokh_Kardeh basin, the δ13C-DOC isotope of the river (-28.4‰ VPDB) and dam reservoir (-32.3‰ VPDB) demonstrate depleted values. Higher DOC concentration in dam reservoir (2.57 ppm) compared to the river (0.72 ppm) is due to more biologogical activities and organic matters in dam reservoir.

Keywords: Dam reservoir, Iran, Kardeh river, Khorasan razavi, Stable isotopes

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19 The Role of Food System in Promoting Environmental Planning

Authors: Rayeheh Khatami, Toktam Hanaei, Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar

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Today, many local and national governments are developing urban agriculture as an effective tool in responding to challenges such as food security, poverty and environmental problems. In fact, urban agriculture plays an important role in food system, which can provide citizens' income and become one of the components of economic, social and environmental systems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the urban agriculture and urban food systems in order to understand the impact of urban foods production on environmental planning in non-western city region context. To achieve such objective, we carry out a case study in Mashhad city of Iran by using qualitative approaches. A survey on documentary studies and planning tools integrate with face to face interview with experts which explain the role of food system in environmental planning process. The paper extends the use of food in the environmental planning, specifically to examine this role to create agricultural garden as a mean to improve agricultural system in non-western country. The paper is concluded with a set of recommendations for researchers and policymakers who seek to create spaces in order to implement urban agriculture in cities for food justice.

Keywords: urban agriculture , agricultural park, city region food system, Mashhad

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18 Investigating the Factors Affecting the Innovation of Firms in Metropolitan Regions: The Case of Mashhad Metropolitan Region, Iran

Authors: Hashem Dadashpoor, Sadegh Saeidi Shirvan

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While with the evolution of the economy towards a knowledge-based economy, innovation is a requirement for metropolitan regions, the adoption of an open innovation strategy is an option and a requirement for many industrial firms in these regions. Studies show that investing in research and development units cannot alone increase innovation. Within the framework of the theory of learning regions, this gap, which scholars call it the ‘innovation gap’, is filled with regional features of firms. This paper attempts to investigate the factors affecting the open innovation of firms in metropolitan regions, and it searches for these in territorial innovation models and, in particular, the theory of learning regions. In the next step, the effect of identified factors which is considered as regional learning factors in this research is analyzed on the innovation of sample firms by SPSS software using multiple linear regression. The case study of this research is constituted of industrial enterprises from two groups of food industry and auto parts in Toos industrial town in Mashhad metropolitan region. For data gathering of this research, interviews were conducted with managers of industrial firms using structured questionnaires. Based on this study, the effect of factors such as size of firms, inter-firm competition, the use of local labor force and institutional infrastructures were significant in the innovation of the firms studied, and 44% of the changes in the firms’ innovation occurred as a result of the change in these factors.

Keywords: regional knowledge networks, learning regions, interactive learning, innovation

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17 Local Homology Modules

Authors: Fatemeh Mohammadi Aghjeh Mashhad

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In this paper, we give several ways for computing generalized local homology modules by using Gorenstein flat resolutions. Also, we find some bounds for vanishing of generalized local homology modules.

Keywords: a-adic completion functor, generalized local homology modules, Gorenstein flat modules

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16 The Impact of Climate Change on Typical Material Degradation Criteria over Timurid Historical Heritage

Authors: Hamed Hedayatnia, Nathan Van Den Bossche

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Understanding the ways in which climate change accelerates or slows down the process of material deterioration is the first step towards assessing adaptive approaches for the conservation of historical heritage. Analysis of the climate change effects on the degradation risk assessment parameters like freeze-thaw cycles and wind erosion is also a key parameter when considering mitigating actions. Due to the vulnerability of cultural heritage to climate change, the impact of this phenomenon on material degradation criteria with the focus on brick masonry walls in Timurid heritage, located in Iran, was studied. The Timurids were the final great dynasty to emerge from the Central Asian steppe. Through their patronage, the eastern Islamic world in northwestern of Iran, especially in Mashhad and Herat, became a prominent cultural center. Goharshad Mosque is a mosque in Mashhad of the Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. It was built by order of Empress Goharshad, the wife of Shah Rukh of the Timurid dynasty in 1418 CE. Choosing an appropriate regional climate model was the first step. The outputs of two different climate model: the 'ALARO-0' and 'REMO,' were analyzed to find out which model is more adopted to the area. For validating the quality of the models, a comparison between model data and observations was done in 4 different climate zones in Iran for a period of 30 years. The impacts of the projected climate change were evaluated until 2100. To determine the material specification of Timurid bricks, standard brick samples from a Timurid mosque were studied. Determination of water absorption coefficient, defining the diffusion properties and determination of real density, and total porosity tests were performed to characterize the specifications of brick masonry walls, which is needed for running HAM-simulations. Results from the analysis showed that the threatening factors in each climate zone are almost different, but the most effective factor around Iran is the extreme temperature increase and erosion. In the north-western region of Iran, one of the key factors is wind erosion. In the north, rainfall erosion and mold growth risk are the key factors. In the north-eastern part, in which our case study is located, the important parameter is wind erosion.

