Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 104

Search results for: recycle

104 Recycling Service Strategy by Considering Demand-Supply Interaction

Authors: Hui-Chieh Li

Abstract:

Circular economy promotes greater resource productivity and avoids pollution through greater recycling and re-use which bring benefits for both the environment and the economy. The concept is contrast to a linear economy which is ‘take, make, dispose’ model of production. A well-design reverse logistics service strategy could enhance the willingness of recycling of the users and reduce the related logistics cost as well as carbon emissions. Moreover, the recycle brings the manufacturers most advantages as it targets components for closed-loop reuse, essentially converting materials and components from worn-out product into inputs for new ones at right time and right place. This study considers demand-supply interaction, time-dependent recycle demand, time-dependent surplus value of recycled product and constructs models on recycle service strategy for the recyclable waste collector. A crucial factor in optimizing a recycle service strategy is consumer demand. The study considers the relationships between consumer demand towards recycle and product characteristics, surplus value and user behavior. The study proposes a recycle service strategy which differs significantly from the conventional and typical uniform service strategy. Periods with considerable demand and large surplus product value suggest frequent and short service cycle. The study explores how to determine a recycle service strategy for recyclable waste collector in terms of service cycle frequency and duration and vehicle type for all service cycles by considering surplus value of recycled product, time-dependent demand, transportation economies and demand-supply interaction. The recyclable waste collector is responsible for the collection of waste product for the manufacturer. The study also examines the impacts of utilization rate on the cost and profit in the context of different sizes of vehicles. The model applies mathematical programming methods and attempts to maximize the total profit of the distributor during the study period. This study applies the binary logit model, analytical model and mathematical programming methods to the problem. The model specifically explores how to determine a recycle service strategy for the recycler by considering product surplus value, time-dependent recycle demand, transportation economies and demand-supply interaction. The model applies mathematical programming methods and attempts to minimize the total logistics cost of the recycler and maximize the recycle benefits of the manufacturer during the study period. The study relaxes the constant demand assumption and examines how service strategy affects consumer demand towards waste recycling. Results of the study not only help understanding how the user demand for recycle service and product surplus value affects the logistics cost and manufacturer’s benefits, but also provide guidance such as award bonus and carbon emission regulations for the government.

Keywords: circular economy, consumer demand, product surplus value, recycle service strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
103 Pinch Technology for Minimization of Water Consumption at a Refinery

Authors: W. Mughees, M. Alahmad

Abstract:

Water is the most significant entity that controls local and global development. For the Gulf region, especially Saudi Arabia, with its limited potable water resources, the potential of the fresh water problem is highly considerable. In this research, the study involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks. Multiple water/wastewater networks were developed using pinch analysis involving direct recycle/material recycle method. Property-integration technique was adopted to carry out direct recycle method. Particularly, a petroleum refinery was considered as a case study. In direct recycle methodology, minimum water discharge and minimum fresh water resource targets were estimated. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and hardness properties were taken as pollutants. This research was based on single and double contaminant approach for COD and hardness and the amount of fresh water was reduced from 340.0 m3/h to 149.0 m3/h (43.8%), 208.0 m3/h (61.18%) respectively. While regarding double contaminant approach, reduction in fresh water demand was 132.0 m3/h (38.8%). The required analysis was also carried out using mathematical programming technique. Operating software such as LINGO was used for these studies which have verified the graphical method results in a valuable and accurate way. Among the multiple water networks, the one possible water allocation network was developed based on mass exchange.

Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
102 Mechanical Performance of Sandwich Square Honeycomb Structure from Sugar Palm Fibre

Authors: Z. Ansari, M. R. M. Rejab, D. Bachtiar, J. P. Siregar

Abstract:

This study focus on the compression and tensile properties of new and recycle square honeycombs structure from sugar palm fibre (SPF) and polylactic acid (PLA) composite. The end data will determine the failure strength and energy absorption for both new and recycle composite. The control SPF specimens were fabricated from short fibre co-mingled with PLA by using a bra-blender set at 180°C and 50 rpm consecutively. The mixture of 30% fibre and 70% PLA were later on the hot press at 180°C into sheets with thickness 3mm consecutively before being assembled into a sandwich honeycomb structure. An INSTRON tensile machine and Abaqus 6.13 software were used for mechanical test and finite element simulation. The percentage of error from the simulation and experiment data was 9.20% and 9.17% for both new and recycled product. The small error of percentages was acceptable due to the nature of the simulation model to be assumed as a perfect model with no imperfect geometries. The energy absorption value from new to recycled product decrease from 312.86kJ to 282.10kJ. With this small decrements, it is still possible to implement a recycle SPF/PLA composite into everyday usages such as a car's interior or a small size furniture.

