Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 146

Search results for: textiles

146 Analysis of Tactile Perception of Textiles by Fingertip Skin Model

Authors: Izabela L. Ciesielska-Wrόbel

Abstract:

This paper presents finite element models of the fingertip skin which have been created to simulate the contact of textile objects with the skin to gain a better understanding of the perception of textiles through the skin, so-called Hand of Textiles (HoT). Many objective and subjective techniques have been developed to analyze HoT, however none of them provide exact overall information concerning the sensation of textiles through the skin. As the human skin is a complex heterogeneous hyperelastic body composed of many particles, some simplifications had to be made at the stage of building the models. The same concerns models of woven structures, however their utilitarian value was maintained. The models reflect only friction between skin and woven textiles, deformation of the skin and fabrics when “touching” textiles and heat transfer from the surface of the skin into direction of textiles.

Keywords: fingertip skin models, finite element models, modelling of textiles, sensation of textiles through the skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
145 Investigation of Heating Behaviour of E-Textile Structures

Authors: Hande Sezgin, Senem Kursun Bahadır, Yakup Erhan Boke, Fatma Kalaoğlu

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Electronic textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that contain electronics and interconnections with them. In this study, two types of base yarns (cotton and acrylic) and three conductive steel yarns with different linear resistance values (14Ω/m, 30Ω/m, 70Ω/m) were used to investigate the effect of base yarn type and linear resistance of conductive yarns on thermal behavior of e-textile structures. Thermal behavior of samples were examined by thermal camera.

Keywords: conductive yarn, e-textiles, smart textiles, thermal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
144 Textile Based Physical Wearable Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring in Medical and Protective Garments

Authors: Sejuti Malakar

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Textile sensors have gained a lot of interest in recent years as it is instrumental in monitoring physiological and environmental changes, for a better diagnosis that can be useful in various fields like medical textiles, sports textiles, protective textiles, agro textiles, and geo-textiles. Moreover, with the development of flexible textile-based wearable sensors, the functionality of smart clothing is augmented for a more improved user experience when it comes to technical textiles. In this context, conductive textiles using new composites and nanomaterials are being developed while considering its compatibility with the textile manufacturing processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed overview of the contemporary advancements in textile-based wearable physical sensors, used in the field of medical, security, surveillance, and protection, from a global perspective. The methodology used is through analysing various examples of integration of wearable textile-based sensors with clothing for daily use, keeping in mind the technological advances in the same. By comparing various case studies, we come across various challenges textile sensors, in terms of stability, the comfort of movement, and reliable sensing components to enable accurate measurements, in spite of progress in the engineering of the wearable. Addressing such concerns is critical for the future success of wearable sensors.

Keywords: flexible textile-based wearable sensors, contemporary advancements, conductive textiles, body conformal design

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
143 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye

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Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, ecofriendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
142 Optical Whitening of Textiles: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C. W. Kan

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This study examines the results of optical whitening process of different textiles such as cotton, wool and polyester. The optical whitening agents used are commercially available products, and the optical whitening agents were applied to the textiles with manufacturers’ suggested methods. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application methods of optical whitening agent to different textiles and hence to provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, optical whitening agent, wool, cotton, polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
141 Metal-Organic Frameworks for Innovative Functional Textiles

Authors: Hossam E. Emam

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Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are new hybrid materials investigated from 15 years ago; they synthesized from metals as inorganic center joined with multidentate organic linkers to form a 1D, 2D or 3D network structure. MOFs have unique properties such as pore crystalline structure, large surface area, chemical tenability and luminescent characters. These significant properties enable MOFs to be applied in many fields such like gas storage, adsorption/separation, drug delivery/biomedicine, catalysis, polymerization, magnetism and luminescence applications. Recently, many of published reports interested in superiority of MOFs for functionalization of textiles to exploit the unique properties of MOFs. Incorporation of MOFs is found to acquire the textiles some additional formidable functions to be used in considerable fields such like water treatment and fuel purification. Modification of textiles with MOFs could be easily performed by two main techniques; Ex-situ (preparation of MOFs then applied onto textiles) and in-situ (ingrowth of MOFs within textiles networks). Uniqueness of MOFs could be assimilated in acquirement of decorative color, antimicrobial character, anti-mosquitos character, ultraviolet radiation protective, self-clean, photo-luminescent and sensor character. Additionally, textiles treatment with MOFs make it applicable as filter in the adsorption of toxic gases, hazardous materials (such as pesticides, dyes and aromatics molecules) and fuel purification (such as removal of oxygenated, nitrogenated and sulfur compounds). Also, the porous structure of MOFs make it mostly utilized in control release of insecticides from the surface of the textile. Moreover, [email protected] as recyclable materials lead it applicable as photo-catalyst composites for photo-degradation of different dyes in the day light. Therefore, MOFs is extensively considered for imparting textiles with formidable properties as ingeniousness way for textile functionalization.

