Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: insomnia

35 Audio-Visual Entrainment and Acupressure Therapy for Insomnia

Authors: Mariya Yeldhos, G. Hema, Sowmya Narayanan, L. Dhiviyalakshmi


Insomnia is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders worldwide. Some of the deficiencies of the current treatments of insomnia are: side effects in the case of sleeping pills and high costs in the case of psychotherapeutic treatment. In this paper, we propose a device which provides a combination of audio visual entrainment and acupressure based compression therapy for insomnia. This device provides drug-free treatment of insomnia through a user friendly and portable device that enables relaxation of brain and muscles, with certain advantages such as low cost, and wide accessibility to a large number of people. Tools adapted towards the treatment of insomnia: -Audio -Continuous exposure to binaural beats of a particular frequency of audible range -Visual -Flash of LED light -Acupressure points -GB-20 -GV-16 -B-10

Keywords: insomnia, acupressure, entrainment, audio-visual entrainment

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34 Fear of Covid-19 a Major Contributing Factor to Insomnia in General Iranian Population

Authors: Amin Nakhostin-Ansari, Samaneh Akbarour, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Farnaz Etesam, Arezu Najafi, Mahnaz Khalafehnilsaz


Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus disease has considerably burdened the healthcare system in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of insomnia experienced by the general Iranian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A scale(FCV-19) was used for Fear of COVID-19, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 (GAD-2) for detailed characterization of insomnia and its patterns Results: In total, 675 people with insomnia with the mean age of 40.28 years (SD=11.15) participated in this study. Prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) were 91.4%, 86.7%, and 77%, respectively. DIS, DMS, and EMA were more common in people with depression and anxiety. FCV-19 score was higher in those with more severe types of DIS, DMS, and EMA (P<0.001). FCV-19 was a risk factor for all patterns of insomnia (OR=1.19, 1.12, 1.02 for DIS, DMS, and EMA, respectively). Conclusion: fear of COVID-19 is a major factor to insomnia patterns. Investigation of COVID-19 fear in people with insomnia and the addition of attributed relieving or management strategies to conventional management of insomnia are reasonable approaches to improve the sleep condition of people in the pandemic.

Keywords: insomnia, difficulty maintaining sleep, COVID-19, Coronavirus

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33 Insomnia and Depression in Outpatients of Dementia Center

Authors: Jun Hong Lee


Background: Many dementia patients complain insomnia and depressive mood, and hypnotics and antidepressants are being prescribed. As prevalence of dementia is increasing, insomnia and depressive mood are becoming more important. Objective: We evaluated insomnia and depression in outpatients of dementia center. Patients and Methods/Material and Methods: We reviewed medical records of the patients who visited outpatients clinic of NHIS Ilsan Hospital Dementia Center during 2016. Results: Total 716 patients are included; Subjective Memory Impairment (SMI) : 143 patients (20%), non-amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): single domain 70 (10%), multiple domain 34 (5%), amnestic MCI: single domain 74 (10%), multiple domain 159 (22%), Early onset Alzheimer´s disease (AD): 9 (1%), AD 121 (17%), Vascular dementia: 62 (9%), Mixed dementia 44 (6%). Hypnotics and antidepressants are prescribed as follows; SMI : hypnotics 14 patients (10%), antidepressants 27 (19%), non-amnestic MCI: single domain hypnotics 9 (13%), antidepressants 12 (17%), multiple domain hypnotics 4 (12%), antidepressants 6 (18%), amnestic MCI: single domain hypnotics 10 (14%), antidepressants 16 (22%), multiple domain hypnotics 22 (14%), antidepressants 24 (15%), Early onset Alzheimer´s disease (AD): hypnotics 1 (11%), antidepressants 2 (22%), AD: hypnotics 10 (8%), antidepressants 36 (30%), Vascular dementia: hypnotics 8 (13%), antidepressants 20 (32%), Mixed dementia: hypnotics 4 (9%), antidepressants 17 (39%). Conclusion: Among the outpatients of Dementia Center, MCI and SMI are majorities, and the number of MCI patients are almost half. Depression is more prevalent in AD, and Vascular dementia than MCI and SMI, and about 22% of patients are being prescribed by antidepressants and 11% by hypnotics.