Keywords: failure modes, numerical modelling, polylactic acid, sugar palm fibres

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
101 A Study on Waste Management Policy in Minamata City Kumamoto Prefecture Japan

Authors: Qiannan Zhuo, Wanglin Yan

Abstract:

Minamata City and its citizens have been suffered from Minamata Disease, one of the worst environmental problems in Japan, since 1956. To mitigate the bad images brought by Minamata Disease, Minamata City has started a series of environmental friendly activities from 60 years ago. Garbage separation is the very beginning one. It has been already done for more than 20 years since Minamata citizens started to separate their garbage into more than 20 categories. In this research, the author evaluated the effectiveness of the waste management policy in Minamata city by analyzing the recycle rate and the landfill amount., and also pointed out the problems brought by it through the qualitative survey.

Keywords: Minamata City, households waste, garbage separation, recycle reduce reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
100 Recycling Strategies of Construction Waste in Egypt

Authors: Hanan Anwar

Abstract:

All systems recycle. The construction industry has not only become a major consumer of natural materials along with a source of pollution. Environmental integrated production, reusing and recycling is of great importance in Egypt nowadays. Governments should ensure that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative systems is considered and is taken into account before construction starts. Hereby this paper focuses on the recycle of building materials as a way for environment protection and sustainable development. Environmental management integrates the requirements of sustainable development. There are many methods used to reduce waste and increase profits through salvage, reuse, and the recycling of construction waste. Sustainable development as a tool to continual improvement cycle processes innovations to save money.

Keywords: environment, management, reuse, recycling, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
99 An Investigation of Sustainability: Scope of Eco Denim Fashion

Authors: Sneha Bhatnagar, Sachin Bhatnagar

Abstract:

Denim presently is the most widely accepted textile product and shows its hold even in future with its growing popularity. Denim today is no longer restricted to only a pair of jeans but has diversified in all different product categories. Although denim is considered as an expression of youth and demonstrates durability and comfort, denim raises issues of sustainability. Through an exploratory research, the researcher aims at addressing the possibilities of denim fashion promoting environmental sustainability by means of creativity, awareness, recycle and artisan appreciation. It also touches on how eco conscious fashion brands involve in development in terms of ideation and modification of denim as a fabric or product into diversified sustainable fashion. In conclusion, it is shown that blue denim fashion continues to evolve and shows eventual transformation in becoming green denim in future, nurturing values of both quality and sustainability.

Keywords: arts, craft, creativity, denim, fashion, recycle, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
98 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30 ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30 ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h-1 at 30 ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30 ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
97 Fischer Tropsch Synthesis in Compressed Carbon Dioxide with Integrated Recycle

Authors: Kanchan Mondal, Adam Sims, Madhav Soti, Jitendra Gautam, David Carron

Abstract:

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a complex series of heterogeneous reactions between CO and H2 molecules (present in the syngas) on the surface of an active catalyst (Co, Fe, Ru, Ni, etc.) to produce gaseous, liquid, and waxy hydrocarbons. This product is composed of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds. The key challenge in applying the Fischer-Tropsch process to produce transportation fuels is to make the capital and production costs economically feasible relative to the comparative cost of existing petroleum resources. To meet this challenge, it is imperative to enhance the CO conversion while maximizing carbon selectivity towards the desired liquid hydrocarbon ranges (i.e. reduction in CH4 and CO2 selectivities) at high throughputs. At the same time, it is equally essential to increase the catalyst robustness and longevity without sacrificing catalyst activity. This paper focuses on process development to achieve the above. The paper describes the influence of operating parameters on Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) from coal derived syngas in supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2). In addition, the unreacted gas and solvent recycle was incorporated and the effect of unreacted feed recycle was evaluated. It was expected that with the recycle, the feed rate can be increased. The increase in conversion and liquid selectivity accompanied by the production of narrower carbon number distribution in the product suggest that higher flow rates can and should be used when incorporating exit gas recycle. It was observed that this process was capable of enhancing the hydrocarbon selectivity (nearly 98 % CO conversion), reducing improving the carbon efficiency from 17 % to 51 % in a once through process and further converting 16 % CO2 to liquid with integrated recycle of the product gas stream and increasing the life of the catalyst. Catalyst robustness enhancement has been attributed to the absorption of heat of reaction by the compressed CO2 which reduced the formation of hotspots and the dissolution of waxes by the CO2 solvent which reduced the blinding of active sites. In addition, the recycling the product gas stream reduced the reactor footprint to one-fourth of the once through size and product fractionation utilizing the solvent effects of supercritical CO2 were realized. In addition to the negative CO2 selectivities, methane production was also inhibited and was limited to less than 1.5%. The effect of the process conditions on the life of the catalysts will also be presented. Fe based catalysts are known to have a high proclivity for producing CO2 during FTS. The data of the product spectrum and selectivity on Co and Fe-Co based catalysts as well as those obtained from commercial sources will also be presented. The measurable decision criteria were the increase in CO conversion at H2:CO ratio of 1:1 (as commonly found in coal gasification product stream) in supercritical phase as compared to gas phase reaction, decrease in CO2 and CH4 selectivity, overall liquid product distribution, and finally an increase in the life of the catalysts.