Keywords: MOF, functional textiles, water treatment, fuel purification, environmental applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
140 Softening Finishing: Teaching and Learning Materials

Authors: C.W. Kan

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Softening applied on textile products based on several reasons. First, the synthetic detergent removes natural oils and waxes, thus lose the softness. Second, compensate the harsh handle of resin finishing. Also, imitate natural fibres and improve the comfort of fabric are the reasons to apply softening. There are different types of softeners for softening finishing of textiles, nonionic softener, anionic softener, cationic softener and silicone softener. The aim of this study is to illustrate the proper application of different softeners and their final softening effect in textiles. The results could also provide guidance note to the students in learning this topic. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: learning materials, softening, textiles, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
139 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

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This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.

Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
138 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero

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It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
137 Biomimetic Strategies to Design Non-Toxic Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Isabel Gouveia

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Antimicrobial textile materials may significantly reduce the risk of infections and because they are able to absorb substances from the skin and release therapeutic compounds to the skin, they can also find applications as complementary therapy of skin-diseases as part of standard management. Although functional textiles may be a promising area in skin disease/injury management, as part of standard management, few offer complementary treatment even though they are well known to reduce scratching and aiding emollient absorption, reducing infection, and alleviating pruritus. The reason for this may rely on the low quality of supporting evidence and negative effect that antimicrobial agents may exert on skin microbiome, as for example additional irritation of the vulnerable skin, and by causing resistant bacteria. Several antimicrobial agents have been tested in textiles: quaternary ammonium compounds, silver, polyhexamethylene-biguanides and triclosan have been used, with success. They have powerful bactericidal activity but the majority have a reduce spectrum of microbial inhibition and may cause skin irritation, ecotoxicity and bacteria resistance. Furthermore, the rising flow of strains resistant to last-resort antibiotics rekindles interest in alternative strategies. In this regard, new functional textiles incorporating highly specific antimicrobial agents towards pathogenic bacteria, are required. Recent research has been conducted on naturally occurring antimicrobials as novel alternatives to antibiotics. Conscious of this need our team firstly reported new approaches using L-cysteine and antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Briefly, we were able to develop different immobilization processes towards 6 Log Reduction against bacteria such as S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Therefore, here we present several innovative antimicrobial textiles incorporating AMP and L-Cysteine which may open new avenues for the medical textiles market and biomaterials in general. Team references will be discussed as an overview and for comparison purposes in terms of potential therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, Antimicrobial Textiles, Biomedical Textiles, Biomimetic surface functionalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
136 Identification of a Print Design Approach for the Application of Multicolour and Pattern Changing Effects

Authors: Dilusha Rajapakse

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The main reason for printing coloured imageries, pattern or motif onto textiles is to enhance the visual appearance of the surface so that the final textile product would get the required attention from potential customers. Such colours and patterns are permanently applied onto the textiles using conventional static colourants, and we expect such decorations to be last for the entire lifecycle of the textile product. The focus of this research presentation is to discuss the ability to integrate multicolour and pattern changing aesthetics onto textiles with the application of water based photochromic colourants. By adopting a research through design approach, a number of iterative flatbed screen printing experiments were conducted to explore the process of printing water based photochromic colours on textile surfaces. The research resulted in several technical parameters that have to be considered during the process of screen printing. Moreover, a modified printing technique that could be used to apply decorative photographic imagery onto textile with multicolour changing effects was also identified. A number of product applications for such dynamic printed textiles were revealed, and appropriate visual evidence was referred to justify the finding.

Keywords: dynamic aesthetics, multicolour changing textiles, non-emissive colours, printed textile design

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
135 Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad

Authors: Lavina N. Bhaskar, Ashima Tiwari

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In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or Folk tale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated into the English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess, with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles narrate stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practicing these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.

