Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 594

Search results for: surgical menopause

594 Premature Menopause among Women in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey-IV

Authors: Trupti Meher, Harihar Sahoo

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Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause before the age of 40 years. Women who experience premature menopause either due to biological or induced reasons have a longer duration of exposure to severe symptoms and adverse health consequences when compared to those who undergo menopause at a later age, despite the fact that premature menopause has a profound effect on the health of women. This study attempted to determine the prevalence and predictors of premature menopause among women aged 25-39 years, using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted during 2015–16 in India. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to carry out the result. The results revealed that the prevalence of premature menopause in India was 3.7 percent. Out of which, 2.1 percent of women had experienced natural premature menopause, whereas 1.7 percent had premature surgical menopause. The prevalence of premature menopause was highest in the southern region of India. Further, results of the multivariate model indicated that rural women, women with higher parity, early age at childbearing and women with smoking habits were at a greater risk of premature menopause. A sizeable proportion of women in India are attaining menopause prematurely. Unless due attention is given to this matter, it will emerge as a major problem in India in the future. The study also emphasized the need for further research to enhance knowledge on the problems of premature menopausal women in different socio-cultural settings in India.

Keywords: India, natural menopause, premature menopause, surgical menopause

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593 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

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Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: caffeine, menopause, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

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592 A Discourse Analysis of Menopause for Thai Women

Authors: Prapaipan Phingchim

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The number of women approaching menopausal age in Thailand is increasing, making menopause an important health topic. In order to understand Thai women's different ways of interpreting menopausal experiences and the way they construct meaning relating to menopause, it is necessary to include the context in which meaning is constructed as well as the background of cultural attitudes to menopause existing in the Thai society. The aim of this study was to describe different discourses on menopause in Thailand that present themselves to menopausal women through the use of language and to analyze linguistic strategies used to represent such identity. This study adopts discourse theory and a close pragmatic analysis to examine the discursive construction of menopause for Thai women. Two hundreds and fifteen pieces of text under the heading or subject of `menopause' or `becoming a middle-aged woman', published from 2010 to 2019, were included. All material was addressed to Thai women, and consisted of booklets and informational material, articles from newspapers and magazines and popular science books. Five different discourses on menopause were identified: the biomedical discourse; the health-promotion discourse; the consumer discourse; the alternative discourse; and the feminist/ critical discourse. The biomedical discourse on menopause was found to be dominant, but was expanded or challenged by other discourses by offering different scopes of action and/or resting on different fundamental values. The discourses constructed and positioned individual women differently; thus, the women's position varied noticeably from one discourse to another. There are seven major linguistic strategies used to construct those identities. That is, lexical selection, presupposition manipulation, presupposition denial, the use of implication, the use of passive construction, using the cause and effect sentence structure, and rhetoric questions.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive construction, menopause, Thai women

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591 Inflammatory Changes in Postmenopausal Women including Th17 and Treg

Authors: Ae Ra Han, Seoung Eun Huh, Ji Yeon Kim, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Sung Ki Lee

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Objective: Prevalence of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorders, and Alzheimer's disease rapidly increase after menopause. Immune activation and inflammation are suggested as an important pathogenesis of these serious diseases. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in women with surgical or natural menopause. However, the little is known about IL-17 producing T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in post-menopause. Methods: A total of 34 postmenopausal women, who had no active cardiovascular, endocrine and infectious disorders were recruited as study group and healthy premenopausal women participated as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. Immuno-morphologic (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56/CD16), intracellular cytokine (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-17), and Treg cell (Foxp3) studies were carried out using flow cytometry. The proportion of peripheral lymphocytes, including IL-17 producing and Foxp3+ Treg cells immune cell in each group were statistically analyzed. Results: The proportion of NK cells was significantly increased in menopausal women as compared to that of controls (P=.005). The ratios of TNF-alpha/IL-10 producing CD3+CD4+ T cells were increased in postmenopausal women. CD3+IL-17+ T cell level was higher in postmenopausal women and CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells was lower than that of controls. The ratios of CD3+IL-17+ T cell to CD3+Foxp3+ and to CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were significantly increased in postmenopausal women (P=.001). Conclusions: We found enhanced innate immunity and Th1- and Th17-mediated adaptive immunity in postmenopausal women. This may explain increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases after menopause. Further studies are needed to elucidate what factors contribute to this inflammatory shift in the postmenopause.