Keywords: carbon efficiency, Fischer Tropsch synthesis, low GHG, pressure tunable fractionation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
96 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng

Abstract:

This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
95 Application of Recycled Tungsten Carbide Powder for Fabrication of Iron Based Powder Metallurgy Alloy

Authors: Yukinori Taniguchi, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Kohei Mizuta, Keigo Nishitani, Ryuichi Fukuda

Abstract:

Tungsten carbide is widely used as a tool material in metal manufacturing process. Since tungsten is typical rare metal, establishment of recycle process of tungsten carbide tools and restore into cemented carbide material bring great impact to metal manufacturing industry. Recently, recycle process of tungsten carbide has been developed and established gradually. However, the demands for quality of cemented carbide tool are quite severe because hardness, toughness, anti-wear ability, heat resistance, fatigue strength and so on should be guaranteed for precision machining and tool life. Currently, it is hard to restore the recycled tungsten carbide powder entirely as raw material for new processed cemented carbide tool. In this study, to suggest positive use of recycled tungsten carbide powder, we have tried to fabricate a carbon based sintered steel which shows reinforced mechanical properties with recycled tungsten carbide powder. We have made set of newly designed sintered steels. Compression test of sintered specimen in density ratio of 0.85 (which means 15% porosity inside) has been conducted. As results, at least 1.7 times higher in nominal strength in the amount of 7.0 wt.% was shown in recycled WC powder. The strength reached to over 600 MPa for the Fe-WC-Co-Cu sintered alloy. Wear test has been conducted by using ball-on-disk type friction tester using 5 mm diameter ball with normal force of 2 N in the dry conditions. Wear amount after 1,000 m running distance shows that about 1.5 times longer life was shown in designed sintered alloy. Since results of tensile test showed that same tendency in previous testing, it is concluded that designed sintered alloy can be used for several mechanical parts with special strength and anti-wear ability in relatively low cost due to recycled tungsten carbide powder.

Keywords: tungsten carbide, recycle process, compression test, powder metallurgy, anti-wear ability

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
94 Reclamation of Molding Sand: A Chemical Approach to Recycle Waste Foundry Sand

Authors: Mohd Moiz Khan, S. M. Mahajani, G. N. Jadhav

Abstract:

Waste foundry sand (total clay content 15%) contains toxic heavy metals and particulate matter which make dumping of waste sand an environmental and health hazard. Disposal of waste foundry sand (WFS) remains one of the substantial challenges faced by Indian foundries nowadays. To cope up with this issue, the chemical method was used to reclaim WFS. A stirrer tank reactor was used for chemical reclamation. Experiments were performed to reduce the total clay content from 15% to as low as 0.9% in chemical reclamation. This method, although found to be effective for WFS reclamation, it may face a challenge due to the possibly high operating cost. Reclaimed sand was found to be satisfactory in terms of sand qualities such as total clay (0.9%), active clay (0.3%), acid demand value (ADV) (2.6%), loss on igniting (LOI) (3 %), grain fineness number (GFN) (56), and compressive strength (60 kPa). The experimental data generated on chemical reactor under different conditions is further used to optimize the design and operating parameters (rotation speed, sand to acidic solution ratio, acid concentration, temperature and time) for the best performance. The use of reclaimed sand within the foundry would improve the economics and efficiency of the process and reduce environmental concerns.