Keywords: cultural derivatives, folk-tale, Indo-Narratives, Indology

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
134 The Design of Smart Tactile Textiles for Therapeutic Applications

Authors: Karen Hong

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Smart tactile textiles are a series of textile-based products that incorporates smart embedded technology to be utilized as tactile therapeutic applications for 2 main groups of target users. The first group of users will be children with sensory processing disorder who are suffering from tactile sensory dysfunction. Children with tactile sensory issues may have difficulty tolerating the sensations generated from the touch of certain textures on the fabrics. A series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Toys’ are developed as tactile therapy play objects, exposing children to different types of touch sensations within textiles, enabling them to enjoy tactile experiences together with interactive play which will help them to overcome fear of certain touch sensations. The second group of users will be the elderly or geriatric patients who are suffering from deteriorating sense of touch. One of the common consequences of aging is suffering from deteriorating sense of touch and a decline in motoric function. With the focus in stimulating the sense of touch for this particular group of end users, another series of smart tactile textiles, collectively known as ‘Tactile Aids’ are developed also as tactile therapy. This range of products can help to maintain touch sensitivity and at the same time allowing the elderly to enjoy interactive play to practice their hand-eye coordination and enhancing their motor skills. These smart tactile textile products are being designed and tested out by the end users and have proofed their efficacy as tactile therapy enabling the users to lead a better quality of life.

Keywords: smart textiles, embedded technology, tactile therapy, tactile aids, tactile toys

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
133 Development of Bioactive Medical Textiles by Immobilizing Nanoparticles at Cotton Fabric

Authors: Munir Ashraf, Shagufta Riaz

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Personal protective equipment (PPE) and bioactive textiles are highly important for the health care of front line hospital workers, patients, and the general population to be safe from highly infectious diseases. This was even more critical in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak. Most of the medical textiles are inactive against various viruses and bacteria, hence there is a need to wash them frequently to avoid the spread of microorganisms. According to survey conducted by the world health organization, more than 500 million people get infected from hospitals, and more than 13 million died due to these hospitals’ acquired deadly diseases. The market available PPE are though effective against the penetration of pathogens and to kill bacteria but, they are not breathable and active against different viruses. Therefore, there was a great need to develop textiles that are not only effective against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also are comfortable to the medical personnel and patients. In the present study, waterproof breathable, and biologically active textiles were developed using antiviral and antibacterial nanomaterials. These nanomaterials like TiO₂, ZnO, Cu, and Ag were immobilized at the surface of cotton fabric by using different silane coupling agents and electroless deposition that they retained their functionality even after 30 industrial laundering cycles. Afterwards, the treated fabrics were coated with a waterproof breathable film to prevent the permeation of liquid droplets, any particle or microorganisms greater than 80 nm. The developed cotton fabric was highly active against bacteria and viruses. The good durability of nanomaterials at the cotton surface after several industrial washing cycles makes this fabric an ideal candidate for bioactive textiles used in the medical field.

Keywords: antibacterial, antiviral, cotton, durable

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132 Effect of Bulk Density and Fiber Blend Content of Nonwoven Textiles on Flammability Properties

Authors: Klara Masnicova, Jiri Chaloupek

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Flammability plays an important role in applications such as thermal and acoustic insulation and other technical nonwoven textiles. The study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the flammability behavior of nonwoven textiles in relation to their structural and material characteristics, with emphasis given to the blending ratios of flammable and non-flammable fibers or fibers with reduced flammability. Nonwoven structures made of blends of viscose/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (VS/oxidized PAN fibers and polyethylene terephthalate/oxidized polyacrylonitrile (PET/oxidized PAN) fibers in several bulk densities are evaluated. The VS/oxidized PAN blend is model material. The flammability was studied using a cone calorimeter. Reaction to fire was observed using the small flame test method. Interestingly, the results show some of the blending ratios do not react to the heat in linear response to bulk density. This outcome can have a huge impact on future product development in fire safety and for the general understanding of flammability behavior of nonwovens made of staple fibers.

