Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1091

Search results for: nosocomial infection

1091 A Study on the Prevalence and Microbiological Profile of Nosocomial Infections in the ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections in the ICU and to identify the common microorganisms causing these infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Nosocomial infection or hospital-acquired infection is a localized or a systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents. Nosocomial infections are not present or incubating when the patient is admitted to hospital or other health care facility. They are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospitalized patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. These infections occur worldwide, both in the developed and developing the world. They are a significant burden to patients and public health. They are a major cause of death and increased morbidity in hospitalized patients, which is a matter of serious concern today. This study was done during the period of one year (2012-2013) in the ICU of the tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Prevalence of nosocomial infection was determined; site of infection and the pattern of microorganisms were identified along with the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility profile. Patients who developed an infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU were included in the study. A total of 324 ICU patients were analyzed, of these 79 patients were found to have developed a nosocomial infection (24.3% prevalence). Urinary tract infection was found to be more predominant followed by respiratory tract infection and soft tissue infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by other organisms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was done against commonly used antibiotics. Patients admitted to the ICU are especially susceptible to nosocomial infections. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, nosocomial ICU infections can significantly affect ICU stay and can cause an increase in patient’s morbidity and mortality. Adherence to infection protocol, proper monitoring and the judicious use of antibiotics are important in preventing such infections on a regular basis.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, nosocomial pathogen

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1090 Study of Germs Responsible of Nosocomial Infections in Hospital of Guelma

Authors: Wissem Abdaoui, Ilhem Mokhtari, Adel Gouri, Benouareth Djamel Eddine

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Contracted in a health facility, hospital-acquired infections are a major public health problem in recent years. The increase of nosocomial infections is partly related to diagnostic and therapeutic advances in medicine. The aim of our study was to isolate and diagnose some types of bacteria that are circulating in the hospital by performing different samples at two medical services: Pulmonary and Infectious Diseases. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed for bacterial isolates. The results have shown that there is a predominance of enterobacteria followed by the staphylococcus with its two species epidermidis ans saprophyticus. The study of the antibiogramme identified that some of these bacteria have a resistant profile against all the tested antibiotics. The fight against nosocomial infections is difficult because it must act on several factors: quality of care, safety of the hospital environment, hygiene, wearing gloves etc. are all areas that should be of heightened vigilance and preventive measures.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, isolation, identification, sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics

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1089 Attributable Mortality of Nosocomial Infection: A Nested Case Control Study in Tunisia

Authors: S. Ben Fredj, H. Ghali, M. Ben Rejeb, S. Layouni, S. Khefacha, L. Dhidah, H. Said

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Background: The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) provides continuous care and uses a high level of treatment technologies. Although developed country hospitals allocate only 5–10% of beds in critical care areas, approximately 20% of nosocomial infections (NI) occur among patients treated in ICUs. Whereas in the developing countries the situation is still less accurate. The aim of our study is to assess mortality rates in ICUs and to determine its predictive factors. Methods: We carried out a nested case-control study in a 630-beds public tertiary care hospital in Eastern Tunisia. We included in the study all patients hospitalized for more than two days in the surgical or medical ICU during the entire period of the surveillance. Cases were patients who died before ICU discharge, whereas controls were patients who survived to discharge. NIs were diagnosed according to the definitions of ‘Comité Technique des Infections Nosocomiales et les Infections Liées aux Soins’ (CTINLIS, France). Data collection was based on the protocol of Rea-RAISIN 2009 of the National Institute for Health Watch (InVS, France). Results: Overall, 301 patients were enrolled from medical and surgical ICUs. The mean age was 44.8 ± 21.3 years. The crude ICU mortality rate was 20.6% (62/301). It was 35.8% for patients who acquired at least one NI during their stay in ICU and 16.2% for those without any NI, yielding an overall crude excess mortality rate of 19.6% (OR= 2.9, 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.3). The population-attributable fraction due to ICU-NI in patients who died before ICU discharge was 23.46% (95% CI, 13.43%–29.04%). Overall, 62 case-patients were compared to 239 control patients for the final analysis. Case patients and control patients differed by age (p=0,003), simplified acute physiology score II (p < 10-3), NI (p < 10-3), nosocomial pneumonia (p=0.008), infection upon admission (p=0.002), immunosuppression (p=0.006), days of intubation (p < 10-3), tracheostomy (p=0.004), days with urinary catheterization (p < 10-3), days with CVC ( p=0.03), and length of stay in ICU (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 3 factors: age older than 65 years (OR, 5.78 [95% CI, 2.03-16.05] p=0.001), duration of intubation 1-10 days (OR, 6.82 [95% CI, [1.90-24.45] p=0.003), duration of intubation > 10 days (OR, 11.11 [95% CI, [2.85-43.28] p=0.001), duration of CVC 1-7 days (OR, 6.85[95% CI, [1.71-27.45] p=0.007) and duration of CVC > 7 days (OR, 5.55[95% CI, [1.70-18.04] p=0.004). Conclusion: While surveillance provides important baseline data, successful trials with more active intervention protocols, adopting multimodal approach for the prevention of nosocomial infection incited us to think about the feasibility of similar trial in our context. Therefore, the implementation of an efficient infection control strategy is a crucial step to improve the quality of care.