Keywords: chemical reclamation, clay content, environmental concerns, recycle, waste foundry sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
93 System Dynamics Projections of Environmental Issues for Domestic Water and Wastewater Scenarios in Urban Area of India

Authors: Isha Sharawat, R. P. Dahiya, T. R. Sreekrishnan

Abstract:

One of the environmental challenges in India is urban wastewater management as regulations and infrastructural development has not kept pace with the urbanization and growing population. The quality of life of people is also improving with the rapid growth of the gross domestic product. This has contributed to the enhancement in the per capita water requirement and consumption. More domestic water consumption generates more wastewater. The scarcity of potable water is making the situation quite serious, and water supply has to be regulated in most parts of the country during summer. This requires elaborate and concerted efforts to efficiently manage the water resources and supply systems. In this article, a system dynamics modelling approach is used for estimating the water demand and wastewater generation in a district headquarter city of North India. Projections are made till the year 2035. System dynamics is a software tool used for formulation of policies. On the basis of the estimates, policy scenarios are developed for sustainable development of water resources in conformity with the growing population. Mitigation option curtailing the water demand and wastewater generation include population stabilization, water reuse and recycle and water pricing. The model is validated quantitatively, and sensitivity analysis tests are carried out to examine the robustness of the model.

Keywords: system dynamics, wastewater, water pricing, water recycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
92 Recycling Motivations and Barriers in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Authors: Jasmine Adela Mutang, Rosnah Ismail, Chua Bee Seok, Ferlis Bahari, Lailawati Madlan, Walton Wider, Rickless Das

Abstract:

Waste projection is increasing and most landfills in Malaysia are running out of space. Due to that, waste management is now becoming a major challenge. The most sustainable solution is by practicing sustainable practices such as recycling. Since 1993 the government has launched several recycling campaigns and implemented the National Recycling Policy. However, public participation is still very low. Only 10.5% of solid waste was recycled up to now which is far below than of in developed countries. Nevertheless the government is optimistic that the target of 22% recycling by 2020 will be achieved if there is a positive flow pattern in sustainable practices in particular recycling behavior among Malaysian. Understanding public motivations towards recycling domestic waste are important to improve current recycling rate. Thus this study attempts to identify what are the possible motivations and hindrances for the public to recycle. Open-ended questions format were administered to 484 people in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Two specific questions we asked to explore their general determinants and barriers in practicing recycling: “What motivates you to recycle?” and “What are the barriers you encountered in doing recycling activities?” Thematic analysis was conducted on the open-ended questions in which themes were created with the raw comments. It was found that the underlying recycling motivations are awareness’ towards the environment, benefits to the society and individual, and social influence. Non participations are influence by attitudes, commitment, facilities, knowledge, inconvenience, and enforcement.

Keywords: recycling motivation, recycling barrier, sustainable, household waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
91 Initiative Strategies on How to Increase Value Add of the Recycling Business

Authors: Yananda Siraphatthada

Abstract:

The current study was the succession of a previous study on value added of recycling business management. Its aims are to 1) explore conditions on how to increasing value add of Thai recycling business, and 2) exam the implementation of the 3-staged plan (short, medium, and long term), suggested by the former study, to increase value added of the recycling business as immediate mechanisms to accelerate government operation. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized in this research. A qualitative research consisted of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Responses were obtained from owners of the waste separation plants, and recycle shops, as well as officers in relevant governmental agencies. They were randomly selected via Quota Sampling. Data was analyzed via content analysis. The sample used for quantitative method consisted of 1,274 licensed recycling operators in eight provinces. The operators were randomly stratified via sampling method. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics frequency, percentage, average (mean), and standard deviation. The study recommended three-staged plan: short, medium, and long terms. The plan included the development of logistics, the provision of quality market/plants, the amendment of recycling rules/regulation, the restructuring recycling business, the establishment of green-purchasing recycling center, support for the campaigns run by the International Green Purchasing Network (IGPN), conferences/workshops as a public forum to share insights among experts/concern people.