Keywords: insomnia, depression, dementia, antidepressants, hypnotics

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32 Correlation between Sleeping Disturbance and Academic Achievement in University Female Students

Authors: Amel Fayed, Shaden AlSubaih, Nouf Al-Qahtani, Asmaa Gosty, Asma Aljuhaimi


Introduction: Sleep difficulties are vastly predominant among adults and affect different aspects of their life. Many literatures found out that females are more liable to suffer from sleeping problems. College students are typical example of people dealing with daily pressure and stress to fulfill the daily tasks and responsibilities. In addition to their ultimate goal of achieving excellent academic records which require their full concentration and effort. Consequently, many of them start complaining of sleep deprivations which can undesirably affect their academic achievements. This study was aiming to investigate how prevalent is sleeping disorders among different colleges in the university and its relation their academic achievements. Methods: A cross-sectional study of female university students at Princess Norah Bint Abdulrahman University using self-administered questionnaire was conducted. Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to assess different grades of insomnia. Students were requested to answer the questions evaluating their sleeping habits over the last two weeks. Participants reported their latest Grade Point Average (GPA). According to ISI, insomnia severity is reported as ‘No clinically significant’, ‘Subthreshold ‘,’ Clinical moderate insomnia’ and ‘Clinical severe’. Results: In the current study, 228 students participated; 172(75.4%) from medical colleges and 56 (24.6%) from non-medical colleges. About 80% of them claimed to have never taken any medications to help them sleep while only three students confirmed their regular use of sleep-inducing medications. About 16% of the students drink milk or other hot drinks to help them fall asleep. None of the students was suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea or apparent psychiatric disorder. According to ISI, 182 (79.8%) students suffered from subthreshold insomnia, 37 (16.2%) had clinical insomnia (moderate severity) and 9 (3.9%) of students had sleeping problems of non-clinically significance level. However, none of students was found to have severe clinical insomnia. Clinical moderate insomnia was reported in 15.1% of medical students and 19.6% of non-medical students. Moreover, about 82% of medical students suffered from subthreshold insomnia compared to 73.2% of non-medical students. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.24). About 63% of medical students and 48% of non-medical students believed that high percentage of their colleagues are suffering from insomnias (p-value 0.08) The association between GPA and insomnia revealed that; 19.5% of low GPA group compared to 9.3% of high GPA group had clinical moderate insomnia. This association was not statistically significant (p=0.15). The correlation between the GPA and the ISI score was negative but not conclusive (r=-0.08, p-value = 0.29). More than 92% of all students agreed that sleeping problems affect their academic achievement to varying degrees. Conclusion: our results suggest that insomnia is commonly prevalent among female university students and might affect the students’ achievement. This study provides preliminary data about the quality of sleep among medical and non-medical university students which may be used to promote the healthy sleeping habits among female students.

Keywords: academic achievement, females, insomnia, university student

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31 The Impact of Insomnia on the Academic Performance of Mexican Medical Students: Gender Perspective