Keywords: intensive care unit, mortality, nosocomial infection, risk factors

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1088 Multilayer System of Thermosetting Polymers and Specific Confining, Application to the Walls of the Hospital Unit

Authors: M. Bouzid, A. Djadi, C. Aribi, A. Irekti, B. Bezzazi, F. Halouene

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The nature of materials structuring our health institutions promote the development of germs. The sustainability of nosocomial infections remains significant (12% and 15%). One of the major factors is the portland cement which is brittle and porous. As part of a national plan to fight nosocomial infections, led by the University Hospital of Blida, we opted for a composite coating, application by multilayer model, composed of epoxy-polyester resin as a binder and calcium carbonate as mineral fillers. The application of composite materials reinforce the wall coating of hospital units and eliminates the hospital infectious areas. The resistance to impact, chemicals, raising temperature and to a biologically active environment gives satisfactory results.

Keywords: nosocomial infection, microbial load, composite materials, portland cement

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1087 Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus and Implications to Trauma and Orthopaedic Care

Authors: O. Davies, K. Veravalli, P. Panwalkar, M. Tofighi, P. Butterick, B. Healy, A. Mofidi

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Vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection is a condition that usually impacts ICUs, transplant, dialysis, and cancer units, often as a nosocomial infection. After an outbreak in the acute trauma and orthopaedic unit in Morriston hospital, we aimed to access the conditions that predispose VRE infections in our unit. Thirteen cases of VRE infection and five cases of VRE colonisations were identified in patients who were treated for orthopaedic care between 1/1/2020 and 1/11/2021. Cases were reviewed to identify predisposing factors, specifically looking at age, presenting condition and treatment, presence of infection and antibiotic care, active haemo-oncological condition, long term renal dialysis, previous hospitalisation, VRE predisposition, and clearance (PREVENT) scores, and outcome of care. The presenting condition, treatment, presence of postoperative infection, VRE scores, age was compared between colonised and the infected cohort. VRE type in both colonised and infection group was Enterococcus Faecium in all but one patient. The colonised group had the same age (T=0.6 P>0.05) and sex (2=0.115, p=0.74), presenting condition and treatment which consisted of peri-femoral fixation or arthroplasty in all patients. The infected group had one case of myelodysplasia and four cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. All of the infected patient had sustained an infected complication of their fracture fixation or arthroplasty requiring reoperation and antibiotics. The infected group had an average VRE predisposition score of 8.5 versus the score of 3 in the colonised group (F=36, p<0.001). PREVENT score was 7 in the infected group and 2 in the colonised group(F=153, p<0.001). Six patients(55%) succumbed to their infection, and one VRE infection resulted in limb loss. In the orthopaedic cohort, VRE infection is a nosocomial condition that has peri-femoral predilection and is seen in association with immunosuppression or renal failure. The VRE infection cohort has been treated for infective complication of original surgery weeks prior to VRE infection. Based on our findings, we advise avoidance of infective complications, change of practice in use of antibiotics and use radical surgery and surveillance for VRE infections beyond infective precautions. PREVENT score shows that the infected group are unlikely to clear their VRE in the future but not the colonised group.