Keywords: strategies, value added, recycle, business

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
90 The Impact of Quality Cost on Revenue Sharing in Supply Chain Management

Authors: Fayza M. Obied-Allah

Abstract:

Customer’ needs, quality, and value creation while reducing costs through supply chain management provides challenges and opportunities for companies and researchers. In the light of these challenges, modern ideas must contribute to counter these challenges and exploit opportunities. Perhaps this paper will be one of these contributions. This paper discusses the impact of the quality cost on revenue sharing as a most important incentive to configure business networks. No doubt that the costs directly affect the size of income generated by a business network, so this paper investigates the impact of quality costs on business networks revenue, and their impact on the decision to participate the revenue among the companies in the supply chain. This paper develops the quality cost approach to align with the modern era, the developed model includes five categories besides the well-known four categories (namely prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs, and external failure costs), a new category has been developed in this research as a new vision of the relationship between quality costs and innovations of industry. This new category is Recycle Cost. This paper is organized into six sections, Section I shows quality costs overview in the supply chain. Section II discusses revenue sharing between the parties in supply chain. Section III investigates the impact of quality costs in revenue sharing decision between partners in supply chain. The fourth section includes survey study and presents statistical results. Section V discusses the results and shows future opportunities for research. Finally, Section VI summarizes the theoretical and practical results of this paper.

Keywords: quality cost, recycle cost, revenue sharing, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
89 The Weavability of Waste Plants and Their Application in Fashion and Textile Design

Authors: Jichi Wu

Abstract:

The dwindling of resources requires a more sustainable design. New technology could bring new materials and processing techniques to the fashion industry and push it to a more sustainable future. Thus this paper explores cutting-edge researches on the life-cycle of closed-loop products and aims to find innovative ways to recycle and upcycle. For such a goal, the author investigated how low utilization plants and leftover fiber could be turned into ecological textiles in fashion. Through examining the physical and chemical properties (cellulose content/ fiber form) of ecological textiles to explore their wearability, this paper analyzed the prospect of bio-fabrics (weavable plants) in body-oriented fashion design and their potential in sustainable fashion and textile design. By extracting cellulose from 9 different types or sections of plants, the author intends to find an appropriate method (such as ion solution extraction) to mostly increase the weavability of plants, so raw materials could be more effectively changed into fabrics. All first-hand experiment data were carefully collected and then analyzed under the guidance of related theories. The result of the analysis was recorded in detail and presented in an understandable way. Various research methods are adopted through this project, including field trip and experiments to make comparisons and recycle materials. Cross-discipline cooperation is also conducted for related knowledge and theories. From this, experiment data will be collected, analyzed, and interpreted into a description and visualization results. Based on the above conclusions, it is possible to apply weavable plant fibres to develop new textile and fashion.

Keywords: wearable bio-textile, sustainability, economy, ecology, technology, weavability, fashion design

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
88 Modelling Affordable Waste Management Solutions for India

Authors: Pradip Baishya, D. K. Mahanta

Abstract:

Rapid and unplanned urbanisation in most cities of India has progressively increased the problem of managing municipal waste in the past few years. With insufficient infrastructure and funds, Municipalities in most cities are struggling to cope with the pace of waste generated. Open dumping is widely in practice as a cheaper option. Scientific disposal of waste in such a large scale with the elements of segregation, recycling, landfill, and incineration involves sophisticated and expensive plants. In an effort to finding affordable and simple solutions to address this burning issue of waste disposal, a semi-mechanized plant has been designed underlying the concept of a zero waste community. The fabrication work of the waste management unit is carried out by local skills from locally available materials. A resident colony in the city of Guwahati has been chosen, which is seen as a typical representative of most cities in India in terms of size and key issues surrounding waste management. Scientific management and disposal of waste on site is carried out on the principle of reduce, reuse and recycle from segregation to compositing. It is a local community participatory model, which involves all stakeholders in the process namely rag pickers, residents, municipality and local industry. Studies were conducted to testify the plant as revenue earning self-sustaining model in the long term. Current working efficiency of plant for segregation was found to be 1kg per minute. Identifying bottlenecks in the success of the model, data on efficiency of the plant, economics of its fabrication were part of the study. Similar satellite waste management plants could potentially be a solution to supplement the waste management system of municipalities of similar sized cities in India or South East Asia with similar issues surrounding waste disposal.

Keywords: affordable, rag pickers, recycle, reduce, reuse, segregation, zero waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
87 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia

Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir

Abstract:

The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.