Keywords: bulk density, cone calorimetry, flammability, nonwoven textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
131 Bedouin Tents: Sources of Textile Innovation

Authors: Omaymah AlAzhari

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Nomadic tribes have always had the need to relocate and build shelters, moving from one site to another in search of food, water, and natural resources. They are affected by weather and seasonal changes and consequently started innovating textiles to build better shelters. Their solutions came from the observation of their natural environment, material, and surroundings. The textile innovation of nomadic tribes has led designers to create environmentally responsive products, such as Ceginskas Lindström’s new self-shading tent membrane developed by her ‘smocking’ technique. ‘AlRahala’ Nomadic Bedouin tribes from the Middle East and North African region have used textiles as a fundamental architectural element in their tent structure, ‘Bayt AlShar’ (House of Hair). The nomadic tribe has innovated their textile to create a fabric that is more suited to change in climatic and weather conditions. Based on the research of existing literature and documents, as well as analysis of photographs and videos, to conclude that the traditional textiles and innovations done by nomadic tribes may be a rich source of information for designers, which can provide innovative solutions for manufacturing modern-day textiles.

Keywords: ‘AlRahala’ nomadic tribes, ‘Bayt AlShar’, tent structure, textile innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
130 Modelling of Hydric Behaviour of Textiles

Authors: A. Marolleau, F. Salaun, D. Dupont, H. Gidik, S. Ducept.

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The goal of this study is to analyze the hydric behaviour of textiles which can impact significantly the comfort of the wearer. Indeed, fabrics can be adapted for different climate if hydric and thermal behaviors are known. In this study, fabrics are only submitted to hydric variations. Sorption and desorption isotherms obtained from the dynamic vapour sorption apparatus (DVS) are fitted with the parallel exponential kinetics (PEK), the Hailwood-Horrobin (HH) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models. One of the major finding is the relationship existing between PEK and HH models. During slow and fast processes, the sorption of water molecules on the polymer can be in monolayer and multilayer form. According to the BET model, moisture regain, a physical property of textiles, show a linear correlation with the total amount of water taken in monolayer. This study provides potential information of the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level.

Keywords: comfort, hydric properties, modelling, underwears

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
129 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem

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Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, statistical analysis, commercial and test textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
128 Interactive Garments: Flexible Technologies for Textile Integration

Authors: Anupam Bhatia

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Upon reviewing the literature and the pragmatic work done in the field of E- textiles, it is observed that the applications of wearable technologies have found a steady growth in the field of military, medical, industrial, sports; whereas fashion is at a loss to know how to treat this technology and bring it to market. The purpose of this paper is to understand the practical issues of integration of electronics in garments; cutting patterns for mass production, maintaining the basic properties of textiles and daily maintenance of garments that hinder the wide adoption of interactive fabric technology within Fashion and leisure wear. To understand the practical hindrances an experimental and laboratory approach is taken. “Techno Meets Fashion” has been an interactive fashion project where sensor technologies have been embedded with textiles that result in set of ensembles that are light emitting garments, sound sensing garments, proximity garments, shape memory garments etc. Smart textiles, especially in the form of textile interfaces, are drastically underused in fashion and other lifestyle product design. Clothing and some other textile products must be washable, which subjects to the interactive elements to water and chemical immersion, physical stress, and extreme temperature. The current state of the art tends to be too fragile for this treatment. The process for mass producing traditional textiles becomes difficult in interactive textiles. As cutting patterns from larger rolls of cloth and sewing them together to make garments breaks and reforms electronic connections in an uncontrolled manner. Because of this, interactive fabric elements are integrated by hand into textiles produced by standard methods. The Arduino has surely made embedding electronics into textiles much easier than before; even then electronics are not integral to the daily wear garments. Soft and flexible interfaces of MEMS (micro sensors and Micro actuators) can be an option to make this possible by blending electronics within E-textiles in a way that’s seamless and still retains functions of the circuits as well as the garment. Smart clothes, which offer simultaneously a challenging design and utility value, can be only mass produced if the demands of the body are taken care of i.e. protection, anthropometry, ergonomics of human movement, thermo- physiological regulation.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, proximity sensors, shape memory materials, sound sensing garments, wearable technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
127 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
126 Evolution of Textiles in the Indian Subcontinent