Authors: Paulina Ojeda, Damaris Estrella, Hector Rubio


Insomnia is a disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or both. It negatively affects the life quality of people, it hinders the concentration, attention, memory, motor skills, among other abilities that complicate work or learning. Some studies show that women are more susceptible to insomnia. Medicine curricula usually involve a great deal of theoretical and memory content, especially in the early years of the course. The way to accredit a university course is to demonstrate the level of competence or acquired knowledge. In Mexico the most widely used form of measurement is written exams, with numerical scales results. The prevalence of sleep disorders in university students is usually high, so it is important to know if insomnia has an effect on school performance in men and women. A cross-sectional study was designed that included a probabilistic sample of 118 regular students from the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Mexico. All on legally age. The project was authorized by the School of Medicine and all the ethical implications of the case were monitored. Participants completed anonymously the following questionnaires: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, AUDIT test, epidemiological and clinical data. Academic performance was assessed by the average number of official grades earned on written exams, as well as the number of approved or non-approved courses. These data were obtained officially through the corresponding school authorities. Students with at least one unapproved course or average less than 70 were considered to be poor performers. With all courses approved and average between 70-79 as regular performance and with an average of 80 or higher as a good performance. Statistical analysis: t-Student, difference of proportions and ANOVA. 65 men with a mean age of 19.15 ± 1.60 years and 53 women of 18.98 ± 1.23 years, were included. 96% of the women and 78.46% of the men sleep in the family home. 16.98% of women and 18.46% of men consume tobacco. Most students consume caffeinated beverages. 3.7% of the women and 10.76% of the men complete criteria of harmful consumption of alcohol. 98.11% of the women and 90.76% of the men are perceived with poor sleep quality. Insomnia was present in 73% of women and 66% of men. Women had higher levels of moderate insomnia (p=0.02) compared to men and only one woman had severe insomnia. 50.94% of the women and 44.61% of the men had poor academic performance. 18.86% of women and 27% of men performed well. Only in the group of women we found a significant association between poor performance with mild (p= 0.0035) and moderate (p=0.031) insomnia. The medical students reported poor sleep quality and insomnia. In women, levels of insomnia were associated with poor academic performance.

Keywords: scholar-average, sex, sleep, university

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30 Convolution Neural Network Based on Hypnogram of Sleep Stages to Predict Dosages and Types of Hypnotic Drugs for Insomnia

Authors: Chi Wu, Dean Wu, Wen-Te Liu, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Shin-Mei Hsu, Yin-Tzu Lin, Ru-Yin Yang


Background: The results of previous studies compared the benefits and risks of receiving insomnia medication. However, the effects between hypnotic drugs used and enhancement of sleep quality were still unclear. Objective: The aim of this study is to establish a prediction model for hypnotic drugs' dosage used for insomnia subjects and associated the relationship between sleep stage ratio change and drug types. Methodologies: According to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) guideline, sleep stages were classified and transformed to hypnogram via the polysomnography (PSG) in a hospital in New Taipei City (Taiwan). The subjects with diagnosis for insomnia without receiving hypnotic drugs treatment were be set as the comparison group. Conversely, hypnotic drugs dosage within the past three months was obtained from the clinical registration for each subject. Furthermore, the collecting subjects were divided into two groups for training and testing. After training convolution neuron network (CNN) to predict types of hypnotics used and dosages are taken, the test group was used to evaluate the accuracy of classification. Results: We recruited 76 subjects in this study, who had been done PSG for transforming hypnogram from their sleep stages. The accuracy of dosages obtained from confusion matrix on the test group by CNN is 81.94%, and accuracy of hypnotic drug types used is 74.22%. Moreover, the subjects with high ratio of wake stage were correctly classified as requiring medical treatment. Conclusion: CNN with hypnogram was potentially used for adjusting the dosage of hypnotic drugs and providing subjects to pre-screening the types of hypnotic drugs taken.

Keywords: convolution neuron network, hypnotic drugs, insomnia, polysomnography

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29 Coronavirus Anxiety and Job Burnout of Polish Front-Line Health-Care Workers. Mediation Effect of Insomnia

Authors: Lukasz Baka


Objective. The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion from the perspective of Hobfol Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. According to COR theory, critical events (e.g. the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleep troubles, which over time, results in an increase in exhaustion. Materials and Methods: Data were collected among 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance, and wardens. Three measurements were used: Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ, sleep trouble subscale) and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI, exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested by the use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Results: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleep problems depleted healthcare providers’ resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients, therefore researches into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety are needed.

