Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: biofertilizer

20 Potential of Intercropping Corn and Cowpea to Ratooned Sugarcane for Food and Forage

Authors: Maricon E. Gepolani, Edna A. Aguilar, Pearl B. Sanchez, Enrico P. Supangco

Abstract:

Intercropping farming system and biofertilizer application are sustainable agricultural practices that increase farm productivity by improving the yield performance of the components involved in the production system. Thus, this on-farm trial determined the yield and forage quality of corn and cowpea with and without biofertilizer application when intercropped with ratooned sugarcane. Intercropping corn and cowpea without biofertilizer application had no negative effect on the vegetative growth of sugarcane. However, application of biofertilizer on intercrops decreased tiller production at 117 days after stubble shaving (DASS), consequently reducing the estimated tonnage yield of sugarcane. The yield of intercrops and forage production of Cp3 cowpea variety increased when intercropped to ratooned sugarcane. In contrast, intercropping PSB 97-92 corn variety to ratooned sugarcane reduced its forage production, but when biofertilizer was applied to intercropped Cp5 cowpea variety, the forage production increased. Profitability (income equivalent ratio) of intercropping for both corn and cowpea are higher than monocropping and are thus suitable intercrops to ratooned sugarcane. Unaffected tiller count (a determinant of sugarcane tonnage yield) when biofertilizer was not applied to intercrops and a reduced tiller count with biofertilizer application to intercrops implies the need to develop a nutrient management practices specific for intercropping systems.

Keywords: biofertilizer, corn, cowpea, intercropping system, ratooned sugarcane

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19 Variability for Nodulation and Yield Traits in Biofertilizer Treated and Untreated Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Varieties

Authors: Areej Javaid, Nishat Fatima, Mehwish Naseer

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There is a tremendous use of biofertilizers in agriculture to increase crop productivity. Pakistan spends a huge amount on the purchase of synthetic fertilizers every year. The use of natural compounds to harness crop productivity is the major area of interest nowadays due to being safe for human health and the environment as well. Legumes have the intrinsic quality to enrich the nutrient status of soil because of the presence of nitrogen fixation bacteria on nodules. This research determined the effect of biofertilizer on nodulation attributes and yield of the pea plant. Seeds of pea varieties were treated with a slurry of biofertilizer prepared in a 10% sugar solution just before seed sowing. The impact of biofertilizer on different parameters of growth, yield and nodulation was observed. Analysis of variance showed that plant height, days to flowering, number of nodes, days to first pod, root length and plant height exhibited significant genetic variation. All the yield parameters, including the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, seed fresh and dry weight showed significant results under treatment. Among nodulation parameters, nodule number responded positively to biofertilizer treatment. Genotypes 2001-40 showed better performance followed by 2001-20 and LINA-PAK in all the parameters, whereas 2001-40 and 2001-20 performed well in nodulation and yield parameters. Consequently, seed treatment with biofertilizer before sowing is recommended to obtain higher crop yield.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, correlation analysis, quantitative inheritance, varietal responses

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
18 Cyanobacterial Biofertilizer Technology for Rice Producing Farmers at Nashik District

Authors: Krishna N. Gaikwad, V. R. Kakulte

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main cereal crop of tribal people of western part of Nasik district. There is a wide fluctuation in yield due to the factors like uncertain rains, pest diseases, socio-economic status of farmers, lack of awareness and traditional knowledge of farmers about agro-practices. In order to achieve more yield, it is a need to adopt low cost, eco-friendly blue green algal biofertilizer technology. Communication of useful information to needy people is basic need in present situation. The paper reports different communication modes of paddy technologies, adoption about BGA technology, attitudinal changes of farmers and yield of rice production during year 2011 and 2012. The results indicate that there is significant effect of communication modes of improved BGA technology on rice yield.

Keywords: rice, BGA, biofertilizer, Oryza sativa L.