Keywords: surgical site infection, enterococcus, orthopaedic surgery, vancomycin resistance

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1086 Effective Infection Control Measures to Prevent Transmission of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms from Burn Transfer Cases in a Regional Burn Centre

Authors: Si Jack Chong, Chew Theng Yap, Wan Loong James Mok

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Introduction: Regional burn centres face the spectra of introduced multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) from transfer patients resident in MDRO endemic countries. MDRO can cause severe nosocomial infection, which in massive burn patients, will lead to greater morbidity and mortality and strain the institution financially. We aim to highlight 4 key measures that have effectively prevented transmission of imported MDRO. Methods: A case of Candida auris (C. auris) from a massive burn patient transferred from an MDRO endemic country is used to illustrate the measures. C. auris is a globally emerging multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. Results: Infection control measures used to mitigate the risk of outbreak from transfer cases are: (1) Multidisciplinary team approach involving Infection Control and Infectious Disease specialists early to ensure appropriate antibiotics use and implementation of barrier measures, (2) aseptic procedures for dressing change with strict isolation and donning of personal protective equipment in the ward, (3) early screening of massive burn patient from MDRO endemic region, (4) hydrogen peroxide vaporization terminal cleaning for operating theatres and rooms. Conclusion: The prevalence of air travel and international transfer to regional burn centres will need effective infection control measures to reduce the risk of transmission from imported massive burn patients. In our centre, we have effectively implemented 4 measures which have reduced the risks of local contamination. We share a recent case report to illustrate successful management of a potential MDRO outbreak resulting from transfer of massive burn patient resident in an MDRO endemic area.

Keywords: burns, burn unit, cross infection, infection control

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1085 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

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The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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1084 Screening of New Antimicrobial Agents from Heterocyclic Derivatives

Authors: W. Mazari, K. Boucherit, Z. Boucherit-Otmani, M. N. Rahmoun, M. Benabdallah

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The hospital or any other establishment of care can be considered as an ecosystem where the patient comes into contact with a frightening microbial universe and a risk to contract infection that is referred to as nosocomial or health care-associated. In these last years, the incidence of these infections has risen sharply. Several microorganisms are the cause of these nosocomial infections and the emergence of resistance of the microbial strains against antibiotics creates a danger to public health. The search for new antimicrobial agents to overcome this problem has produced interesting compounds through chemical synthesis, which plays a very important role in the research and discovery of new drugs. It is in this framework that our study was conducted at our laboratory and it involves evaluating the antibacterial activity of thirteen 2-pyridone derivatives synthesized by two methods, the diffusion disc method and the dilution method against eight Gram negative bacterial strains. The results seem interesting especially for two products that have shown the best activities against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047 with CMI of 512µg/ml.

Keywords: heterocyclic derivatives, chemical synthesis, antimicrobial activity, biotechnology

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1083 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

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One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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1082 Investigation of Clusters of MRSA Cases in a Hospital in Western Kenya