Keywords: coronavirus anxiety, front-line healt-care workers, insomnia, job burnout

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28 Prevalence of Shift Work Disorders among Mongolian Nurses

Authors: Davaakhuu Vandannyam, Amarsaikhan Dashtseren, Oyungoo Badamdorj


Background: Shift work and extended working hours are increasing in many industries and organization's in the world. Over a 24 hour period, the circadian clock regulates sleep/wake patterns, body temperature, hormone levels, digestion and many other functions. Depending on the time of day or night, the human body is programmed for periods of wakefulness and sleep, high and low body temperature, high and low digestive activity and so on. Shift work is highly prevalent in industrialized societies (>20%) but, when it includes night work, it has pronounced negative effects on sleep, subjective and physiological sleepiness, performance, accident risk, as well as on health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Method: In this cross-sectional field study, 634 shift work and day work nurses from a plant were involved, with participation rate of 100% (634 nurses). The general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and RLS, ESS, ISI, FSS were used to evaluate the level of insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue and restless legs syndrome, respectively. Results: As a result of research on some indicators of health risks caused from work shift, it was proven that prevalence of restless legs syndrome was at 5.5% and 25.9% are in risk of becoming sick, 42.3% are in fatigue, 3.5% in high stage of insomnia and 27.4% are sleepy on duty. Insomnia of nurses mainly affected from long-hour shift, dissatisfaction, workload, lose of focus and use of coffee. There is sleepiness lies in the workplace due to number of shifts, unsatisfactory performance and emergency calls between shifts. It has been determined that risk of sickness influenced by number of shifts in a month and long hour shift, dissatisfaction and use of coffee and divisions are causing restless legs syndrome. Conclusions: Among the nurses, it was found that the prevalence of insomnia is 31.6%, sleepiness 27.4%, fatigue 42.3%, restless legs syndrome 35% and stress 25.9%. These factors of shift work affecting health tend to go up as working hours increase and more common among shift work nurses.

Keywords: shiftwork, insomnia, sleepiness, restless

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27 Effects of Extract from Lactuca sativa on Sleep in Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Caffeine-Induced Sleep Disturbance in Mice

Authors: Hae Dun Kim, Joo Hyun Jang, Geu Rim Seo, Kyung Soo Ra, Hyung Joo Suh


Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been known for its medical property to relieve anxiety and nervous. This study was implemented to investigate sleep-promoting effects of the lettuce alcohol extract (LAE). Caffeine is widely used psychoactive substance known to induced wakefulness and insomnia to its consumers. In the present study, the sedative-hypnotic activity of the LAE was studied using the method of pentobarbital-induced sleep in the mouse model. The LAE was administrated to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. The LAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration and decreased sleep latency. The effects of LAE were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. Another study was performed to examine whether LAE ameliorates caffeine-induced sleep disturbance in mice. Additionally, caffeine (10 mg/kg, p.o) delayed sleep onset and reduced sleep duration of mice. Conversely, LAE treatment (80 or 160 mg/kg, p.o), especially at 160 mg/kg, normalized the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. LAE supplementation can counter the sleep disturbance induced by caffeine. These results suggest that LAE possess significant sedative-hypnotic activity, which supports the popular use of lettuce for treatment of insomnia and provide the basis for new drug discovery. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that the lettuce extract may be preferable for the treatment of insomnia.

Keywords: caffeine, Lactuca sativa, sleep duration, sleep latency

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26 Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Tunisia: Risk and Protective Factor

Authors: Ahmed Sami Hammami, Mohamed Jellazi


Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the magnitude of different psychological outcomes among Tunisian health care professionals (HCP) during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the associated factors. Methods: HCP completed a cross-sectional questionnaire from April 4th to April, 28th 2020. The survey collected demographic information, factors that may interfere with the psychological outcomes, behavior changes and mental health measurements. The latter was assessed through 3 scales; the 7-item questions Insomnia Severity Index, the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with psychological outcomes. Results: A total of 503 HCP successfully completed the survey; among those, n=493 consented to enroll in the study, 411 [83.4%] were physicians, 323 [64.2%] were women and 271 [55%] had a second-line working position. A significant proportion of HCP had anxiety 35.7%, depression 35.1% and insomnia 23.7%. Females, those with psychiatric history and those using public transport exhibited the highest proportions for overall symptoms compared to other groups e.g., depression among females vs. males: 44,9% vs. 18,2%, P=0.00. Those with a previous medical history and nurses, had more anxiety and insomnia compared to other groups e.g. anxiety among nurses vs. interns/residents vs. attending 45,1% vs 36,1% vs 27,5%; p=0.04. Multivariable logistic regression showed that female gender was a risk factor for all psychological outcomes e.g. female sex increased the odds of anxiety by 2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1, 78-4, 60; P=0.00, whereas having a psychiatric history was a risk factor for both anxiety and insomnia. (e.g. for insomnia OR=2,86; 95% [CI], 1,78-4,60; P=0.00), Having protective equipment was associated with lower risk for depression (OR=0,41; 95% CI, 0,27-0,62; P=0.00) and anxiety. Physical activity was also protective against depression and anxiety (OR=0,41, 95% CI, 0,25-0,67, P=0.00). Conclusion: Psychological symptoms are usually undervalued among HCP, though the COVID-19 pandemic played a major role in exacerbating this burden. Prompt psychological support should be endorsed and simple measures such as physical activity and ensuring the necessary protection are paramount to improve mental health outcomes and the quality of care provided to patients.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, health care professionals, mental health, protective factors, psychological symptoms, risk factors