Keywords: brick, climate change, degradation criteria, heritage, Timurid period

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15 A Close Study on the Nitrate Fertilizer Use and Environmental Pollution for Human Health in Iran

Authors: Saeed Rezaeian, M. Rezaee Boroon

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Nitrogen accumulates in soils during the process of fertilizer addition to promote the plant growth. When the organic matter decomposes, the form of available nitrogen produced is in the form of nitrate, which is highly mobile. The most significant health effect of nitrate ingestion is methemoglobinemia in infants under six months of age (blue baby syndrome). The mobile nutrients, like nitrate nitrogen, are not stored in the soil as the available forms for the long periods and in large amounts. It depends on the needs for the crops such as vegetables. On the other hand, the vegetables will compete actively for nitrate nitrogen as a mobile nutrient and water. The mobile nutrients must be shared. The fewer the plants, the larger this share is for each plant. Also, this nitrate nitrogen is poisonous for the people who use these vegetables. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by the existing bacteria in the stomach and the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. When nitrite is entered into the blood cells, it converts the hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which causes the anoxemia and cyanosis. The increasing use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, especially the fertilizers with nitrates compounds, which have been common for the increased production of agricultural crops, has caused the nitrate pollution in the (soil, water, and environment). They have caused a lot of damage to humans and animals. In this research, the nitrate accumulation in different kind of vegetables such as; green pepper, tomatoes, egg plants, watermelon, cucumber, and red pepper were observed in the suburbs of Mashhad, Neisabour, and Sabzevar cities. In some of these cities, the information forms of agronomical practices collected were such as; different vegetable crops fertilizer recommendations, varieties, pesticides, irrigation schedules, etc., which were filled out by some of our colleagues in the research areas mentioned above. Analysis of the samples was sent to the soil and water laboratory in our department in Mashhad. The final results from the chemical analysis of samples showed that the mean levels of nitrates from the samples of the fruit crops in the mentioned cities above were all lower than the critical levels. These fruit crop samples were in the order of: 35.91, 8.47, 24.81, 6.03, 46.43, 2.06 mg/kg dry matter, for the following crops such as; tomato, cucumber, eggplant, watermelon, green pepper, and red pepper. Even though, this study was conducted with limited samples and by considering the mean levels, the use of these crops from the nutritional point of view will not cause the poisoning of humans.

Keywords: environmental pollution, human health, nitrate accumulations, nitrate fertilizers

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14 Determining the Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Reducing the Psychopathic Deviance of Criminals

Authors: Setareh Gerayeli

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The present study tries to determine the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy in reducing the psychopathic deviance of employed criminals released from prison. The experimental method was used in this study, and the statistical population included employed criminals released from prison in Mashhad. Thirty offenders were selected randomly as the samples of the study. The MMPI-2 was used to collect data in the pre-test and post-test stages. The behavioral therapy was conducted on the experimental group during fourteen two and a half hour sessions, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Data analysis was conducted by using covariance. The results showed there is a significant difference between the post-test mean scores of the two groups. The findings suggest that dialectical behavior therapy is effective in reducing psychopathic deviance.

Keywords: criminals, dialectical behavior therapy, psychopathic deviance, prison

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13 Heat Recovery System from Air-Cooled Chillers in Iranian Hospitals

Authors: Saeed Vahidifar, Mohammad Nakhaee Sharif, Mohammad Ghaffari

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Few people would dispute the fact that one of the most common applications of energy is creating comfort in buildings, so it is probably true to say that management of energy consumption is required due to the environmental issues and increasing the efficiency of mechanical systems. From the geographical point of view, Iran is located in a warm and semi-arid region; therefore, air-cooled chillers are usually used for cooling residential buildings, commercial buildings, medical buildings, etc. In this study, a heat exchanger was designed for providing laundry hot water by utilizing condenser heat lost base on analytical results of a 540-bed hospital in the city of Mashhad in Iran. In this paper, by using the analytical method, energy consumption reduces about 13%, and coefficient of performance increases a bit. Results show that this method can help in the management of energy consumption a lot.