Keywords: e -waste, recycle, electrical, Mongolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
86 Dynamic Modeling of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants Using BioWin

Authors: Komal Rathore, Aydin Sunol, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford

Abstract:

Advanced wastewater treatment plants have complex biological kinetics, time variant influent flow rates and long processing times. Due to these factors, the modeling and operational control of advanced wastewater treatment plants become complicated. However, development of a robust model for advanced wastewater treatment plants has become necessary in order to increase the efficiency of the plants, reduce energy costs and meet the discharge limits set by the government. A dynamic model was designed using the Envirosim (Canada) platform software called BioWin for several wastewater treatment plants in Hillsborough County, Florida. Proper control strategies for various parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids, recycle activated sludge and waste activated sludge were developed for models to match the plant performance. The models were tuned using both the influent and effluent data from the plant and their laboratories. The plant SCADA was used to predict the influent wastewater rates and concentration profiles as a function of time. The kinetic parameters were tuned based on sensitivity analysis and trial and error methods. The dynamic models were validated by using experimental data for influent and effluent parameters. The dissolved oxygen measurements were taken to validate the model by coupling them with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The Biowin models were able to exactly mimic the plant performance and predict effluent behavior for extended periods. The models are useful for plant engineers and operators as they can take decisions beforehand by predicting the plant performance with the use of BioWin models. One of the important findings from the model was the effects of recycle and wastage ratios on the mixed liquor suspended solids. The model was also useful in determining the significant kinetic parameters for biological wastewater treatment systems.

Keywords: BioWin, kinetic modeling, flowsheet simulation, dynamic modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
85 Assessment of Barriers Preventing Recycling Practices among Bars and Eateries in Central South Africa

Authors: Jana Vermaas, Carien Denner

Abstract:

Waste has become a global issue and the management regarding it a priority. Some of the main problems in South Africa (SA) include: (1) the lack of information and education, (2) waste collection services, (3) reusing and recycling is not encouraged, (4) illegal dumping, and the biggest problem of all (5) the lack of waste related regulations and enforcement by the government and municipalities. In SA, there are provinces such as Gauteng and the Western Cape that have some recycling programs in place, but nothing yet in the central part of the country. By identifying the barriers preventing these businesses from recycling, the local municipalities and recycling services could create a solution. Owners or employees of eateries and bars completed a self-administered questionnaire. Information were obtained on knowledge of recycling, participation in recycling and to which extent, barriers that prevent them from recycling and motives that would encourage recycling. The data obtained from the questionnaire indicated that most (98%) participants knew only the basics, that recycling is a process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. Further knowledge questions indicated that individuals were not educated about recycling as almost half (49%) of the participants believe that they can’t reuse plastic bottles. They do not understand which items of their waste could be re-used or recycled. They had limited knowledge about the recycling opportunities or practices in the area. Only a small number (34%) were involved in recycling or sustainable practices. Many did not even know of any collection services or buy-back centres in their vicinity. Most of the participants (94%) indicated that they would be willing to recycle if it would have a financial benefit. Many also stated that they would be more willing to recycle if the recyclable waste will be collected from their establishment, on a regular basis. The enforcement of recycling by municipalities or government by awarding fines for waste offenders was indicated as a significant motive. It could be concluded that the most significant barrier is knowledge and lack of information. These businesses do not comprehend the impact that they can have with their recycling contributions, not only on the environment, but also on the consumers that they serve. Another barrier is the lack of collection services. There are currently no government or municipal services for the collection of recyclable waste. All waste are taken to landfills. Many of the larger recycling initiatives and companies do not reach as far as central SA. Therefore, the buy-back component of recycling is not present.

Keywords: eateries, recycling, sustainable practices, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
84 Water Reclamation and Reuse in Asia’s Largest Sewage Treatment Plant

Authors: Naveen Porika, Snigdho Majumdar, Niraj Sethi

Abstract:

Water, food and energy securities are emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India and the world. Hyderabad urban agglomeration (HUA), the capital city of Andhra Pradesh State in India, is the sixth largest city has a population of about 8.2 million. The Musi River, which is a tributary of Krishna river flows from west to east right through the heart of Hyderabad, about 80% of the water used by people is released back as sewage, which flows back into Musi every day with detrimental effects on the environment and people downstream of the city. The average daily sewage generated in Hyderabad city is 950 MLD, however, treatment capacity exists only for 541 Million Liters per Day (MLD) but only 407 MLD of sewage is treated. As a result, 543 MLD of sewage daily flows into Musi river. Hyderabad’s current estimated water demand stands at 320 Million Gallons per Day (MGD). However, its installed capacity is merely 270 MGD; by 2020 estimated demand will grow to 400 MGD. There is huge gap between current supply and demand, and this is likely to widen by 2021. Developing new fresh water sources is a challenge for Hyderabad, as the fresh water sources are few and far from the City (about 150-200 km) and requires excessive pumping. The constraints presented above make the conventional alternatives for supply augmentation unsustainable and unattractive .One such dependable and captive source of easily available water is the treated sewage. With proper treatment, water of desired quality can be recovered from the waste water (sewage) for recycle and reuse. Hyderabad Amberpet sewage treatment of capacity 339 MLD is Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. Tertiary sewage treatment Standard basic engineering modules of 30 MLD,60 MLD, 120MLD & 180 MLD for sewage treatment plants has been developed which are utilized for developing Sewage Reclamation & Reuse model in Asia’s largest sewage treatment plant. This paper will focus on Hyderabad Water Supply & Demand, Sewage Generation & Treatment, Technical aspects of Tertiary Sewage Treatment and Utilization of developed standard modules for reclamation & reuse of treated sewage to overcome the deficit of 130 MGD as projected by 2021.