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25 The Effect of Melatonin on Acute Liver Injury: Implication to Shift Work Related Sleep Deprivation

Authors: Bing-Fang Lee, Srinivasan Periasamy, Ming-Yie Liu


Shift work sleep disorder is a common problem in industrialized world. It is a type of circadian rhythmic sleep disorders characterized by insomnia and sleep deprivation. Lack of sleep in workers may lead to poor health conditions such as hepatic dysfunction. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland to alleviate insomnia. Moreover, it is a powerful antioxidant and may prevent acute liver injury. Therefore, workers take in melatonin to deal with sleep-related health is an important issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on an acute hepatic injury model sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose (500 mg/kg) of monocrotaline (MCT) to induce SOS. Melatonin (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before MCT treatment. After 24 h of MCT treatment, mice were sacrificed. The blood and liver were collected. Organ damage was evaluated by serum biochemistry, hematology analyzer, and histological examination. Low doses of melatonin (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no protective effect on SOS. However, high doses (10 and 30 mg/kg) exacerbated SOS. In addition, it not only increased serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and extended liver damage indicated by histological examination but also decreased platelet levels, lymphocyte ratio, and glutathione level; it had no effect on malondialdehyde and nitric oxide level in SOS mice. To conclude, melatonin may exacerbate MCT-induced SOS in mice. Furthermore, melatonin might have a synergistic action with SOS. Usage of melatonin for insomnia by people working in long shift must be cautioned; it might cause acute hepatic injury.

Keywords: acute liver injury, melatonin, shift work, sleep deprivation

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24 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu


This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

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23 The Non-Motor Symptoms of Filipino Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Cherrie Mae S. Sia, Noel J. Belonguel, Jarungchai Anton S. Vatanagul


Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder known for its motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscle rigidity, and postural instability. Patients with PD also experience non-motor symptoms (NMS) such as depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances that are most of the time unrecognized by clinicians. This may be due to the lack of spontaneous reports from the patients or partly because of the lack of systematic questioning from the healthcare professional. There is limited data with regards to these NMS especially that of Filipino patients with PD. Objectives: This study aims to determine the non-motor symptoms of Filipino patients with Parkinson’s disease. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, cohort study involving thirty-four patients of Filipino-descent diagnosed with PD in three out-patient clinics in Cebu City from April to September 2014. Each patient was interviewed using the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS). A Cebuano version of the NMSS was also provided for the non-English speaking patients. Interview time was approximately ten to fifteen minutes for each respondent. Results: Of the thirty-four patients with Parkinson’s disease, majority was noted to be males (N=19) and the disease was noted to be more prevalent in patients with a mean age of 62 (SD±9) years old. Hypertension (59%) and diabetes mellitus (29%) were the common co-morbidities in the study population. All patients presented more than one NMS, with insomnia (41.2%), poor memory (23.5%) and depression (14.7%) being the first non-motor symptoms to occur. Symptoms involving mood/cognition (mean=2.21), and attention/memory (mean=2.05) were noted to be the most frequent and of moderate severity. Based on the NMSS, the symptoms that were noted to be mild and often to occur were those that involved the mood/cognition (score=3.84), attention/memory (score=3.50), and sleep/fatigue (score=3.00) domains. Levodopa-Carbidopa, Ropinirole, and Pramipexole were the most frequently used medications in the study population. Conclusion: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). They appear at the time of diagnosis of PD or even before the motor symptoms manifest. The earliest non-motor symptoms to occur are insomnia, poor memory, and depression. Those pertaining to mood/cognition and attention/memory are the most frequent NMS and they are of moderate severity. Identifying these NMS by doing a questionnaire-guided interview such as the Non-Motor Symptom Scale (NMSS) before they can become more severe and affect the patient’s quality of life is a must for every clinician caring for a PD patient. Early treatment and control of these NMS can then be given, hence, improving the patient’s outcome and prognosis.