Authors: Lillian Musila, Valerie Oundo, Daniel Erwin, Willie Sang

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Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major cause of nosocomial infections in Kenya. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections are a significant burden to public health and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. At a hospital in Western Kenya two clusters of MRSA cases emerged within short periods of time. In this study we explored whether these clusters represented a nosocomial outbreak by characterizing the isolates using phenotypic and molecular assays and examining epidemiological data to identify possible transmission patterns. Specimens from the site of infection of the subjects were collected, cultured and S. aureus isolates identified phenotypically and confirmed by APIStaph™. MRSA were identified by cefoxitin disk screening per CLSI guidelines. MRSA were further characterized based on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and spa gene typing. Characteristics of cases with MRSA isolates were compared with those with MSSA isolated around the same time period. Two cases of MRSA infection were identified in the two week period between 21 April and 4 May 2015. A further 2 MRSA isolates were identified on the same day on 7 September 2015. The antibiotic resistance patterns of the two MRSA isolates in the 1st cluster of cases were different suggesting that these were distinct isolates. One isolate had spa type t2029 and the other had a novel spa type. The 2 isolates were obtained from urine and an open skin wound. In the 2nd cluster of MRSA isolates, the antibiotic susceptibility patterns were similar but isolates had different spa types: one was t037 and the other a novel spa type different from the novel MRSA spa type in the first cluster. Both cases in the second cluster were admitted into the hospital but one infection was community- and the other hospital-acquired. Only one of the four MRSA cases was classified as an HAI from an infection acquired post-operatively. When compared to other S. aureus strains isolated within the same time period from the same hospital only one spa type t2029 was found in both MRSA and non-MRSA strains. None of the cases infected with MRSA in the two clusters shared any common epidemiological characteristic such as age, sex or known risk factors for MRSA such as prolonged hospitalization or institutionalization. These data suggest that the observed MRSA clusters were multi strain clusters and not an outbreak of a single strain. There was no clear relationship between the isolates by spa type suggesting that no transmission was occurring within the hospital between these cluster cases but rather that the majority of the MRSA strains were circulating in the community. There was high diversity of spa types among the MRSA strains with none of the isolates sharing spa types. Identification of disease clusters in space and time is critical for immediate infection control action and patient management. Spa gene typing is a rapid way of confirming or ruling out MRSA outbreaks so that costly interventions are applied only when necessary.

Keywords: cluster, Kenya, MRSA, spa typing

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1081 Availability of TB Infection Control Plans at Rural Hospitals of South Africa

Authors: Takalani Tshitangano

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Background: In Limpopo province the rate of new tuberculosis (TB) cases increase daily. The Infection Control (IC) plan is one of the essential actions for TB IC. This study aimed to establish the availability of these plans at health care facilities. Objectives: The objectives were to explore and describe the awareness and knowledge of health care workers (HCWs) of the availability and content of TB IC plan; and to identity the role of infection control committees from the perspective of HCWs. Method: A qualitative approach using a cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The target population was all HCWs from the seven hospitals of Vhembe district. A purposive sampling approach was used to select 57 participants. The approval to conduct this study was obtained from the relevant authorities and participants. Data were collected through seven focus group discussions comprising five to 10 members. An unstructured discussion guide was used to collect data, and an open-coding method was used to analyse the data. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings. Results: Findings revealed that HCWs were not aware of the availability and the information contained in the TB IC plans. No person was designated as TB IC officer at hospital level. There was lack of a TB IC Committee and teams as well as ineffective utilisation of those that did exist. Conclusions: It was concluded that if the TB IC plans are not available at health care facilities, then the TB IC practices implemented by HCWs vary, resulting in TB nosocomial infection transmission. It was recommended that the World Health Organisation’s TB IC plans be adopted and implemented in Vhembe district.

Keywords: health care workers' awareness, health care workers' knowledge, availability of TB infection control plans, rural hospitals

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1080 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

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The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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1079 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin

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This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: HBV infection, HBV vaccine, children, Egypt

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1078 Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Farm Animals by Coprological Examination

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody

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In the present study 442 fecal samples from cattle, buffaloes, and sheep for contamination with helminthes. Samples were examined from 171 cattle, 128 buffaloes, and 143 sheep. The testing, during the period from May 2014 to April 2015, showed that 81 out of 171cattle were positive for helminthes infection (47.3%), with the rate of infection higher in females (55%) than in males (40%). In buffaloes, 41 of 128 tested were positive, a 32% rate of infection. Again, the infection rate was higher in females (47%) than in males (22%). In sheep, the rate of infection was highest of all three species. The results showed that, the infection rate among cattle were 50.3 % and Trichostrongyle species were the predominant parasites among both cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate was much higher in females than males. Regarding seasonal dynamics the highest infection rates with helminthes reported was in spring season.