Keywords: inflammation, immune cell, menopause, Th17, regulatory T cell

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590 Age at Menarche and Menopause among Bidi Workers Women of Sagar District of Central India

Authors: Arun Kumar

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For the present study a total of 219 women, from urban and rural areas of Sagar district of central India were selected. The mean age at menarche of rural women was found 13.89±1.17 years and for urban women, it was 13.78±1.12 years. The difference between the mean age at menarche of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.580, p≤0.05). Mean age at menopause among rural women was (47.4±4.92). The difference between the mean of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.739 and p≤0.05). These findings indicate that rural women experience menopause at a later age as compared to their urban counterparts.

Keywords: menarche, menopause, urban, rural, Bidi workers

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589 A Literature Review on Virtual Interventions for Midlife Women

Authors: Daniel D'Souza, Ping Zou

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The period before, during, and after menopause is a sensitive time for women as they experience intense physical and psychological health changes and symptoms. These changes accompany the hormonal changes that mark the end of a woman’s reproductive age. To help mitigate and cope with these changes, prompt and correct treatment is needed. eHealth has emerged as a branch of telemedicine in the past few decades as an alternate avenue for patients to receive care quickly and conveniently, as it relies on the Internet and computers. Within the past few years, eHealth has also given rise to mHealth, which is the use of personal mobile devices to receive treatment and care. However, there is a lack of study on their use for menopause. This review aimed to review and summarize the literature for eHealth or mHealth and menopause. Several databases related to women’s health and digital health were searched for original studies about eHealth or mHealth and menopause. The search yielded 25 results. The results were generally positive, with these interventions being feasible and having positive effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. However, several issues were raised regarding their design process that may inadvertently prevent these interventions from addressing the needs of all potential users. Therefore, while eHealth and mHealth certainly represent a future model of healthcare delivery for menopausal women, further research and design modifications are needed before this can happen.

Keywords: eHealth, menopause, mHealth, midlife women

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588 Views of Middle-Aged Women in Malaysia towards Menopause: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Hamizah Sulaiman

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Introduction: Old age is commonly link with menopause among women. The main purpose of this study is to explore the views of middle-aged women and its association with menopause. Methods: Qualitative interviews in the form of focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among women aged between 35 and 59 years old living in urban localities in two different states in Malaysia. Selection of respondents were conducted using the maximum variation sampling, focussing on five age categories which are between 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years old. Each FGD involved 5 to 7 respondents and lasted for 1 to 2 hours each. The content of the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim after each interview before the next focus group discussion is conducted. Field notes of reflexive observations were recorded by the rapporteur. Individual transcripts were analysed using standard methods of qualitative thematic analysis. The material was read through twice and later coded. The codes were further collapsed into several key themes related to perceptions towards menopause among the respondents. Results: A total number of 36 middle-aged women were consented for the interviews. The contents of the interviews revealed that younger women tend to associate menopause with being old, which were dominated by the younger aged categories of less than 50 years old. Majority of the respondents linked menopause with end of woman’s reproductive capacity or inability to give birth, lethargic or endless feeling of tiredness and insomnia, emotional instability or having more sensitive feelings and also the beginning of many health problems such as osteoarthritis which they perceived very synonyms with being old. Conclusion: The findings of this study indirectly reflect the negative views towards menopause among the middle-aged women in Malaysia. Being residents in the urban areas equipped with advanced technology and health information, do not exclude them from having negative views about menopause. However, this is a qualitative study which only focussing on age ranges, regardless of their socioeconomic and demographic background, which make further studies on related issues are necessaries. The fact that it was a qualitative interview, the findings could not be generalised and only specific to the targeted population.

Keywords: Menopause, Middle-aged women, old, Malaysia

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587 Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment

Authors: K. K. Saju, A. R. Reghuraj

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High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.

Keywords: conversion coatings, 410 stainless steel, black oxide, reflectance

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586 The Effect of Applying Surgical Safety Checklist on Surgical Team’s Knowledge and Performance in Operating Room

Authors: Soheir Weheida, Amal E. Shehata, Samira E. Aboalizm

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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of surgical safety checklist on surgical team’s knowledge and performance in operating room. Subjects: A convenience sample 151 (48 head nurse, 45 nurse, 37 surgeon and 21 anesthesiologist) which available in operating room at two different hospitals was included in the study. Setting: The study was carried out at operating room in Menoufia University and Shebin Elkom Teaching Hospitals, Egypt. Tools: I: Surgical safety: Surgical team knowledge assessment structure interview schedule. II: WHO surgical safety observational Checklist. III: Post Surgery Culture Survey scale. Results: There was statistical significant improvement of knowledge mean score and performance about surgical safety especially in post and follow up than pre intervention, before patients entering the operating, before induction of anesthesia, skin incision and post skin closure and before patient leaves operating room, P values (P < 0.001). Improvement of communication post intervention than pre intervention between surgical team’s (4.74 ± 0.540). About two thirds (73.5 %) of studied sample strongly agreed on surgical safety in operating room. Conclusions: Implementation of surgical safety checklist has a positive effect on improving knowledge, performance and communication between surgical teams and these seems to have a positive effect on improve patient safety in the operating room.