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17 Effects of Organic Fertilizer and Azotobacter and Azospirillum Bacteria on Concentration and Composition of Essential Oil of Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

Authors: M. T. Darzi, M. Shirkhodaei, M. R. Haj Seyed Hadi

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The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic fertilizer and azotobacter and azospirillum bacteria on concentration and composition of essential oil in the coriander essential oil content, essential oil yield, linalool percent, alpha pinene percent and cymene percent in essential oil. The experiment was carried out as factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with eight treatments and three replications at research field of Agriculture Company of Ran in Firouzkuh of iran in 2012. The factors were Vermicompost in four levels (0, 3, 6 and 9 ton/ha) and biofertilizer, mixture of Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum lipoferum in two levels (non-inoculated and inoculated seeds). The present results have shown that vermicompost had significant effects on evaluated traits except linalool percent in essential oil, as the highest essential oil content, essential oil yield and alpha pinene percent in essential were obtained after applying 6 ton/ha vermicompost. The minimum cymene percent in essential oil were obtained after applying 6 ton/ha vermicompost. Biofertilizer also showed significant effects on essential oil yield only. The highest essential oil yield were obtained by using the biofertilizer (inoculated seeds).

Keywords: coriander, vermicompost, biofertilizer, essential oil

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16 OBD-Biofertilizer Impact on Crop Yield and Soil Quality in Lowland Rice Production, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele A. Otaiku

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Purpose: Nigeria has become the largest importer of rice in Africa and second in the world, 2015. Investigate interactions of organic rice farming on soil quality and health from bio-waste converted to biofertilizer and its environmental impact on rice crop. Methodology: Bio-wastes, poultry waste, organic agriculture wastes, wood ash mixed with microbial inoculant organisms called OBD-Plus microbes (broad spectrum) composted in anaerobic digester to OBD-biofertilizer (2010 - 2012) uses microbes to build humus and other stable carbons. Two field experiments were carried out at Badeggi, Niger state in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the response of lowland rice production using biofertilizer. The experimental field was laid out in a strip-plot design with five treatments and three replications and at twenty-one day old seedlings of FARO 44 and FARO 52 rice varieties were transplanted. Plots without fertiliser application served as control. Findings: The highest rice grain yield increase of 4.4 t/ha over the control in 2012 against the Nigeria average of lowland rice grain yields of 1.5 t/ha. The utilization of OBD-Biofertilizer can decrease the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, prevent the depletion of soil organic matter and reduce environmental pollution. Increasing the floodwater productivity and optimizing the recycling of nutrients cum grazer populations and disease by biocontrols microbes present in the OBD-Biofertilizer. Organic matter in the soil improves by 58% and C/N 15 (2011) and 13.35 (2012). Implications: OBD- Biofertilizer produce plant growth hormones such as indole acetic acid (IAA), glomalin related soil protein and extracellular enzymes as phosphatases that promote soil health and quality. Conclusion: Microorganisms can enhance nutrients use efficiency by increasing root surface area e.g., mycorrhizal, fungi, promoting other beneficial symbioses of the host plant and microbial interactions resulting to increase in soil organic matter. By 2030, climate change is projected to depress cereal production in Africa by 2 to 3 percent. Improved seeds and increased fertilizer use should more than compensate, but this factor will still weigh heavily on efforts to make progress.

Keywords: OBD-plus microbial consortia, OBD-biofertilizer, rice production, soil quality, sustainable agriculture

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15 Effects of Nitroxin Fertilizer on Physiological Characters Forage Millet under Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Darbani, Jafar Masoud Sinaki, Armaghan Abedzadeh Neyshaburi

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An experiment was conducted as split plot factorial design using randomized complete block design in Damghan in 2012-2013 in order to investigate the effects of irrigation cut off (based on the Phenological stages of plants) on physiological properties of forage millet cultivars. The treatments included three irrigation levels (control with full irrigation, irrigation cut off when flowering started, and irrigation cut off when flowering ended) in the main plots, and applying nitroxin biofertilizer (+), not applying nitroxin biofertilizer (control), and Iranian forage millet cultivars (Bastan, Pishahang, and Isfahan) in the subplots. The highest rate of ashes and water-soluble carbohydrates content were observed in the cultivar Bastan (8.22 and 8.91%, respectively), the highest content of fiber and water (74.17 and 48.83%, respectively) in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started, and the largest proline concentration (μmol/gfw-1) was seen in the treatment of irrigation cut off when flowering started. very rapid growth of millet, its short growing season, drought tolerance, its unique feature regarding harvest time, and its response to nitroxin biofertilizer can help expanding its cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

Keywords: irrigation cut off, forage millet, Nitroxin fertilizer, physiological properties

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14 Evaluation of Liquid Fermentation Strategies to Obtain a Biofertilizer Based on Rhizobium sp.