Keywords: helminthes, prevalence, ruminants, trichostrongyle

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1077 Control of an Outbreak of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in a Tunisian Teaching Hospital

Authors: Hela Ghali, Sihem Ben Fredj, Mohamed Ben Rejeb, Sawssen Layouni, Salwa Khefacha, Lamine Dhidah, Houyem Said Laatiri

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to public health and motivates to improve prevention and control programs both at international (WHO) and national levels. Despite their low pathogenicity, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens in several countries. The high potential for transmission of VRE between patients and the threat to send its resistance genes to other bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus already resistant to meticilin, justify strict control measures. Indeed, in Europe, the proportion of Enterococcus faecium responsible for invasive infections, varies from 1% to 35% in 2011 and less than 5% were resistant to vancomycin. In addition, it represents the second cause of urinary tract and wound infections and the third cause of nosocomial bacteremia in the United States. The nosocomial outbreaks of VRE have been mainly described in intensive care services, hematology-oncology and haemodialysis. An epidemic of VRE has affected our hospital and the objective of this work is to describe the measures put in place. Materials/Methods: Following the alert given by the service of plastic surgery concerning a patient carrier of VRE, a team of the prevention and healthcare security service (doctor + technician) made an investigation. A review of files was conducted to draw the synoptic table and the table of cases. Results: By contacting the microbiology laboratory, we have identified four other cases of VRE and who were hospitalized in Medical resuscitation department (2 cases, one of them was transferred to the Physical rehabilitation department), and Nephrology department (2 cases). The visit has allowed to detect several malfunctions in professional practice. A crisis cell has allowed to validate, coordinate and implement control measures following the recommendations of the Technical Center of nosocomial infections. In fact, the process was to technically isolate cases in their sector of hospitalization, to restrict the use of antibiotics, to strength measures of basic hygiene, and to make a screening by rectal swab for both cases and contacts (other patients and health staff). These measures have helped to control the situation and no other case has been reported for a month. 2 new cases have been detected in the intensive care unit after a month. However, these are short-term strategies, and other measures in the medium and long term should be taken into account in order to face similar outbreaks. Conclusion: The efforts to control the outbreak were not efficient since 2 new cases have been reported after a month. Therefore, a continuous monitoring in order to detect new cases earlier is crucial to minimize the dissemination of VRE.

Keywords: hospitals, nosocomial infection, outbreak, vancomycin-resistant enterococci

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1076 Impact of Tuberculosis Co-infection on Cytokine Expression in HIV-Infected Individuals

Authors: M. Nosik, I. Rymanova, N. Adamovich, S. Sevostyanihin, K. Ryzhov, Y. Kuimova, A. Kravtchenko, N. Sergeeva, A. Sobkin

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HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) infections each speed the other's progress. HIV-infection increases the risk of TB disease. At the same time, TB infection is associated with clinical progression of HIV-infection. HIV+TB co-infected patients are also at higher risk of acquiring new opportunistic infections. An important feature of disease progression and clinical outcome is the innate and acquired immune responses. HIV and TB, however, have a spectrum of dysfunctions of the immune response. As cytokines play a crucial role in the immunopathology of both infections, it is important to study immune interactions in patients with dual infection HIV+TB. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and immunoregulating cytokines IL-4, IL-10 were evaluated in 75 patients with dual infection HIV+TB, 58 patients with HIV monoinfection and 50 patients with TB monoinfection who were previously naïve for HAART. The decreased levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in patients with dual infection HIV+TB in comparison with patients who had only HIV or TB which means the profound suppression of Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Thus, those cytokines could possibly serve as immunological markers of progression of HIV-infection in patients with TB.

Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), HIV associated with TB, Th1/ Th2 cytokine expression

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1075 Percentage of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Dyspeptic Patients in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Alshunaibir

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Infection with Helicobacter pylori is common worldwide but few studies focus on the prevalence and spread of the infection in Saudi Arabia. This study was undertaken to observe the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients suffering from gastrointestinal sign and symptoms in one of the largest hospitals in the capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was undertaken for this study with nearly 6000 samples collected and examined for patients suffering from (dyspeptic) symptoms ranging in their age from 5 to 75 years. Results: The prevalence of helicobacter infection was 67% increasing with age. Female shows higher percentage of H. pylori infection than male. Conclusions: The percentage rate was higher in female than male. This study shows a high percentage of helicobacter infection in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, percentage, dyspeptic, Saudi Arabia

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1074 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc

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Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: E. faecium, pathogenesis, polysaccharides, biofilm formation

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1073 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

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Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

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1072 Plasmodium falciparum and Scistosoma haematobium Co-infection in School Aged Children in Jinduut, Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Dakul, T. M. Akindigh, B. J. Dogonyaro, O. J. Abba, K. T. Tangtur, N. Sambo, J. A. E. Okopi, J. A. Yohanna, G. E. Imade, G. S. Mwansat, S. Oguche

Abstract:

Malaria and urinary Schistosomaisis are both endemic in Nigeria and pose a serious health challenge in rural areas where co-infections are common. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of co-infection and the impact of concurrent infection on haemoglobin concentration, Eosinophil and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (MRDT) kits and the presence of visible haematuria respectively and confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 110 children examined, 13 (11.8%) had concurrent infection with Schistosoma haematobium falciparum, 46(41.8%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection while 16(14.5%) had Schistosoma haematobium infection. A strong association between co-infection and the ages of 10-15 years with a 36.4% prevalence of anaemia was observed. Malaria was significantly associated with anaemia than with concurrent infections or schistomiasis alone. Co-infection with both pathogens and a high prevalence of anaemia was observed in Jinduut community. Although the causes of anaemia are multi-factorial, further investigation into the extent to which malaria and urinary schistosomiasis contribute to anaemia is needed. Also, integrated control efforts must be strengthened to mitigate the impact of concurrent infection in this group of vulnerable members in the community. The results can be applied to other communities during control.

Keywords: co-Infection, plasmodium falciparum and scistosoma haematobium, Jinduut, Nigeria

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1071 Epidemiology of Bone Hydatidosis in Eastern Libya from 1995 to 2013

Authors: Sadek A. Makhlouf, Hassan M. Nouh

Abstract:

Bone hydatidosis is an infection in worldwide distribution. Although there is no evidence in literature on Bone Hydatid disease in Libya, we tried to present the first epidemiological study of this disease in Eastern Libya through retrospective study from 1995 to 2013. Our data were collected from 3 hospitals in Eastern Libya particularly the sheep-raising areas with total number of musculoskeletal infection cases of two thousand one hundred ninety-four (2,194). There were five (5) five cases of bone infection, four (4) of it have been diagnosed after more than three (3) months. Our study is comparable to other international study but this type of bone infection need further studies for effective control strategies for all dogs to avoid serious complications that might happened from the delay in diagnosing this type of disease.

Keywords: bone infection, hydatidosis, Eastern Libya, sheep-raising areas

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1070 A Study on the Microbilogical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

The study was done to determine the microbiological profile and changing pattern of the pathogens causing UTI in the ICU patients. All the patients admitted to the ICU with urinary catheter insertion for more than 48hours were included in the study. Urine samples were collected in a sterile container with aseptic precaution using disposable syringe and was processed as per standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Disc Diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from ICU patients, out of which 30% showed significant bacterial growth and 7% showed growth of candida spp. Prevalence of UTI was more in female (73%) than male (27.%). Gram-negative bacilli 26(86.67%) were more common in our study followed by gram-positive cocci 4(13.33%). The most common uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 14 (46.67%), followed by Klebsiella spp 7(23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(13.33%), Acinetobacter spp 3(10%), Enterococcus faecalis 1(3.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(3.33%). Most of the Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to amikacin (80%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), where as all gram-positive organisms were sensitive to Vancomycin. A large number ESBL producers were also observed in this study. The study finding showed that E.coli is the predominant pathogen and has increasing resistance pattern to the commonly used antibiotics. The study proposes that the adherence to antibiotic policy is the key ingredients for successful outcome in ICU patients and also emphasizes that repeated evaluation of microbial characteristics and continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection

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1069 Primary Cryptococcal Pneumonia in an HIV Positive Filipino Patient

Authors: Mark Andrew Tu, Raymond Olazo, Cybele Abad

Abstract:

Cryptococcosis is an invasive infection most commonly found in patients who are immuno compromised. However, patients with this infection usually present with meningitis and rarely pulmonary infection in isolation. We present a case of a Filipino HIV patient who developed cryptococcal pneumonia without meningitis.