Keywords: knowledge, operating room, performance, surgical safety checklist

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585 A Comparitive Study of the Effect of Stress on the Cognitive Parameters in Women with Increased Body Mass Index before and after Menopause

Authors: Ramesh Bhat, Ammu Somanath, A. K. Nayanatara

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Background: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. Aim: The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. Material and Methods: A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the age group of 18–44 years and women after menopause between the age group of 45–60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) the major tool was used for measuring the perception of stress. Based on the stress scale measurement each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke’s cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Results: Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the cognitive parameters such as attention and orientation Fluency, language and visuospatial ability. Memory did not show any significant change in this group. Whereas, in the postmenopausal stressed women all the cognitive functions except fluency showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease after menopause stressed group. Conclusion: Stress is a significant factor on the cognitive functions of obese and overweight women before and after menopause. Practice of Yoga, Encouragement in activities like gardening, embroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the HPA axis in relation to cognition and stress.

Keywords: cognition, stress, premenopausal, body mass index

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584 Functional Outcome and Quality of Life of Conservative versus Surgical Management of Adult Potts Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mark Angelo Maranon, David Endriga

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Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the differences in functional outcome and quality of life of adult patients with Potts disease who have undergone surgical versus non-surgical management. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 45 patients were followed up for 1 year after undergoing pharmacologic treatment alone versus a combination of anti-Kochs and surgery for Potts disease. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were obtained on initiation of treatment, after three months, six months and one year. Results: ASIA scores from the onset of treatment and after 1 year significantly improved (p<0.001) for both non-surgical and surgical patients. ODI scores significantly improved after 6 months of treatment for both surgical and non-surgical patients. Both surgical and non-surgical patients showed significant improvement in their SF-36 scores, but scores were noted to be higher in patients who underwent surgery. Conclusions: Significant improvement with regards to functional outcome and quality of life was noted from both surgical and non-surgical patients after 1 year of treatment, with earlier improvements and better final scores in SF 36 and ODI in patients who underwent surgery.

Keywords: tuberculosis, spinal, potts disease, functional outcome

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583 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

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Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

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582 A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Return to Work after Surgical vs. Non-surgical Midshaft Humerus Fracture

Authors: Jamal Alasiri, Naif Hakeem, Saoud Almaslmani

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Background: Patients with humeral shaft fractures have two different treatment options. Surgical therapy has lesser risks of non-union, mal-union, and re-intervention than non-surgical therapy. These positive clinical outcomes of the surgical approach make it a preferable treatment option despite the risks of radial nerve palsy and additional surgery-related risk. We aimed to evaluate patients’ outcomes and return to work after surgical vs. non-surgical management of shaft humeral fracture. Methods: We used databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, from 2010 to January 2022 to search for potential randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing the patients’ related outcome measures and return to work between surgical and non-surgical management of humerus fracture. Results: After carefully evaluating 1352 articles, we included three RCTs (232 patients) and one cohort study (39 patients). The surgical intervention used plate/nail fixation, while the non-surgical intervention used a splint or brace procedure to manage shaft humeral fracture. The pooled DASH effects of all three RCTs at six (M.D: -7.5 [-13.20, -1.89], P: 0.009) I2:44%) and 12 months (M.D: -1.32 [-3.82, 1.17], p:0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients treated surgically than in non-surgical procedures. The pooled constant Murley score at six (M.D: 7.945[2.77,13.10], P: 0.003) I2: 0%) and 12 months (M.D: 1.78 [-1.52, 5.09], P: 0.29, I2: 0%) were higher in patients who received non-surgical than surgical therapy. However, pooled analysis for patients returning to work for both groups remained inconclusive. Conclusion: Altogether, we found no significant evidence supporting the clinical benefits of surgical over non-surgical therapy. Thus, the non-surgical approach remains the preferred therapeutic choice for managing shaft humeral fractures due to its lesser side effects.