Authors: Andres Diaz Garcia, Ana Maria Ceballos Rojas, Duvan Albeiro Millan Montano

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This paper describes the initial technological development stages in the area of liquid fermentation required to reach the quantities of biomass of the biofertilizer microorganism Rhizobium sp. strain B02, for the application of the unitary stages downstream at laboratory scale. In the first stage, the adjustment and standardization of the fermentation process in conventional batch mode were carried out. In the second stage, various fed-batch and continuous fermentation strategies were evaluated in 10L-bioreactor in order to optimize the yields in concentration (Colony Forming Units/ml•h) and biomass (g/l•h), to make feasible the application of unit operations downstream of process. The growth kinetics, the evolution of dissolved oxygen and the pH profile generated in each of the strategies were monitored and used to make sequential adjustments. Once the fermentation was finished, the final concentration and viability of the obtained biomass were determined and performance parameters were calculated with the purpose of select the optimal operating conditions that significantly improved the baseline results. Under the conditions adjusted and standardized in batch mode, concentrations of 6.67E9 CFU/ml were reached after 27 hours of fermentation and a subsequent noticeable decrease was observed associated with a basification of the culture medium. By applying fed-batch and continuous strategies, significant increases in yields were achieved, but with similar concentration levels, which involved the design of several production scenarios based on the availability of equipment usage time and volume of required batch.

Keywords: biofertilizer, liquid fermentation, Rhizobium sp., standardization of processes

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13 Nitrogen Fixation, Cytokinin and Exopolysachharide Production by indigenous Azotobacter spp. from East Nusa Tenggara

Authors: Reginawanti Hindersah, Widiya Septiani Perdanawati, Dewi Azizah Sulaksana, Hidiyah Ayu Ma’rufah

Abstract:

Maize in some region in East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia bordering Republic Democratic of Timor Leste is important local food crop and commonly cultivated using conventional method without appropriate plant nutrition system so that productivity is still low. A way to enhance local corn yield is adding biofertilizer containing nitrogen (N2) fixing bacteria such as Azotobacter. The purpose of this research was to determine N2 fixation, cytokinin as well as exopolysachharide production capacity of six indigenous Azotobacter strains in pure culture. The N2 fixation capacities of native 3 day old Azotobacter strains added to Ashby Media varied from 0.01 to 0.39 µM/g/hour. Cytokinin production of these strain in liquid culture of N-free Media was 0.11 to 40.04 ppm while exopolysachharide content in liquid culture of Vermani Media varied from 0.4 to 27.3 g/L. This results demonstrate that some local Azotobacter strains might be used as biofertilizer.

Keywords: azotobacter, local isolate, N fixation, phythohormone, exopolysaccaride

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12 Investigating the Effects of Density and Different Nitrogen Nutritional Systems on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.)

Authors: Mohammadreza Delfieh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy, Rouzbeh Farhoudi

Abstract:

Fennel is of most important medicinal plants which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of this valuable medicinal plant, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments and based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of: 1. N1 or control (Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, 50% at planting time and 50% at stem elongation), 2. N2 (Uniformly spreading 50% of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other 50% of urea fertilizer at stem elongation on fennel foliage), 3. N3 or cow manure, 4. N4 or biofertilizer (Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 5. N5 or Integrated-1 (Cow manure + uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot at stem elongation), 6. N6 or Integrated-2 (Cow manure + Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum) were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of: 1. FD1 (60 plant/m2), 2. FD2 (80 plant/m2) and 3. FD3 (100 plant/m2) were applied to subplots. Results showed that all of the traits were significantly affected by applied treatments (P 0.01). The interaction between treatments also were significant at 5 percent level for shoot dry weight and at 1 percent level for other traits. Based on the results, using the Integrated-1 treatment at 100 plant per m2 produced 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Utilization of such combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment.