Keywords: air cooled chiller, energy management, environmental issues, heat exchanger, hospital laundry system

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12 Loneliness and Depression in Relation to Latchkey Situation

Authors: Samaneh Sadat Fattahi Massoom, Hossein Salimi Bajestani

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The study examines loneliness and depression in students who regularly care for themselves after school (latchkey students) in Mashhad and compares them with parent supervised students using a causal-comparative research method. The 270 participants, aged 7 -13, were selected using convenience and cluster random-assignment sampling. Independent t-test results showed significant differences between loneliness (-4.32, p ≤ 0.05) and depression (-3.02, p ≤0.05) among latchkey and non-latchkey students. Using the Pearson correlation test, significant correlation between depression and loneliness among latchkey students was also discovered (r=0.59, p ≤ 0.05). However, regarding non latchkey students, no significant difference between loneliness and depression was observed (r= 0.02. p ≥ 0.05). Multiple regression results also showed that depression variance can be determined by gender (22%) and loneliness (34%). The findings of this study, specifically the significant difference between latchkey and non-latchkey children regarding feelings of loneliness and depression, carries clear implications for parents. It can be concluded that mothers who spend most of their time working out of the house and devoid their children of their presence in the home may cause some form of mental distress like loneliness and depression. Moreover, gender differences affect the degree of these psychological disorders.

Keywords: loneliness, depression, self-care students, latchkey and non-latchkey students, gender

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11 Investigation of the Perceptional Quality of Nightscape in the Urban Space: A Case Study of Mashhad Koohsangi Axis in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Maryam Ziyaee, Elham Sanagar Darbani

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Variety of different factors could influence on the measure urban perception. Both physical and non-physical factors, at least, make the quality of perception through the urban spaces. The value of lighting is one of the important factors which could make the better quality of environmental perception for the user. The perception of urban space in most of the Iranian cities is offer by different factors during the night time which caused to the death of nightlife and social activities. Therefore, this research is an attempt to study on the different of user perception during day and night in the Koohsangi Street. As the case study area in Iran in order to bring out the main influential factors during perception process. To deal with this good we used chi-square test on a sample size made up of on hundred participants. The result shows that for improving the night quality of urban spaces the legibility, navigation, and role stimulation were in important perception factors. Therefore, by focusing on these factors it would be possible to find out more functional solution for improving the activity of night perception.

Keywords: perception, urban space, legibility, imageability, nightscape

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10 Assessment of Golestan Dam Break Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: Ebrahim Alamatian, Seyed Mehdi Afzalnia

Abstract:

One of the most vital hydraulic structures is the dam. Regarding the unrecoverable damages which may occur after a dam break phenomenon, analyzing dams’ break is absolutely essential. GOLESTAN dam is located in the western South of Mashhad city in Iran. GOLESTAN dam break might lead to severe problems due to adjacent tourist and entertainment areas. In this paper, a numerical code based on the finite volume method was applied for assessing the risk of GOLESTAN dam break. As to this issue, first, a canal with a triangular barrier was modeled so as to verify the capability of the concerned code. Comparing analytical, experimental and numerical results showed that water level in the model results is in a good agreement with the similar water level in the analytical solutions and experimental data. The results of dam break modeling are revealed that two of the bridges, that are PARTOIE and NAMAYESHGAH, located downstream in the flow direction, are at risk following the potential GOLESTAN dam break. Therefore, the required times to conduct the precautionary measures at bridges were calculated at about 12 and 21 minutes, respectively. Thus, it is crucial to announce people about the possible risks of the dam break in order to decrease likely losses.

Keywords: numerical model, shallow water equations, GOLESTAN dam break, dry and wet beds modeling

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9 Effect of Perception on People’s Behavior in Public Space

Authors: Morteza Maleki

Abstract:

In the present study is that it tried to behave in the environment to be monitored and the respective roles of environment (assumed as a vessel) and human beings (assumed as occupants of this vessel) inevitably create effects which can be expressed as various behaviors on the part of human being. The mutual relationship between man and his environment is exhibited through perceptions, behaviors, subjective images, activities, etc. This study investigates the conceptual dimension in the form of the four components of readability, sense of place, identity, and Tenability (tenability) at the Ahmadabad Axis in Mashhad. The theoretical fundamentals and the data regarding the status quo were presented through the descriptive method and the proposed policies were derived through analyzing the available status quo information. The required data were gathered from library resources and documents related to the studied area as well as from instruments used in field methods such as questionnaires. Upon conducting the necessary investigation, the conceptual dimension within the design area was analyzed. The SWOT table was presented, and the results obtained for improving environmental perception were arranged in the form of policy-making tables and operational projects tables for improving the sense of place, creating imagery, and other investigated components.