Keywords: shaft humeral fracture, surgical treatment, Patient-related outcomes, return to work, DASH

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581 The Breast Surgery Movement: A 50 Year Development of the Surgical Specialty

Authors: Lauren Zammerilla Westcott, Ronald C. Jones, James W. Fleshman

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The surgical treatment of breast cancer has rapidly evolved over the past 50 years, progressing from Halsted’s radical mastectomy to a public campaign of surgical options, aesthetic reconstruction, and patient empowerment. This article examines the happenings that led to the transition of breast surgery as a subset of general surgery to its own specialized field. Sparked by the research of Dr. Bernard Fisher and the first National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial in 1971, the field of breast surgery underwent significant growth over the next several decades, enabling general surgeons to limit their practices to the breast. High surgical volumes eventually led to the development of the first formal breast surgical oncology fellowship in a large community-based hospital at Baylor University Medical Center in 1982. The establishment of the American Society of Breast Surgeons, as well several landmark clinical trials and public campaign efforts, further contributed to the advancement of breast surgery, making it the specialized field of the current era.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast fellowship, breast surgery, surgical history

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580 The Effectiveness of Non-surgical Treatment for Androgenetic Alopesia in Men : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Authors: Monica Trifitriana, Rido Mulawarman

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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), is a genetically predetermined disorder due to an excessive response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Currently, non-surgical treatment of androgenetic alopecia is more in demand by patient. There are many non-surgical treatments, ranging from topical treatments, oral medications, and procedure treatments. We aim to assess the latest evidence of the efficacy of non-surgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in men comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, and growth. We performed a comprehensive search on topics that assesses non-surgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in men from inception up until November 2021. There were 24 studies out of a total of 2438 patients divided into five non-surgical treatment groups to assess the effectiveness of hair growth, namely: minoxidil 2% (MD: 8.11 hairs/cm2), minoxidil 5% (MD: 12.02 hairs/cm2), low-level laser light therapy/LLLT (MD: 12.35 hairs/cm2), finasteride 1mg (MD: 20.43 hairs/cm2), and Platelete-Rich Plasma/PRP with microneedling (MD: 26.33 hairs/cm2). All treatments had significant results for increasing hair growth particularly in cases of androgenetic alopecia in men (P<0.00001). From the results, it was found that the five non-surgical treatment groups proved to be effective and significant for hair growth, particularly in cases of androgenetic alopecia in men. In order of the best non-surgical treatment for hair growth starting from PRP with microneedling, Finasteride 1mg, LLLT, minoxidil 5%, to minoxidil 2%.

Keywords: androgenetic alopesia, non-surgical, men, meta-analysis, systematic review

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579 Osteoporosis and Weight Gain – Two Major Concerns for Menopausal Women - a Physiotherapy Perspective

Authors: Renu Pattanshetty

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The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the impact of menopause on osteoporosis and weight gain. The review also aims to summarize physiotherapeutic strategies to combat the same.A thorough literature search was conducted using electronic databases like MEDline, PUBmed, Highwire Press, PUBmed Central for English language studies that included search terms like menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies from the year 2000 till date. Out of 157 studies that included metanalyses, critical reviews and randomized clinical trials, a total of 84 were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of obesity is increasing world - wide and is reaching epidemic proportions even in the menopausal women. Prevalence of abdominal obesity is almost double than that general obesity with rates in the US with 65.5% in women ages 40-59 years and 73.8 in women aged 60 years or more. Physical activities and exercises play a vital role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and weight gain related to menopause that aim to boost the general well-being and any symptoms brought about by natural body changes. Endurance exercises lasting about 30 minutes /day for 5 days/ week has shown to decrease weight and prevent weight gain. In addition, strength training with at least 8 exercises of 8-12 repetitions working for whole body and for large muscle groups has shown to result positive outcomes. Hot flashes can be combatted through yogic breathing and relaxation exercises. Prevention of fall strategies and resistance training are key to treat diagnosed cases of osteoporosis related to menopause. One to three sets with five to eight repetitions of four to six weight bearing exercises have shown positive results. Menopause marks an important time for women to evaluate their risk of obesity and osteoporosis. It is known fact that bone benefit from exercises are lost when training is stopped, hence, practicing bone smart habits and strict adherence to recommended physical activity programs are recommended which are enjoyable, safe and effective.