Keywords: fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), nutritional system, nitrogen, biofertilizer, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, density

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11 Evaluation of Biofertilizer and Manure Effects on Quantitative Yield of Nigella Sativa L.

Authors: Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi, Fereshteh Ghanepasand, Mohammad Taghi Darzi

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The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of Nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure application on the seed yield and yield components in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). The experiment was carried out at the RAN Research Station in Firouzkouh in 2012. A 4×4 factorial experiment, arranged in a randomized complete blocks designed with three replications. The treatments consisted of 4 level of nitrogen fixing bacteria (control, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Azotobacter + Azospirillum) and 4 level of manure (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ton ha-1). The present results have shown that the highest height, 1000 seeds weight, seed number per follicle, follicle yield, seed yield and harvest index were obtained after using Azotobacter and Azospirillum, simultaneously. Manure application only affects on follicle yield and by 5ton manure ha-1 the highest follicle yield obtained. Results of this investigation showed that the maximum seed yield obtained when Aotobacter+Azospirillum inoculated with black cumin seeds and 5 ton manure ha-1 applied. Combined application of nitrogen fixing bacteria and manure can be helpful in developing of production and yield in Black cumin.

Keywords: azotobacter, azospirillum, black cumin, yield, yield components

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10 Biofertilization of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Using Trichoderma longibrachiatum

Authors: Kehinde T. Kareem

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The need to increase the production of cucumber has led to the use of inorganic fertilizers. This chemical affects the ecological balance of nature by increasing the nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the soil. Surface runoffs into rivers and streams cause eutrophication which affects aquatic organisms as well as the consumers of aquatic animals. Therefore, this study was carried out in the screenhouse to investigate the use of a plant growth-promoting fungus; Trichoderma longibrachiatum for the growth promotion of conventional and in-vitro propagated Ashley and Marketmoor cucumber. Before planting of cucumber, spore suspension (108 cfu/ml) of Trichoderma longibrachiatum grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) was inoculated into the soil. Fruits were evaluated for the presence of Trichoderma longibrachiatum using a species-specific primer. Results revealed that the highest significant plant height produced by in-vitro propagated Ashley was 19 cm while the highest plant height of in-vitro propagated Marketmoor was 19.67 cm. The yield of the conventional propagated Ashley cucumber showed that the number of fruit/plant obtained from T. longibrachiatum-fertilized plants were significantly more than those of the control. The in-vitro Ashely had 7 fruits/plant while the control produced 4 fruits/plant. In-vitro Marketmoor had ten fruits/plant, and the control had a value of 4 fruits/plant. There were no traces of Trichoderma longibrachiatum genes in the harvested cucumber fruits. Therefore, the use of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as a plant growth-promoter is safe for human health as well as the environment.

Keywords: biofertilizer, cucumber, genes, growth-promoter, in-vitro, propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
9 The Biofertilizer Effect of Pseudomonas of Salt Soils of the North-West Algerian, Study of Comportment of Bean (Vicia Faba)

Authors: Djoudi Abdelhak, Djibaoui Rachid, Reguieg Yassaad Houcine

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Our study focuses on the identification of some species of Pseudomonas (P4, P5, P7 and P8) isolated from saline soils in northwestern Algeria and the effect of their metabolites on the growth of Alternaria alternata the causative agent of the blight of the bean disease (Vicia faba). We are also interested in stimulating the growth of this plant species in saline conditions (60 mM/l NaCl) and the absence of salts. The analysis focuses on rates of inhibition of mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata strain and the rate of growth of plants inoculated with strains of Pseudomonas expressed by biometrics. According to the results of the in-vitro test, P5 and P8 species and their metabolites showed a significant effect on mycelia growth and production of spores of Alternaria alternata. The in-vivo test shows that the species P8 and P5 were significantly and positively influencing the growth in biometric parameters of the bean in saline and salt-free condition. Inoculation with strain P5 has promoted the growth of the bean in stem height, stem fresh weight and dry weight of stems of 108.59%, 115.28%, 104.33%, respectively, in the presence of salt Inoculation with strain P5 has fostered the growth of the bean stem fresh weight of 112.47% in the presence of salt The effect of Pseudomonas species on the development of Vicia faba and the growth of Alternaria alternata is considering new techniques and methods of biological production and crop protection.