Keywords: non motor symptoms, Parkinson's Disease, insomnia, depression

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22 A Survey on General Health Status of Paddy Field Workers in Mazandaran Province Using the GHQ-28 Questionnaire

Authors: Sharifirad M., Poursaeed A., Lashgarara F., Mirdamadi S. M.


Introduction: Paddy farming has been reported as one of the most important causes of non-fatal injuries and occupational accidents among farmers. The ignorance of the health of farmers can cause harm to farmers and lead to disability. As a result, these health consequences can result in less exploitation and economic growth in households. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the general health status of paddy field workers in Mazandaran province, Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated 384 paddy farmers in Mazandaran province, Iran, who were selected using stratified random sampling. The required data were collected using the standard questionnaire of GHQ-28 with four domains of somaticsymptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and symptoms of depression. The obtained data were then analyzed using SPSS software (version 25) through Spearman, Kendall, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings: The highest number of participants in this study was in the age group of 50-59 years, with a mean age of 46.9 years. According to the results, the total general health score was obtained at 64.3% for the subjects. Moreover, the scores of four areas of general health were determined at 91.1% (depression symptoms), 73.4% (social dysfunction), 48.7% (anxiety symptoms and insomnia), and 47.1% (somatic symptoms) in descending order. Discussions& Conclusions: The general health of the studied population was not in a good range. In addition, the most observed disorder in the general health of paddy farmers was related to the symptoms of depression, followed by somatic symptoms.

Keywords: general-health, mazandaran, paddyfield

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21 Mental Health of Female Runners - Results of a Pilot Study

Authors: Katalin Gocze, Gabriella Kiss, Zsuzsanna Gurdan, Krisztian Kvell, Attila Trabert


Introduction: On a worldwide scale running has become an increasingly popular leisure time activity during the past decade. Since the participation rate of women has risen significantly the aim of our study was to analyze the mental status, sleeping habits and the prevalence of depression among female runners. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis included the use of validated and globally used surveys for the comprehensive evaluation of insomnia (AIS), depression (BDI), exercise dependence (EDS) and exercise addiction (EAI). Recreational and amateur female runners participating at half-marathon events in Hungary were asked to take part in our pilot study. Results: Participants mean age was 42.03±9.03 years. The prevalence of imsomnia was 18.87%. 60.34% has worries regarding their weight and 43.1% think that they have an actual weight problem. 77.6% stated that their body weight has an influence on their mood. 2.7% displayed borderline clinical depression, the prevalence of mild mood disorders was 10.81%. 17.2% had previously problems with disordered eating. Participants had a mean total EDS score of 46.94±15.55 and a mean total of 13.49±3.80 on EAI. Component scores were the highest for tolerance (a need for increased amounts of exercise to achieve the desired effect or a diminished effect occurs with continued use of the same amount of exercise). Conclusion: Even tough running can help improve mental health, tackle depression and overcome adversity, athletes are at risk of experiencing psychological difficulties which have an impact on their physical perfomance as well. Further research can help initiate targeted educational and screening programs to ensure that female athletes find a path to emotional well-being.