Keywords: public space, perception, environment, behavior

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8 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

Abstract:

Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh dam reservoir

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7 The Effectiveness of Spouses' Communication Skills Training on Reducing Emotional Harassment and Adjusting Marital Expectations: Married Iranian Women

Authors: Seyed Ali Kimiaei, Reza Pishghadam, Fatemeh Hajizadeh, Marjan Entezari

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Minnesota Spouses Communication Skills Program on reducing emotional harassment and adjusting the marital expectations of married women. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with waiting list group and follow-up period. The statistical population of the study consisted of married women referring to counseling and psychology centers in Mashhad, from which 30 people were selected as a sample by examining the entry criteria and questionnaire scores, and randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 people) and the waiting list group (15 people) were replaced. The experimental group was given 8 sessions of communication skills program of spouses. The emotional harassment and marital expectations questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the waiting list group, so that the communication skills training of the spouses reduced emotional harassment and adjusted marital expectations, and these effects continued in the follow-up period. Therefore, we can conclude that teaching the husband's communication skills program in the Minnesota method reduces emotional harassment and modifies women's marital expectations.

Keywords: spouses communication skills program, emotional harassment, marital expectations, women

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6 Assessment of the Indices in Converting Affect Rural to Urban Settlements Case Study: Torqabe and Shandiz Rural Districts in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Elham Sanagar Darbani, Behnosh Khir Khah, R.Khatami

Abstract:

Rural and ruralism is one of the residential forms that form in special natural areas, and the Interaction between their internal and external forces cause developments and changes that are different in time and space. Over time, historical developments, social and economic changes in the political system cause developments and rapid growth of the rural to urban settlements. However, criteria for recognizing rural settlements to the city are different in every land. One of the problems in modern plan is inattention to indicators and criteria of changing these settlements to the city. The method of this research is a type of applied and compilation research and library and field methods are used in it. And also qualitative and quantitative indicators have been provided while collecting documents and studies from rural districts like Dehnow, Virani, Abardeh, Zoshk, Nowchah, Jaqarq in tourism area of Mashhad. In this research, the used tool is questionnaire and for analyzing quantitative variables by Morris and Mac Granahan examination, the importance of each factor and the development settlements are evaluated, and the rural that can convert to the city was defined. In result, according to Askalvgram curve obtained from analysis, it was found that among the mentioned villages, Virani and Nowchah rural districts have this ability to convert to the city; Zoshk rural district will be converting to the city in future and Dehnow, Abardeh and Jaqarq rural districts won’t be converting.

Keywords: rural settlements, city, indicators, Torqabe and Shandiz rural districts

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5 The Role of the Accused’s Attorney in the Criminal Justice System of Iran, Mashhad 2014

Authors: Mahdi Karimi

Abstract:

One of the most basic standards of fair trial is the right to defense, hire an attorney and its presence in the hearing stages. On the one hand, based on the reason and justice, as the legal issues, particularly criminal affairs, become complicated, the accused must benefit from an attorney in the court in order to defend itself which requires legal knowledge. On the other hand, as the judicial system has jurists such as investigation judges at its disposal, the accused must enjoy the same right to defend itself and reject allegations so that the balance is maintained between the litigating parties based on the principle of "equality of arms". The right to adequate time and facilities for defense is cited among the principles and rights relevant to the proceedings in international regulations such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The innovations made in the Code of Criminal Procedure in 2013 guaranteed the presence of the accused’s attorney in the proceedings. The present study aims at assessing the result of the aforementioned guarantee in practice and made attempts to investigate the effect of the presence of accused’s attorney on reducing the punishment by asking the question and addressing the statistical population of this study including 48 judges of lower courts and courts of appeal. It seems that in despite of guarantees provided in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, Iran's penal system, does not tolerate the presence of an attorney in practice.