Keywords: pseudomonas, vicia faba, alternaria alternata, promoting of plant growth

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8 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo

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Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: agriculture, carbon sequestration, physicochemical analysis, pyrolytic tire char, soil amendment.

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
7 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom

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The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, organic compost, environment, valuable resources

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6 Investigation of the Effect of Anaerobic Digestate on Antifungal Activity and in Different Parameters of Maize

Authors: Nazia Zaffar, Alam Khan, Abdul Haq, Malik Badshah

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Pakistan is an agricultural country. The increasing population leads to an increase in demand for food. A large number of crops are infected by different microbes, and nutrient deficiency of soil adversely affects the yield of crops. Furthermore, the use of chemical fertilizers like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK) Urea, and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and pesticides have environmental consequences. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative renewable and sustainable biofertilizers. Maize is one of the top growing crops in Pakistan, but it has low yield compared to other countries due to deficiency of organic matter, widespread nutrients deficiency (phosphorus and nitrogen), unbalanced use of fertilizers and various fungal diseases. In order to get rid of all these disadvantages, Digestate emerged as a win-win opportunity for the control of a few plant diseases and a replacement for the chemical fertilizers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Anerobic digestate on Antifungal Activity and in different parameters of Maize. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against selected phytopathogens (Colletotrichum coccodis, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsci, Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium Fujikuroi) were determined by microtiter plate method. The effect of various fertilizers in different growth parameters height, diameter, chlorophyll, leaf area, biomass, and yield were studied in field experiments. The extracts from anaerobic digestate have shown antifungal activity against selected phytopathogens, the highest activity was noted against P. ultimum, the MIC activity was high in case of P. ultimum and B. oryzae. The present study concludes that anaerobic digestate have a positive effect on maize growth and yield as well as an antifungal activity which can be potentially a good biofertilizer.

Keywords: anaerobic digestate, antifungal activity, MIC, phytopathogens

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5 Bioconversion of Kitchen Waste to Bio-Ethanol for Energy Security and Solid Waste Management

Authors: Sanjiv Kumar Soni, Chetna Janveja

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The approach of utilizing zero cost kitchen waste residues for growing suitable strains of fungi for the induction of a cocktail of hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol generation has been validated in the present study with the objective of developing an indigenous biorefinery for low cost bioethanol production with the generation of zero waste. Solid state fermentation has been carried out to evaluate the potential of various steam pretreated kitchen waste residues as substrates for the co-production of multiple carbohydrases including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinase and amylases by a locally isolated strain of Aspergillus niger C-5. Of all the residues, potato peels induced the maximum yields of all the enzyme components corresponding to 64.0±1.92 IU of CMCase, 17.0±0.54 IU of FPase , 42.8±1.28 IU of β-glucosidase, 990.0±28.90 IU of xylanase, 53.2±2.12 IU of mannanase, 126.0±3.72 IU of pectinase, 31500.0±375.78 IU of α-amylase and 488.8±9.82 IU of glucoamylase/g dry substrate respectively. Saccharification of various kitchen refuse residues using inhouse produced crude enzyme cocktail resulted in the release of 610±10.56, 570±8.89, 435±6.54, 475±4.56, 445±4.27, 385±4.49, 370±6.89, 490±10.45 mg of total reducing sugars/g of dried potato peels, orange peels, pineapple peels, mausami peels, onion peels, banana stalks, pea pods and composite mixture respectively revealing carbohydrate conversion efficiencies in the range of 97.0-99.4%. After fermentation of released hexoses by Saccharomyces cerevisae, ethanol yields ranging from 80-262 mL/ kg of dry residues were obtained. The study has successfully evaluated the valorization of kitchen garbage, a highly biodegradable component in Municipal Solid Waste by using it as a substrate for the in-house co-production of multiple carbohydrases and employing the steam treated residues as a feed stock for bioethanol production. Such valorization of kitchen garbage may reduce the level of Municipal Solid Waste going into land-fills thus lowering the emissions of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the solid residue left after the bioconversion may be used as a biofertilizer for improving the fertility of the soils.