Keywords: menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies

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578 A Development of Practice Guidelines for Surgical Safety Management to Reduce Undesirable Incidents from Surgical Services in the Operating Room of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thitima Plejai

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The practice in the operating room has been continually performed according to standards of services; however, undesirable incidents from surgical services are found such as surgical complications in the operating room. This participation action research aimed to develop practice guidelines for surgical safety management to reduce undesirable incidents from surgical services in the operating room of Songkhla Hospital. The target population was all 84 members of the multidisciplinary team who were involved in surgical services in the operating room consisting of 28 surgeons from five branches of surgery, 27 anesthetists and nurse anesthetists, and 29 surgical nurses. The data were collected through in-depth interviews, and non-participatory observations. The research instrument was tested by three experts, and the steps of the development consisted of four cycles, each consisting of assessment, planning, practice, practice reflection, and improvement until every step is practicable. The data were validated through triangulation research method, analyzed through content analysis and statistical analysis with number and percentage. The results of the development of practice guidelines surgical safety management to reduce undesirable incidents from surgical services could be concluded as follows. 1) The multidisciplinary team in surgery participated in the needs assessment for development of practice guidelines for surgical patient safety, and agreed on adapting the WHO Surgical Safety Checklists for use. 2) The WHO Surgical Safety Checklists was implemented, and meetings were held for the multidisciplinary team in surgery and the organizational risk committee to improve the practice guidelines to make them more practicable. 3) The multidisciplinary team consisting of surgeons from five branches of surgery, anesthetists, nurse anesthetists, surgical nurses, and the organizational risk committee announced policy on safety for surgical patients; the organizational risk committee designated the Surgical Safety Checklist as an instrument for surgical patient safety. The results of the safety management found that the surgical team members who could follow 100 percent of the guidelines were: professional nurses who checked patient identity and information before taking the patient to the operating room and kept complete records of data on the patients; surgical nurses who checked readiness of the patient before surgery; nurse anesthetists who assessed readiness before administering anesthetic drugs, and confirmed correctness of the patient; and circulating perioperative nurses who gave confirmation to the surgical team after completion of the surgery. The rates of undesirable incidents (surgical complications rates) before and after the implementation of the surgical safety management were 1.60 percent and 0.66 percent, respectively. The satisfaction of the surgery-related teams towards the use of the guidelines was 89 percent. The practice guidelines for surgical safety management to reduce undesirable incidents were taken as guidelines for surgical safety that the multidisciplinary team involved in the surgical process implemented correctly and in the same direction and clearly reduced undesirable incidents in surgical patients.

Keywords: practice guidelines, surgical safety management, reduce undesirable incidents, operating Room

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577 Effects of Using Clinical Guidelines for Feeding through a Gastrostomy Tube in Critically ill Surgical Patients Songkla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Siriporn Sikkaphun

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Food is essential for living, and receiving correct, suitable, and adequate food is advantageous to the body, especially for patients because it can enable good recovery. Feeding through a gastrostomy tube is one useful way that is widely used because it is easy, convenient, and economical.To compare the effectiveness of using the clinical guidelines for feeding through a gastrostomy tube in critically ill surgical patients.This is a pre-post quasi-experimental study on 15 critically ill surgical or accident patients who needed intubation and the gastrostomy tube from August 2011 to November 2012. The data were collected using the guidelines, and an evaluation form for effectiveness of guidelines for feeding through a gastrostomy tube in critically ill surgical patients. After using the guidelines for feeding through a gastrostomy tube in critically ill surgical patients, it was found that The average number of days from the admission date to the day the patients received food through the G-tube significantly reduced at the level .05. The number of personnel who practiced nursing activities correctly and suitably for patients with complications during feeding significantly increased at the level .05.The number of patients receiving energy to the target level significantly increased at the level .05. The results of this study indicated that the use of the guidelines for feeding through a gastrostomy tube in critically ill surgical patients was feasible in practice, and the outcomes were beneficial to the patients.

Keywords: clinical guidelines, feeding, gastrostomy tube, critically ill, surgical patients

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576 The Role of Surgery to Remove the Primary Tumor in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

Authors: A. D. Zikiryahodjaev, L. V. Bolotina, A. S. Sukhotko

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Purpose. To evaluate the expediency and timeliness of performance of surgical treatment as a component of multi-therapy treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancers. Materials and Methods. This investigation comparatively analyzed the results of complex treatment with or without surgery in patients with metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed retrospectively treatment experience of 196 patients with generalized breast cancer in the department of oncology and breast reconstructive surgery of P.A. Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute from 2000 to 2012. The average age was (58±1,1) years. Invasive ductul carcinoma was verified in128 patients (65,3%), invasive lobular carcinoma-33 (16,8%), complex form - 19 (9,7%). Complex palliative care involving drug and radiation therapies was performed in two patient groups. The first group includes 124 patients who underwent surgical intervention as complex treatment, the second group includes 72 patients with only medical therapy. Standard systemic therapy was given to all patients. Results. Overall, 3-and 5-year survival in fist group was 43,8 and 21%, in second - 15,1 and 9,3% respectively [p=0,00002 log-rank]. Median survival in patients with surgical treatment composed 32 months, in patients with only systemic therapy-21. The factors having influencing an influence on the prognosis and the quality of life outcomes for of patients with generalized breast cancer were are also studied: hormone-dependent tumor, Her2/neu hyper-expression, reproductive function status (age, menopause existence). Conclusion.Removing primary breast tumor in patients with generalized breast cancer improve long-term outcomes. Three- and five-year survival increased by 28,7 and 16,3% respectively, and median survival–for 11 months. These patients may benefit from resection of the breast tumor. One explanation for the effect of this resection is that reducing the tumor load influences metastatic growth.