Keywords: defense attorney, equality of arms, fair trial, reducing the penalty, right to defense

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4 Evaluation of Wheat Sowing and Fertilizer Application Methods in Wheat Weeds Management

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi

Abstract:

In order to investigation the effects of sowing methods, nitrogen and phosphorus application methods in wheat weeds management, an experiment was performed as split plot, based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2010. Treatments included, wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 50 cm width ridges) as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots. In this experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization were super phosphate triple (150 kg ha-1) applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea (200 kg ha-1) respectively, applied in 2 phases (pre-plant 50%) and near wheat shooting (50%). Results showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods and wheat sowing methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing and reducing weed-wheat competition. Wheat twine row sowing method, reduced weeds biomass for 25% compared wheat single-row sowing method and increased wheat seed yield and biomass for 60% and 30% respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen band application reduced weeds biomass for 46% and 53% respectively and increased wheat seed yield for 22% and 33% compared to their broadcast application. The effects of wheat sowing method plus phosphorus and nitrogen application methods interactions, showed that the fertilizers band application and wheat twine-row sowing method were the best methods in wheat yield improvement and reducing wheat-weeds interaction. These results shows that modifying of fertilization methods and wheat sowing method can have important role in fertilizers use efficiency and improving of weeds managements.

Keywords: competition, wheat yield, fertilizer management, biomass

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3 Comparing the Effect of Group Education and Multimedia Software on Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Efficacy Mothers about of Sexual Health Education to the Boys of between 12-14 Years Old

Authors: Mirzaii Khadigeh

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Sexual health education is an important part of health promotion services. The major role of sex education is on mothers’ shoulders. So, they have to be equipped with enough knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy for teens’ education. The present study aimed to determine the effect of team-learning and multimedia software on mothers’ knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy in sexual health education to 12-14-year-old sons in Mashhad in 1395. Materials and methods: In this research, two experimental and one control group were employed using random sampling, which was done on 132 mothers of high school pupils. They were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The data were collected using demographic information and a researcher-constructed questionnaire to investigate the mothers’ knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy and DASS21(The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale). They were run after confirming their reliability and validity. Intervention for the multimedia group was in the form of four CDs- each for 45 minutes- that were given to the mothers each week. At the end of the fourth week, a question-and-answer session was administered for 60 minutes. The team-learning group received intervention once a week (totally four weeks). Two weeks later, the data were collected and analyzed via Chi-square, Fisher, Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA. Findings: Knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy of mothers in sexual health before the intervention did not have any significant differences (p >0.05). At the end of the study, the difference between the scores of the knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy in the three groups was meaningfully different (p < 0/001), but the difference between the two groups of multimedia and team-learning was not significant (p> 0.05 ). Discussion and conclusion: The result reported the efficacy of both team-leaning and multimedia software, which implies that the multimedia software training method was as effective as team-learning training one on the knowledge, attitude and self-efficacy of mothers. But, the multimedia training method is highly advised due to its availability, flexibility, and interest.

Keywords: training one on the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy of mothers, boys

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2 How Much the Role of Fertilizers Management and Wheat Planting Methods on Its Yield Improvement?

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi, Masoud Azad, Masumeh Dehghan

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of nitrogen and phosphoruse management and wheat sowing method on wheat yield, two experiments was performed as factorial, based on completely randomized design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009. In the first experiment nitrogen application rates (100kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1), phosphorus application rates (100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1) and two levels of their application methods (Broadcast and Band) were studied. The second experiment treatments included of wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 60 cm width ridges), as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots (150 kg ha-1). Phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization at both experiment were respectively super phosphate, applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea, applied in two phases (50% pre plant) and (50%) near wheat shooting. Results from first experiment showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing. Band application of phosphorus and nitrogen were increased biomass and seed yield of wheat with nine and 15% respectively compared to their broadcast application. The interaction between the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus application rate with phosphorus and nitrogen application methods, showed that band application of fertilizers and the rate of application of 200kg/ha phosphorus and 300kg/ha nitrogen were the best methods in wheat yield improvement. The second experiment also showed that the effect of wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat seed and biomass yield improvement. Wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method, increased its biomass and seed yield for 22% and 30% respectively compared to single-row with 30 cm. Wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods interaction indicated that band application of fertilizers and wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method was the best treatment on winter wheat yield improvement. In conclusion these results indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus management in wheat and modifying wheat sowing method have important role in increasing fertilizers use efficiency.

Keywords: band application, broadcast application, rate of fertilizer application, wheat seed yield, wheat biomass yield

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