Keywords: kitchen waste, bioethanol, solid waste, bioconversion, waste management

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4 Insectivorous Medicinal Plant Drosera Ecologyand its Biodiversity Conservation through Tissue Culture and Sustainable Biotechnology

Authors: Sushil Pradhan

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Biotechnology contributes to sustainable development in several ways such as biofertilizer production, biopesticide production and management of environmental pollution, tissue culture and biodiversity conservation in vitro, in vivo and in situ, Insectivorous medicinal plant Drosera burmannii Vahl belongs to the Family-Droseraceae under Order-Caryophyllales, Dicotyledoneae, Angiospermeae which has 31 (thirty one) living genera and 194 species besides 7 (seven) extinct (fossil) genera. Locally it is known as “Patkanduri” in Odia. Its Hindi name is “Mukhajali” and its English name is “Sundew”. The earliest species of Drosera was first reported in 1753 by Carolous Linnaeus called Drosera indica L (Indian Sundew). The latest species of Drosera reported by Fleisch A, Robinson, AS, McPherson S, Heinrich V, Gironella E and Madulida D.A. (2011) is Drosera ultramafica from Malaysia. More than 50 % species of Drosera have been reported from Australia and next to Australia is South Africa. India harbours only 3 species such as D. indica L, Drosera burmannii Vahl and D. peltata L. From our Odisha only D. burmannii Vahl is being reported for the first time from the district of Subarnapur near Sonepur (Arjunpur Reserve Forest Area). Drosera plant is autotrophic but to supplement its Nitrogen (N2) requirement it adopts heterotrophic mode of nutrition (insectivorous/carnivorous) as well. The colour of plant in mostly red and about 20-30cm in height with beautiful pink or white pentamerous flowers. Plants grow luxuriantly during November to February in shady and moist places near small water bodies of running water stream. Medicinally it is a popular herb in the locality for the treatment of cold and cough in children in rainy season by the local Doctors (Kabiraj and Baidya). In the present field investigation an attempt has been made to understand the unique reproductive phase and life cycle of the plant thereby planning for its conservation and propagation through various techniques of tissue culture and biotechnology. More importantly besides morphological and anatomical studies, cytological investigation is being carried out to find out the number of chromosomes in the cell and its genomics as there is no such report as yet for Drosera burmannii Vahl. The ecological significance and biodiversity conservation of Drosera with special reference to energy, environmental and chemical engineering has been discussed in the research paper presentation.

Keywords: insectivorous, medicinal, drosera, biotechnology, chromosome, genome

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3 Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis

Authors: Chandragouda R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, S. D. Kalolgi

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Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.

Keywords: Rhizobium, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, liquid formulation, benefit-cost ratio

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2 Training Manual of Organic Agriculture Farming for the Farmers: A Case Study from Kunjpura and Surrounding Villages