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

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The objective of this paper is to trace the origin and evolution of clothing in the Indian Subcontinent. The paper seeks to understand the need for mankind to shed his natural state and adopt clothing as an inseparable accessory for his body. It explores the various theories of the origin of clothing. The known journey of clothing of this region started from the Indus Valley Civilisation which dates back to 2500 BC. Due to the weather conditions of the region, few actual samples have survived, and most of the knowledge of textiles is derived from the sculptures and other remains from this era. The understanding of textiles of the period after the Indus Valley Civilisation (2500-1500 BC) till the Mauryan and the Sunga Period (321-72 BC) comes from literary sources, e.g., Vedas, Smritis, the eminent Indian epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, forest books, etc. Textile production was one of the most important economic activities of this region. It was next only to agriculture. While attempting to trace the history of clothing the paper draws the evolution of Indian traditional fashion through the change of rulers of this region and the development of the modern Indian traditional dress, i.e., sari, salwar kamiz, dhoti, etc. The major aims of the study are to define the different time periods chronologically and to inspect the major changes in textile fashion, manufacturing, and materials that took place. This study is based on secondary research. It is founded on data taken primarily from books and journals. Not much of visuals are added in the paper as actual fabric references are near nonexistent. It gives a brief history of the ancient textiles of India from the time frame of 2500 BC-8th C AD.

Keywords: evolution, history, origin, textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
125 A Review of Antimicrobial Strategy for Cotton Textile

Authors: C. W. Kan, Y. L. Lam

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Cotton textile has large specific surfaces with good adhesion and water-storage properties which provide conditions for the growth and settlement of biological organisms. In addition, the soil, dust and solutes from sweat can also be the sources of nutrients for microorganisms [236]. Generally speaking, algae can grow on textiles under very moist conditions, providing nutrients for fungi and bacteria growth. Fungi cause multiple problems to textiles including discolouration, coloured stains and fibre damage. Bacteria can damage fibre and cause unpleasant odours with a slick and slimy feel. In addition, microbes can disrupt the manufacturing processes such as textile dyeing, printing and finishing operations through the reduction of viscosity, fermentation and mold formation. Therefore, a large demand exists for the anti-microbially finished textiles capable of avoiding or limiting microbial fibre degradation or bio fouling, bacterial incidence, odour generation and spreading or transfer of pathogens. In this review, the main strategy for cotton textile will be reviewed. In the beginning, the classification of bacteria and germs which are commonly found with cotton textiles will be introduced. The chemistry of antimicrobial finishing will be discussed. In addition, the types of antimicrobial treatment will be summarized. Finally, the application and evaluation of antimicrobial treatment on cotton textile will be discussed.

Keywords: antimicrobial, cotton, textile, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
124 The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends

Authors: Basak Ozkendirci

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The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.

Keywords: biotextiles, fashion trends, nanotextiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
123 Biomimetic Luminescent Textile Using Biobased Products

Authors: Sweta Iyer, Nemeshwaree Behary, Vincent Nierstrasz

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Various organisms involve bioluminescence for their particular biological function. The bio-based molecules responsible for bioluminescence vary from one species to another, research has been done to identify the chemistry and different mechanisms involved in light production in living organisms. The light emitting chemical systems such as firefly and bacterial luminous mostly involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions and is widely used for ATP measurement, bioluminescence imaging, environmental biosensors etc. Our strategy is to design bioluminescent textiles using such bioluminescent systems. Hence, a detailed literature work was carried out to study on how to mimic bioluminescence effect seen in nature. Reaction mechanisms in various bioluminescent living organisms were studied and the components or molecules responsible for luminescence were identified. However, the challenge is to obtain the same effect on textiles by immobilizing enzymes responsible for light creation. Another challenge is also to regenerate substrates involved in the reaction system to create a longer lasting illumination in bioluminescent textiles. Natural film-forming polymers were used to immobilize the reactive components including enzymes on textile materials to design a biomimetic luminescent textile.

Keywords: bioluminescence, biomimetic, immobilize, luminescent textile

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
122 Weaving Social Development: An Exploratory Study of Adapting Traditional Textiles Using Indigenous Organic Wool for the Modern Interior Textiles Market

Authors: Seema Singh, Puja Anand, Alok Bhasin

Abstract:

The interior design profession aims to create aesthetically pleasing design solutions for human habitats but of late, growing awareness about depleting environmental resources, both tangible and intangible, and damages to the eco-system led to the quest for creating healthy and sustainable interior environments. The paper proposes adapting traditionally produced organic wool textiles for the mainstream interior design industry. This can create sustainable livelihoods whereby eco-friendly bridges can be built between Interior designers and consumers and pastoral communities. This study focuses on traditional textiles produced by two pastoral communities from India that use organic wool from indigenous sheep varieties. The Gaddi communities of Himachal Pradesh use wool from the Gaddi sheep breed to create Pattu (a multi-purpose textile). The Kurumas of Telangana weave a blanket called the Gongadi, using wool from the Black Deccani variety of sheep. These communities have traditionally reared indigenous sheep breeds for their wool and produce hand-spun and hand-woven textiles for their own consumption, using traditional processes that are chemical free. Based on data collected personally from field visits and documentation of traditional crafts of these pastoral communities, and using traditionally produced indigenous organic wool, the authors have developed innovative textile samples by including design interventions and exploring dyeing and weaving techniques. As part of the secondary research, the role of pastoralism in sustaining the eco-systems of Himachal Pradesh and Telangana was studied, and also the role of organic wool in creating healthy interior environments. The authors found that natural wool from indigenous sheep breeds can be used to create interior textiles that have the potential to be marketed to an urban audience, and this will help create earnings for pastoral communities. Literature studies have shown that organic & sustainable wool can reduce indoor pollution & toxicity levels in interiors and further help in creating healthier interior environments. Revival of indigenous breeds of sheep can further help in rejuvenating dying crafts, and promotion of these indigenous textiles can help in sustaining traditional eco-systems and the pastoral communities whose way of life is endangered today. Based on research and findings, the authors propose that adapting traditional textiles can have potential for application in Interiors, creating eco-friendly spaces. Interior textiles produced through such sustainable processes can help reduce indoor pollution, give livelihood opportunities to traditional economies, and leave almost zero carbon foot-print while being in sync with available natural resources, hence ultimately benefiting the society. The win-win situation for all the stakeholders in this eco-friendly model makes it pertinent to re-think how we design lifestyle textiles for interiors. This study illustrates a specific example from the two pastoral communities and can be used as a model that can work equally well in any community, regardless of geography.

Keywords: design intervention, eco- friendly, healthy interiors, indigenous, organic wool, pastoralism, sustainability

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121 Smart-Textile Containers for Urban Mobility

Authors: René Vieroth, Christian Dils, M. V. Krshiwoblozki, Christine Kallmayer, Martin Schneider-Ramelow, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Green urban mobility in commercial and private contexts is one of the great challenges for the continuously growing cities all over the world. Bicycle based solutions are already and since a long time the key to success. Modern developments like e-bikes and high-end cargo-bikes complement the portfolio. Weight, aerodynamic drag, and security for the transported goods are the key factors for working solutions. Recent achievements in the field of smart-textiles allowed the creation of a totally new generation of intelligent textile cargo containers, which fulfill those demands. The fusion of technical textiles, design and electrical engineering made it possible to create an ecological solution which is very near to become a product. This paper shows all the details of this solution that includes an especially developed sensor textile for cut detection, a protective textile layer for intrusion prevention, an universal-charging-unit for energy harvesting from diverse sources and a low-energy alarm system with GSM/GPRS connection, GPS location and RFID interface.

Keywords: cargo-bike, cut-detection, e-bike, energy-harvesting, green urban mobility, logistics, smart-textiles, textile-integrity sensor

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120 In vitro Skin Model for Enhanced Testing of Antimicrobial Textiles

Authors: Steven Arcidiacono, Robert Stote, Erin Anderson, Molly Richards

Abstract:

There are numerous standard test methods for antimicrobial textiles that measure activity against specific microorganisms. However, many times these results do not translate to the performance of treated textiles when worn by individuals. Standard test methods apply a single target organism grown under optimal conditions to a textile, then recover the organism to quantitate and determine activity; this does not reflect the actual performance environment that consists of polymicrobial communities in less than optimal conditions or interaction of the textile with the skin substrate. Here we propose the development of in vitro skin model method to bridge the gap between lab testing and wear studies. The model will consist of a defined polymicrobial community of 5-7 commensal microbes simulating the skin microbiome, seeded onto a solid tissue platform to represent the skin. The protocol would entail adding a non-commensal test organism of interest to the defined community and applying a textile sample to the solid substrate. Following incubation, the textile would be removed and the organisms recovered, which would then be quantitated to determine antimicrobial activity. Important parameters to consider include identification and assembly of the defined polymicrobial community, growth conditions to allow the establishment of a stable community, and choice of skin surrogate. This model could answer the following questions: 1) is the treated textile effective against the target organism? 2) How is the defined community affected? And 3) does the textile cause unwanted effects toward the skin simulant? The proposed model would determine activity under conditions comparable to the intended application and provide expanded knowledge relative to current test methods.