Keywords: breast cancer, combination therapy, factors of prognosis, primary tumor

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575 Climacteric Disorder among Women: A Qualitative Review

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Manmeet Gill

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The climacteric is a wide phenomenon. Women of the entire world go through it at their own level. It’s a topic on which women hesitate to talk openly. It includes breast tenderness, uterine bleeding, arthralgia, hemorrhage, changes in emotional level such as facing depression, emotional breakdown, irritability and others. Other than such emotional breakdown nausea, vomiting, headache, gaining or losing weight is common problem associated with the climacteric disorder. The purpose of the present study is to assess the Climacteric disorders among women such as during menopause whatever a woman or girl faces mentally or physically. This is mainly done in women when they reached the age of 12 to 48 worldwide. For completing the study two objectives have been taken. The first objective of the study is to analyze the symptoms which lead to Climacteric among women such as Vaginal problems, Breast changes, Behavioral problems, Weight gain, Problems in the urinary tract etc. and the second Objective is to identify the variables which affect Climacteric these are Physical variables (lack of energy, joint soreness, stiffness, back pain etc.), Psychological variables (anxiety, poor memory, inability to concentrate) and Vasomotor variables (hormone estrogen fall, etc). The secondary source of method or data is used to deal with the theme of paper. Sometimes the word climacteric is interchanged with the term menopause and all these changes are high during the period of menopause among women.

Keywords: climacteric and their symposiums, disorder, reviews, in middle age

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574 Prevalence of Menopausal Women with Clinical Symptoms of Allergy and Evaluation the Effect of Sex Hormone Combined with Anti-Allergy Treatment

Authors: Yang Wei, Xueyan Wang, Hui Zou

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Objective: Investigation the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in patients with allergic symptoms, evaluation of the effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy in these patients. Method: Age of 45-65 years old women with allergic symptoms at the same time in gynecological-endocrinology clinic in our hospital were selected from Feb 1 to May 31, 2010, randomly. The patients were given oral estradiol valerate plus progestin pills combined with anti-allergy treatment and then evaluated twice a week and one month later. Evaluation criterion: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the degree of clinical symptoms were used to evaluate menopause and allergy separately. Results: 1) There were 195 cases of patients with menopausal symptoms at the age. Their MRS were all over 15. 2) Among them 45 patients were with allergic symptom accounted for 23% which were diagnosed by allergic department. 3) Evaluated after one week: the menopausal symptoms were improved and MRS were less than or equal to 5 in all these patients; the skin symptom of allergic symptoms vanished completely. 4) Evaluated after one month: Menopause symptoms were improved steadily; other clinical symptoms of allergy were also improved or without recurrence. Conclusion: The incidence rate of menopausal women with clinical symptoms of allergic diseases is high and it needs attention. The effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy is obvious.

Keywords: menopausal, allergy, sex hormone, anti-allergy treatment

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573 Battling against the Great Disruption to Surgical Care in a Pandemic: Experience of Eleven South and Southeast Asian Countries

Authors: Naomi Huang Wenya, Xin Xiaohui, Vijaya Rao, Wong Ting Hway, Chow Kah Hoe Pierce, Tan Hiang Khoon

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Background: The majority of the cancelled elective surgeries caused by the COVID-19 pandemic globally were estimated to occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where surgical services had long been in short supply even before the pandemic. Therefore, minimising disruption to existing surgical care in LMICs is of crucial importance during a pandemic. This study aimed to explore contributory factors to the continuity of surgical care in LMICs, in the face of a pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted over zoom, with surgical leaders of 25 tertiary hospitals from 11 LMICs in South and Southeast Asia, from September to October 2020. Key themes were subsequently identified from the interview transcripts, using Braun and Clarke's method of thematic analysis. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected all surgical services of participating institutions but to varying degrees. Overall, elective surgeries suffered the gravest disruption, followed by outpatient surgical care, and finally, emergency surgeries. Keeping healthcare workers safe and striving for continuity of essential surgical care emerged as notable response strategies observed across all participating institutions. Conclusion: This study suggested that four factors are important for the resilience of surgical care against COVID-19: adequate COVID-19 testing capacity and effective institutional infection control measures, designated COVID-19 treatment facilities, a whole-system approach to balancing pandemic response and meeting essential surgical needs, and active community engagement. These findings can inform healthcare institutions in other countries, especially LMICs, in their effort to tread a fine line between preserving healthcare capacity for pandemic response and protecting surgical services against pandemic disruption.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, LMICs, continuity of surgical service