Authors: Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

In Indian Scenario, Organic agriculture is growing by the conscious efforts of inspired people who are able to create the best promising relationship between the earth and men. Nowadays, the major challenge is its entry into the policy-making framework, its entry into the global market and weak sensitization among the farmers. But, during the last two decades, the contamination in environment and food which is linked with the bad agricultural potential/techniques has diverted the mind set of farmers towards the organic farming. In the view of above concept, a small-scale project has been installed to promote the 20 farmers from the Kunjura and surrounding villages for organic farming. This project is working since from the last 3 crops (starting from October, 2016) and found that it can meet both demands and complete development of rural areas. Farmers of this concept are working on the principles such that the nature never demands unreasonable quantities of water, mining and to destroy the microbes and other organisms. As per details of Organic Monitor estimates, global sales reached in billion in the present analysis. In this initiative, firstly, wheat and rice were considered for farming and observed that the production of crop has grown almost 10-15% per year from the last crop production. This is not linked only with the profit or loss but also emphasized on the concept of health, ecology, fairness and care of soil enrichment. Several techniques were used like use of biological fertilizers instead of chemicals, multiple cropping, temperature management, rain water harvesting, development of own seed, vermicompost and integration of animals. In the first year, to increase the fertility of the land, legumes (moong, cow pea and red gram) were grown in strips for the 60, 90 and 120 days. Simultaneously, the mixture of compost and vermicompost in the proportion of 2:1 was applied at the rate of 2.0 ton per acre which was enriched with 5 kg Azotobacter and 5 kg Rhizobium biofertilizer. To complete the amount of phosphorus, 250 kg rock phosphate was used. After the one month, jivamrut can be used with the irrigation water or during the rainy days. In next season, compost-vermicompost mixture @ 2.5 ton/ha was used for all type of crops. After the completion of this treatment, now the soil is ready for high value ordinary/horticultural crops. The amount of above stated biofertilizers, compost-vermicompost and rock phosphate may be increased for the high alternative fertilizers. The significance of the projects is that now the farmers believe in cultural alternative (use of disease-free their own seed, organic pest management), maintenance of biodiversity, crop rotation practices and health benefits of organic farming. This type of organic farming projects should be installed at the level of gram/block/district administration.

Keywords: organic farming, Kunjpura, compost, bio-fertilizers

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1 Reduction of Specific Energy Consumption in Microfiltration of Bacillus velezensis Broth by Air Sparging and Turbulence Promoter

Authors: Jovana Grahovac, Ivana Pajcin, Natasa Lukic, Jelena Dodic, Aleksandar Jokic

Abstract:

To obtain purified biomass to be used in the plant pathogen biocontrol or as soil biofertilizer, it is necessary to eliminate residual broth components at the end of the fermentation process. The main drawback of membrane separation techniques is permeate flux decline due to the membrane fouling. Fouling mitigation measures increase the pressure drop along membrane channel due to the increased resistance to flow of the feed suspension, thus increasing the hydraulic power drop. At the same time, these measures lead to an increase in the permeate flux due to the reduced resistance of the filtration cake on the membrane surface. Because of these opposing effects, the energy efficiency of fouling mitigation measures is limited, and the justification of its application is provided by information on a reducing specific energy consumption compared to a case without any measures employed. In this study, the influence of static mixer (Kenics) and air-sparging (two-phase flow) on reduction of specific energy consumption (ER) was investigated. Cultivation Bacillus velezensis was carried out in the 3-L bioreactor (Biostat® Aplus) containing 2 L working volume with two parallel Rushton turbines and without internal baffles. Cultivation was carried out at 28 °C on at 150 rpm with an aeration rate of 0.75 vvm during 96 h. The experiments were carried out in a conventional cross-flow microfiltration unit. During experiments, permeate and retentate were recycled back to the broth vessel to simulate continuous process. The single channel ceramic membrane (TAMI Deutschland) used had a nominal pore size 200 nm with the length of 250 mm and an inner/external diameter of 6/10 mm. The useful membrane channel surface was 4.33×10⁻³ m². Air sparging was brought by the pressurized air connected by a three-way valve to the feed tube by a simple T-connector without diffusor. The different approaches to flux improvement are compared in terms of energy consumption. Reduction of specific energy consumption compared to microfiltration without fouling mitigation is around 49% and 63%, for use of two-phase flow and a static mixer, respectively. In the case of a combination of these two fouling mitigation methods, ER is 60%, i.e., slightly lower compared to the use of turbulence promoter alone. The reason for this result can be found in the fact that flux increase is more affected by the presence of a Kenics static mixer while sparging results in an increase of energy used during microfiltration. By comparing combined method with turbulence promoter flux enhancement method ER is negative (-7%) which can be explained by increased power consumption for air flow with moderate contribution to the flux increase. Another confirmation for this fact can be found by comparing energy consumption values for combined method with energy consumption in the case of two-phase flow. In this instance energy reduction (ER) is 22% that demonstrates that turbulence promoter is more efficient compared to two phase flow. Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus velezensis biomass against phytopathogenic isolates Xanthomonas campestris was preserved under different fouling reduction methods.

Keywords: Bacillus velezensis, microfiltration, static mixer, two-phase flow

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