Keywords: antimicrobial textiles, defined polymicrobial community, in vitro skin model, skin microbiome

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119 A Laundry Algorithm for Colored Textiles

Authors: H. E. Budak, B. Arslan-Ilkiz, N. Cakmakci, I. Gocek, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, M. H. Arslan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to design a novel laundry algorithm for colored textiles which have significant decoloring problem. During the experimental work, bleached knitted single jersey fabric made of 100% cotton and dyed with reactive dyestuff was utilized, since according to a conducted survey textiles made of cotton are the most demanded textile products in the textile market by the textile consumers and for coloration of textiles reactive dyestuffs are the ones that are the most commonly used in the textile industry for dyeing cotton-made products. Therefore, the fabric used in this study was selected and purchased in accordance with the survey results. The fabric samples cut out of this fabric were dyed with different dyeing parameters by using Remazol Brilliant Red 3BS dyestuff in Gyrowash machine at laboratory conditions. From the alternative reactive-dyed cotton fabric samples, the ones that have high tendency to color loss were determined and examined. Accordingly, the parameters of the dyeing process used for these fabric samples were evaluated and the dyeing process which was chosen to be used for causing high tendency to color loss for the cotton fabrics was determined in order to reveal the level of improvement in color loss during this study clearly. Afterwards, all of the untreated fabric samples cut out of the fabric purchased were dyed with the dyeing process selected. When dyeing process was completed, an experimental design was created for the laundering process by using Minitab® program considering temperature, time and mechanical action as parameters. All of the washing experiments were performed in domestic washing machine. 16 washing experiments were performed with 8 different experimental conditions and 2 repeats for each condition. After each of the washing experiments, water samples of the main wash of the laundering process were measured with UV spectrophotometer. The values obtained were compared with the calibration curve of the materials used for the dyeing process. The results of the washing experiments were statistically analyzed with Minitab® program. According to the results, the most suitable washing algorithm to be used in terms of the parameters temperature, time and mechanical action for domestic washing machines for minimizing fabric color loss was chosen. The laundry algorithm proposed in this study have the ability of minimalizing the problem of color loss of colored textiles in washing machines by eliminating the negative effects of the parameters of laundering process on color of textiles without compromising the fundamental effects of basic cleaning action being performed properly. Therefore, since fabric color loss is minimized with this washing algorithm, dyestuff residuals will definitely be lower in the grey water released from the laundering process. In addition to this, with this laundry algorithm it is possible to wash and clean other types of textile products with proper cleaning effect and minimized color loss.

Keywords: color loss, laundry algorithm, textiles, domestic washing process

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118 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar

Abstract:

In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

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117 Proposing Smart Clothing for Addressing Criminal Acts Against Women in South Africa

Authors: Anne Mastamet-Mason

Abstract:

Crimes against women is a global concern, and South Africa, in particular, is in a dilemma of dealing with constant criminal acts that face the country. Debates on violence against women in South Africa cannot be overemphasised any longer as crimes continue to rise year by year. The recent death of a university student at the University of Cape Town, as well as many other cases, continues to strengthen the need to find solutions from all the spheres of South African society. The advanced textiles market contains a high number and variety of technologies, many of which have protected status and constitute a relatively small portion of the textiles used for the consumer market. Examples of advanced textiles include nanomaterials, such as silver, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, designed to create an anti-microbial and self-cleaning layer on top of the fibers, thereby reducing body smell and soiling. Smart textiles propose materials and fabrics versatile and adaptive to different situations and functions. Integrating textiles and computing technologies offer an opportunity to come up with differentiated characteristics and functionality. This paper presents a proposal to design a smart camisole/Yoga sports brazier and a smart Yoga sports pant garment to be worn by women while alone and while in purported danger zones. The smart garments are to be worn under normal clothing and cannot be detected or seen, or suspected by perpetrators. The garments are imbued with devices to sense any physical aggression and any abnormal or accelerated heartbeat that may be exhibited by the victim of violence. The signals created during the attack can be transmitted to the police and family members who own a mobile application system that accepts signals emitted. The signals direct the receiver to the exact location of the offence, and the victim can be rescued before major violations are committed. The design of the Yoga sports garments will be done by Professor Mason, who is a fashion designer by profession, while the mobile phone application system will be developed by Mr. Amos Yegon, who is an independent software developer.

Keywords: smart clothing, wearable technology, south africa, 4th industrial revolution

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