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572 Revisiting the Surgical Approaches to Decompression in Quadrangular Space Syndrome: A Cadaveric Study

Authors: Sundip Charmode, Simmi Mehra, Sudhir Kushwaha, Shalom Philip, Pratik Amrutiya, Ranjna Jangal

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Introduction: Quadrangular space syndrome involves compression of the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery and its management in few cases, requires surgical decompression. The current study reviews the surgical approaches used in the decompression of neurovascular structures and presents our reflections and recommendations. Methods: Four human cadavers, in the Department of Anatomy were used for dissection of the Axillae and the Scapular region by the senior residents of the Department of Anatomy and Department of Orthopedics, who dissected quadrangular space in the eight upper limbs, using anterior and posterior surgical approaches. Observations: Posterior approach to identify the quadrangular space and secure its contents was recognized as the easier and much quicker method by both the Anatomy and Orthopedic residents, but it may result in increased postoperative morbidity. Whereas the anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach involves more skill but reduces postoperative morbidity. Conclusions: Anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach with suggested modifications can prove as an effective method in surgical decompression of quadrangular space syndrome. The authors suggest more cadaveric studies to facilitate anatomists and surgeons with the opportunities to practice and evaluate older and newer surgical approaches.

Keywords: surgical approach, anatomical approach, decompression, axillary nerve, quadrangular space

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571 Making a Difference in a Crisis: How the 24-Hour Surgical Ambulatory Assessment Unit Transformed Emergency Care during COVID-19

Authors: Bindhiya Thomas, Rehana Hafeez

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Background: The Surgical Ambulatory Unit (SAU) also known as the Same Day Emergency Care (SDEC) is an established part of many hospitals providing same day emergency care service to surgical patients who would have otherwise required admission through the A&E. Prior to Covid, the SAU was functioning as a 12-hour service, but during the Covid crisis this service was transformed to a 24 hour functioning Surgical Ambulatory Assessment unit (SAAU). We studied the effects that this change brought about in-patient care in our hospital. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a 24-hour Surgical Ambulatory Assessment unit on patient care during the time of Covid, in particular its role in freeing A&E capacity and delivering effective patient care. Methods: We collected two sets of data retrospectively. The first set was collected over a 6-week period when the SAU was functioning at the Princess Royal University Hospital. On March 23rd, 2020, the SAU was transformed into a 24-hour SAAU. Following this transformation, a second set of patient data was collected over a period of 6 weeks. A comparison was made between data collected from when the hospital had a 12-hour Surgical Ambulatory unit and later when it was transformed into a 24-hour facility. Its effects on the change in the number of patients breaching the four hour waiting period and the number of emergency surgical admissions. Results: The 24-hour Surgical Ambulatory Assessment unit brought significant reductions in the number of patients breaching the waiting period of 4 hours in A&E from 44% during the period of the 12-hour Surgical Ambulatory care facility to 0% from when the 24-hour Surgical Ambulatory Assessment Unit was established. A 28% reduction was also seen in the number of surgical patients' admissions from A&E. Conclusions: The 24-hour SAAU was found to have a profound positive impact on emergency care of surgical patients. Especially during the Covid crisis, it played a crucial role in providing not only effective and accessible patient care but also in reducing the A&E workload and admissions. It thus proved to be a strategic tool that helped to deal with the immense workload in emergency care during the Covid crisis and helped free much needed headspace at a time of uncertainty for the A&E to better configure their services. If sustained, the 24-hour SAAU could be relied on to augment the NHS emergency services in the future, especially in the event of another crisis.