Keywords: Cryptococcal Pneumonia, HIV, Filipino, immune system

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1068 Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in a Selected Barangay in the Philippines

Authors: Gil Soriano, Aubreyrose Casilang

Abstract:

Soil-transmitted helminth infection remains to be one of the leading public health problem worldwide, which is common in the rural developing regions especially among children. This study aimed to detect the presence of soil transmitted helminths among children and its associated transmission factors. Descriptive cross sectional research was the design used in the study and questionnaires were administered. Stool samples were collected among the samples (n=108) and were analyzed using kato thick method. Results showed that 61 out of 108 respondents are infected by soil transmitted helminth infection with A. lumbricoides the highest, followed by hookworm and T. trichuria. Parent's educational attainment, hand washing practices, and water sources were found to be associated with presence of Soil Transmitted Helminth infection.

Keywords: associated risk factors, barangay, school children, soil transmitted helminth infection

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1067 Two Strain Dengue Dynamics Incorporating Temporary Cross Immunity with ADE Effect

Authors: Sunita Gakkhar, Arti Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear host vector model has been proposed and analyzed for the two strain dengue dynamics incorporating ADE effect. The model considers that the asymptomatic infected people are more responsible for secondary infection than that of symptomatic ones and differentiates between them. The existence conditions are obtained for various equilibrium points. Basic reproduction number has been computed and analyzed to explore the effect of secondary infection enhancement parameter on dengue infection. Stability analyses of various equilibrium states have been performed. Numerical simulation has been done for the stability of endemic state.

Keywords: dengue, ade, stability, threshold, asymptomatic, infection

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1066 Antiviral Activity of Interleukin-11 in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection

Authors: Li Yuchen, Wu Qingxin, Jin Yuxing, Yang Qian

Abstract:

Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, helps to protect against intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known about the role of IL-11 during viral infection. Herein, high mRNA and protein levels of IL-11 were found in epithelial cells and jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and IL-11 expression was positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) suppressed PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 inhibited viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells through activating the IL-11/STAT3 signal pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggested that that IL-11 is a novel PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential uses of IL-11 as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.

Keywords: Interleukin-11, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, STAT3, anti-apoptosis

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1065 Hepatitis B Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Foad Davoodbeglou, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Hossein Goudarzi, Fariba Shojaei, Hourieh Aram

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. Some people are more susceptible to this infection. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors. Materials and methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method. Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity. Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is high in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBV vaccine, intellectually disabled children, mentally retarded

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1064 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Unit Patients in a University Practice and Research Hospital

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulsah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) has recently emerged as an important nosocomial microorganism. Treatment of invasive infections caused by this organism is problematic because this microorganism is usually resistant to a wide range of commonly used antimicrobials. We aimed to evaluate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia in respect to sampling sites and antimicrobial resistant. Method: During a two years period (October 2013 and September 2015) eighteen samples collected from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients hospitalized in Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Practice and Research Hospital. Identification of the bacteria was determined by conventional methods and automated identification system-VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’toile, France). Antibacterial resistance tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc (Oxoid, England) diffusion method following the recommendations of CLSI. Results: Eighteen S. maltophilia strains were identified as the causative agents of different infections. The main type of infection was lower respiratory tract infection (83,4 %); three patients (16,6 %) had bloodstream infection. While, none of the 18 S. maltophilia strains were found to be resistant against to trimethoprim sulfametaxasole (TMP-SXT) and levofloxacine, eight strains 66.6 % were found to be resistant against ceftazidim. Conclusion: The isolation of S.maltophilia starains resistant to TMP-SXT is vital. In order to prevent or minimize infections due to S. maltophilia such precuations should be utilized: Avoidance of inappropriate antibiotic use, prolonged implementation of foreign devices, reinforcement of hand hygiene practices and the application of appropriate infection control practices. Microbiology laboratories also may play important roles in controlling S. maltophilia infections by monitoring the prevalence, continuously, the provision of local antibiotic resistance paterns data and the performance of synergistic studies also may help to guide appropirate antimicrobial therapy choices.

Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, antimicrobial resistance, Stenotrophomonas spp.

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1063 Study on the Incidence of Chikungunya Infection in Swat Region

Authors: Nasib Zaman, Maneesha Kour, Muhammad Rizwan, Fazal Akbar

Abstract:

Abstract: Chikungunya fever is a re-emerging rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease cause by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. Currently, it is affecting millions of people globally. Objective: This study's main objective was to find the incidence of chikungunya fever in the Swat region and the factors associated with the spread of this infection. Method: This study was carried out in different areas of Swat. Blood samples and data were collected from selected patients, and a questionnaire was filled for each patient. 3-5ml of the specimen was taken from the patient's vein and serum, or plasma was separated by centrifugation. Chikungunya tests were performed for IgG and IgM antibodies. The data was analyzed by SPSS and Graph Paid Prism 5. Results: A total of 169 patients were included in this study, out of which 103 (60.9%) having age less than 30 years were positive for chikungunya infection and 66 (39.1%) having more than 30 years were negative for this infection. Only 1 (0.6%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibody. About 15 (8.9%) patients have diagnosed with positive IgG antibodies, and 25 (26.6%) patients were positive for IgM positive antibodies. The infection rate was significantly higher in males compared to females 71 (59.6%) vs. 14 (38%) P value=0.088, OR=1.7. Conclusion: This study concludes clinical knowledge and awareness that are necessary for a diagnosis of chikungunya infection properly. Therefore it is important to educate people for the eradication of this infection. Recommendation: This study also recommends investigating the other risk factors associated with this infection.

Keywords: Chikungunya, risk factor, Incidence, antibodies, mosquito

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1062 The Abnormality of Blood Cells Parasitized by Plasmodium vivax

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Kwuntida Uthaisar, Phiman Thirarattanasunthon, Bhukdee PhunPhuech, Nuoil Phiwklam

Abstract:

Introduction: Malaria due to Plasmodium vivax has placed huge burdens on the health, longevity, and general prosperity of large sections of the human population. This study aimed at prospectively collecting information on the clinical profile of Plasmodium vivax from subjects acutely infected with P. vivax residing in some of the highest malaria transmission regions in Thailand. Methods: A retrospective study of malaria cases, hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and parasitological results on admission, age, and gender were mined from medical records at Phop Phra Hospital located in endemic areas of Tak Province, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to the hospital to determine the present of parasite and also parasite count by thick and thin film examination, and also Complete blood count (CBC) parameters. Results: Results showed that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax (276 cases) had a high monocyte count (mean=390 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously lower during later stage (any stage with gametocyte, mean=230 cells/µL) of infection (P value=0.021) whereas, patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had a low basophil count (mean=20 cells/µL) during initial stage of infection and continuously higher during later stage of infection (mean at stage with gametocyte=70 cells/µL) (P value=0.033). In addition, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count (mean=1180 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=1350 cells/µL)(P value=0.011) whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count (mean=60 cells/µL) than patients with only one stage infection (mean=80 cells/µL) (P value=0.01). Conclusion: This study indicated that patients infected with Plasmodium vivax had high monocyte count and low basophil count during initial stage of infection which was continuously lower during later stage of infection. Patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower lymphocyte count than patients with only one stage infection whereas, patients with more than one stage infection tend to have lower basophil count than patients with only one stage infection. This information contributes to better understanding of pathological characteristic of Plasmodium vivax infection.

Keywords: plasmodium vivax, Thailand, asexual erythrocytic stages, hematological parameters

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