Keywords: water reclamation, reuse, Andhra Pradesh, hyderabad, musi river, sewage, demand and supply, recycle, Amberpet, 339 MLD, engineering modules, tertiary treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
83 A Review on Application of Waste Tire in Concrete

Authors: M. A. Yazdi, J. Yang, L. Yihui, H. Su

Abstract:

The application of recycle waste tires into civil engineering practices, namely asphalt paving mixtures and cementbased materials has been gaining ground across the world. This review summarizes and compares the recent achievements in the area of plain rubberized concrete (PRC), in details. Different treatment methods have been discussed to improve the performance of rubberized Portland cement concrete. The review also includes the effects of size and amount of tire rubbers on mechanical and durability properties of PRC. The microstructure behaviour of the rubberized concrete was detailed.

Keywords: waste rubber aggregates, microstructure, treatment methods, size and content effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
82 Utilization of Bauxite Residue in Construction Materials: An Experimental Study

Authors: Ryan Masoodi, Hossein Rostami

Abstract:

Aluminum has been credited for the massive advancement of many industrial products, from aerospace and automotive to electronics and even household appliances. These developments have come with a cost, which is a toxic by-product. The rise of aluminum production has been accompanied by the rise of a waste material called Bauxite Residue or Red Mud. This toxic material has been proved to be harmful to the environment, yet, there is no proper way to dispose or recycle it. Herewith, a new experimental method to utilize this waste in the building material is proposed. A method to mix red mud, fly ash, and some other ingredients is explored to create a new construction material that can satisfy the minimum required strength for bricks. It concludes that it is possible to produce bricks with enough strength that is suitable for constriction in environments with low to moderate weather conditions.

Keywords: bauxite residue, brick, red mud, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
81 Influence of Processing Regime and Contaminants on the Properties of Postconsumer Thermoplastics

Authors: Fares Alsewailem

Abstract:

Material recycling of thermoplastic waste offers practical solution for municipal solid waste reduction. Post-consumer plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), and polystyrene (PS) may be separated from each other by physical methods such as density difference and hence processed as single plastic, however one should be cautious about the contaminants presence in the waste stream inform of paper, glue, etc. since these articles even in trace amount may deteriorate properties of the recycled plastics especially the mechanical properties. furthermore, melt processing methods used to recycle thermoplastics such as extrusion and compression molding may induce degradation of some of the recycled plastics such as PET and PS. In this research, it is shown that care should be taken when processing recycled plastics by melt processing means in two directions, first contaminants should be extremely minimized, and secondly melt processing steps should also be minimum.

Keywords: Recycling, PET, PS, HDPE, mechanical

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
80 Gap between Knowledge and Behaviour in Recycling Domestic Solid Waste: Evidence from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, Keshavdev A.

Abstract:

In the educational town of Manipal (located in southern India) households dispose their wastes without segregation. Mixed wastes (organic, inorganic and hazardous items) are collected either by private collectors or by the local municipal body in trucks and taken to dump yards. These collectors select certain recyclables from the collected trash and sell them to scrap merchants to earn some extra money. Rag pickers play a major role in picking up card board boxes, glass bottles and milk sachets from dump yards and public areas and scrap iron from construction sites for recycling. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (A Clean India), the local municipal administration is taking efforts to ensure segregation of domestic waste at source. With this in mind, each household in a residential area in Manipal was given two buckets – for wet and dry wastes (wet waste referred to organic waste while dry waste included recyclable and hazardous items). A study was conducted in this locality covering a cluster of 145 households to assess the residents’ knowledge of recyclable, organic and hazardous items commonly disposed by households. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the extent to which the residents actually dispose their wastes appropriately. Questionnaires were self-administered to a member of each household with the assistance of individuals speaking the local language whenever needed. Respondents’ knowledge of whether an item was organic, inorganic or hazardous was captured through a questionnaire containing a list of 50 common items. Their behaviour was captured by asking how they disposed these items. Results show that more than 70% of respondents are aware that banana and orange peels, potato skin, egg shells and dried leaves are organic; similarly, more than 70% of them consider newspapers, notebook and printed paper are recyclable. Less than 65% of respondents are aware that plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are recyclable. However, the results of the respondents’ recycling behaviour is less impressive. Fewer than 35% of respondents recycle card board boxes, milk sachets and glass bottles. Unfortunately, since plastic items like plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are not accepted by scrap merchants, they are not recycled. This study shows that the local municipal authorities must find ways to recycle plastic into products, alternate fuel etc.

Keywords: behaviour, knowledge, plastic waste management, recyclables

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
79 Energy Efficient Recycling of In-Plant Fines

Authors: H. Ahmed, A. Persson, L. Sundqvist, B. Biorkman

Abstract:

Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steel making processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent. In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

Keywords: iron and steel wastes, recycling, self-reducing briquettes, thermogravimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
78 Production of Biodiesel Using Brine Waste as a Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Hilary Rutto, Linda Sibali

Abstract:

In these modern times, we constantly search for new and innovative technologies to lift the burden of our extreme energy demand. The overall purpose of biofuel production research is to source an alternative energy source to replace the normal use of fossil fuel as liquid petroleum products. This experiment looks at the basis of biodiesel production with regards to alternative catalysts that can be used to produce biodiesel. The key factors that will be addressed during the experiments will focus on temperature variation, catalyst additions to the overall reaction, methanol to oil ratio, and the impact of agitation on the reaction. Brine samples sources from nearby plants will be evaluated and tested thoroughly and the key characteristics of these brine samples analysed for the verification of its use as a possible catalyst in biodiesel production. The one factor at a time experimental approach was used in this experiment, and the recycle and reuse characteristics of the heterogeneous catalyst was evaluated.

Keywords: brine sludge, heterogenous catalyst, biodiesel, one factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
77 Naphtha Catalytic Reform: Modeling and Simulation of Unity

Authors: Leal Leonardo, Pires Carlos Augusto de Moraes, Casiraghi Magela

Abstract:

In this work were realized the modeling and simulation of the catalytic reformer process, of ample form, considering all the equipment that influence the operation performance. Considered it a semi-regenerative reformer, with four reactors in series intercalated with four furnaces, two heat exchanges, one product separator and one recycle compressor. A simplified reactional system was considered, involving only ten chemical compounds related through five reactions. The considered process was the applied to aromatics production (benzene, toluene, and xylene). The models developed to diverse equipment were interconnecting in a simulator that consists of a computer program elaborate in FORTRAN 77. The simulation of the global model representative of reformer unity achieved results that are compatibles with the literature ones. It was then possible to study the effects of operational variables in the products concentration and in the performance of the unity equipment.

Keywords: catalytic reforming, modeling, simulation, petrochemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
76 Recycling of Sclareolide in the Crystallization Mother Liquid of Sclareolide by Adsorption and Chromatography

Authors: Xiang Li, Kui Chen, Bin Wu, Min Zhou

Abstract:

Sclareolide is made from sclareol by oxidiative synthesis and subsequent crystallization, while the crystallization mother liquor still contains 15%~30%wt of sclareolide to be reclaimed. With the reaction material of sclareol is provided as plant extract, many sorts of complex impurities exist in the mother liquor. Due to the difficulty in recycling sclareolide after solvent recovery, it is common practice for the factories to discard the mother liquor, which not only results in loss of sclareolide, but also contributes extra environmental burden. In this paper, a process based on adsorption and elution has been presented for recycling of sclareolide from mother liquor. After pretreatment of the crystallization mother liquor by HZ-845 resin to remove parts of impurities, sclareolide is adsorbed by HZ-816 resin. The HZ-816 resin loaded with sclareolide is then eluted by elution solvent. Finally, the eluent containing sclareolide is concentrated and fed into the crystallization step in the process. By adoption of the recycle from mother liquor, total yield of sclareolide increases from 86% to 90% with a stable purity of the final sclareolide products maintained.

Keywords: sclareolide, resin, adsorption, chromatography

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
75 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 62