Keywords: Princess Royal University Hospital, surgical ambulatory assessment unit, surgical ambulatory unit, same day emergency care

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570 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu

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This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

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569 Teleporting Surgical Residents to the Operating Room In Real Time And Their Perspectives on Immersive Virtually as New Tool in Surgical Education

Authors: Alex Gandsas MD, Trevor Dorey MD, Adrian Park MD

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Introduction: Prior studies have demonstrated the value of live streamed surgical procedures in surgical education and that learning is further enhanced with the use of 360-degree video. Emerging virtual reality (VR) technology now offers yet another advancement by placing learners in an immersive environment, which can improve both engagement and procedural learning. The objective of this study was to assess whether the use of a virtual reality head-mounted display combined with live 360-degree streaming video was a beneficial learning tool for surgeons in training. Method: Fifteen Surgical Residents were asked to complete a Likert scale survey regarding their experience viewing a live-streamed laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in immersive virtual reality. Residents were, in effect, “teleported” to the operating room by means of a head-mounted display (Oculus Quest 2) and a 360-degree camera, with the live feed delivered over a private CDN. Results: Our study shows that 80% of respondents would recommend immersive VR as an option for viewing surgical cases remotely. Negative effects, including headaches, nausea, or eye strain, were reported by 47% of the surveyed residents. A higher awareness of details in the operating room and the surgical procedure when compared to a standard 2D screen was appreciated by 60% of the residents. Immersive VR environment was not a cause of distraction in 80% of the surveyed residents, and 80% concluded that the use of immersive VR to view live-streamed surgical procedures is a useful adjunct to surgical training. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that live 360-degree video streaming of surgical procedures, delivered using an immersive VR platform, is perceived by surgical trainees as a teaching tool with the potential of changing the current paradigm of surgical education. Further studies are needed to assess whether skills acquired with this emerging technology can be transferred with high fidelity to the real-life setting.

Keywords: 360-degree video, head-mounted display, virtual reality, live surgery, live streaming, oculus

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568 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Tzu Yu Huang, Ya Ping Chen, Chun Mel Lu

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This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Salvia officinalis, aromatherapy, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, heart rate variability, parasympathetic nerves

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567 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi

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In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

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566 Midface Trauma: Outpatient Follow-Up and Surgical Treatment Times

Authors: Divya Pathak, James Sloane

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Surgical treatment of midface fractures should ideally occur within two weeks of injury, after which bony healing and consolidation make the repair more difficult for the operating surgeon. The oral and maxillofacial unit at the Royal Surrey Hospital is the tertiary referral center for maxillofacial trauma from five regional hospitals. This is a complete audit cycle of midface trauma referrals managed over a one year period. The standard set was that clinical assessment of the midface fracture would take place in a consultant led outpatient clinic within 7 days, and when indicated, surgical fixation would occur within 10 days of referral. Retrospective data was collected over one year (01/11/2018 - 31/12/2019). Three key changes were implemented: an IT referral mailbox, standardization of an on-call trauma table, and creation of a trauma theatre list. Re-audit was carried out over six months completing the cycle. 283 midface fracture referrals were received, of which 22 patients needed surgical fixation. The average time from referral to outpatient follow-up improved from 14.5 days to 8.3 days, and time from referral to surgery improved from 21.5 days to 11.6 days. Changes implemented in this audit significantly improved patient prioritization to appropriate outpatient clinics and shortened time to surgical intervention.

Keywords: maxillofacial trauma, midface trauma, oral and maxillofacial surgery, surgery fixation

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565 The Impact of Urethral Plate Width on Surgical Outcomes After Distal Hypospadias Repair in Children

Authors: Andrey Boyko

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Nowadays, there is no consensus about the influence of urethral plate (UP) width on the surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair. The purpose of the research was to study the association between UP width and surgical outcomes after distal hypospadias repair in children. Materials and methods: The study included 138 patients with distal hypospadias. The mean age at the time of surgery was 4.6 years (6 months – 16 years). We measured UP width at the “midpoint within the glans” and used the HOSE scale to assess postoperative outcomes. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – the patients (107) with UP < 8mm, group 2 – patients (31) with UP > 8mm. All boys underwent TIP repair. Preincision means UP width after incision means UP width, and the UP ratio was analyzed. Statistical data were obtained using Statistica 10. Results: The findings were preincision mean UP width - 5.4 mm and 9.4 mm; after incision mean UP width - 13mm and 17.5 mm; UP ratio - 0.41 and 0.53 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Most postoperative complications (fistula, meatal stenosis, and stricture) happened in patients with UP width < 8 mm versus ≥ 8 mm (7/107 versus 2/31, respectively). HOSE results were 15.77 (group 1), 15.65 (group 2). The follow up lasted up to 12 months. Statistical analysis proved the absence of correlation between UP width and postoperative complications. Conclusions: In conclusion, it should be noted that the success of surgical repair mostly depended on the surgical technique.

Keywords: children, distal hypospadias, tip repair, urethral plate width

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