Keywords: depression, eating disorder, exercise addiction, exercise dependence, insomnia, running

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20 Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Game Playing, Internet Addiction and Perceived Stress Levels in University Students

Authors: Sevim Ugur, Cemile Kutmec Yilmaz, Omer Us, Sevdenur Koksaldi


Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of digital game playing and Internet addiction on perceived stress levels in university students. Method: The descriptive study was conducted through face-to-face interview method with a total of 364 university students studying at Aksaray University between November 15 and December 30, 2017. The research data were collected using personal information form, a questionnaire to determine the characteristics of playing digital game, the Internet addiction scale and the perceived stress scale. In the evaluation of the data, Mann-Whitney U test was used for two-group comparison of the sample with non-normal distribution, Kruskal-Wallis H-test was used in the comparison of more than two groups, and the Spearman correlation test was used to determine the relationship between Internet addiction and the perceived stress level. Results: It was determined that the mean age of the students participated in the study was 20.13 ± 1.7 years, 67.6% was female, 35.7% was sophomore, and 62.1% had an income 500 TL or less. It was found that 83.5% of the students use the Internet every day and 70.6% uses the Internet for 5 hours or less per day. Of the students, 12.4% prefers digital games instead of spending time outdoors, 8% plays a game as the first activity in leisure time, 12.4% plays all day, 15.7% feels anger when he/she is prevented from playing, 14.8% prefers playing games to get away from his/her problems, 23.4% had his/her school achievement affected negatively because of game playing, and 8% argues with family members due to the time spent for gaming. Students who play games on the computer for a long time were found to feel back pain (30.8%), headache (28.6%), insomnia (26.9%), dryness and pain in the eyes (26.6%), pain in the wrist (21.2%), feeling excessive tension and anger (16.2%), humpback (12.9), vision loss (9.6%) and pain in the wrist and fingers (7.4%). In our study, students' Internet addiction scale mean score was found to be 45.47 ± 16.1 and mean perceived stress scale score was 28.56 ± 2.7. A significant and negative correlation (p=0.037) was found between the total score of the Internet addiction scale and the total score of the perceived stress scale (r=-0.110). Conclusion: It was found in the study that Internet addiction and perceived stress of the students were at a moderate level and that there was a negative correlation between Internet addiction and perceived stress levels. Internet addiction was found to increase with the increasing perceived stress levels of students, and students were found to have health problems such as back pain, dryness in the eyes, pain, insomnia, headache, and humpback. Therefore, it is recommended to inform students about different coping methods other than spending time on the Internet to cope with the stress they perceive.

Keywords: digital game, internet addiction, student, stress level

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19 A Systematic Review on Assessing the Prevalence, Types, and Predictors of Sleep Disturbances in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: E. Botchway, C. Godfrey, V. Anderson, C. Catroppa


Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common after childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence, types, and predictors of sleep disturbances in childhood TBI. Methods: Medline, Pubmed, PsychInfo, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched. Out of the 547 articles assessed, 15 met selection criteria for this review. Results: Sleep disturbances were common in children and adolescents with TBI, irrespective of injury severity. Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia were the most common sleep disturbances reported. Sleep disturbance was predicted by sex, injury severity, pre-existing sleep disturbances, younger age, pain, and high body mass index. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in childhood TBI, regardless of the injury severity. Routine assessment of sleep in survivors of childhood TBI is recommended.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, sleep diatiurbances, childhood, systematic review

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18 Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship between Professional Burnout, Emotional Intelligence and Health Level in Teachers University of Guayaquil

Authors: Viloria Marin Hermes, Paredes Santiago Maritza, Viloria Paredes Jonathan


The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in a sample of 600 professors at the University of Guayaquil (Ecuador) using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.). In addition, assessment was made of the effects on health from professional burnout using the General Health Questionnaire (G.H.Q.-28), and the influence of Emotional Intelligence on prevention of its symptoms using the Spanish version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (T.M.M.S.-24). After confirmation of the underlying factor structure, the three measurement tools showed high levels of internal consistency, and specific cut-off points were proposed for the group of Latin American academics in the M.B.I. Statistical analysis showed the syndrome is present extensively, particularly on medium levels, with notably low scores given for Professional Self-Esteem. The application of Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that low levels of self-esteem are related to depression, with a lack of personal resources related to anxiety and insomnia, whereas the ability to perceive and control emotions and feelings improves perceptions of professional effectiveness and performance.

Keywords: burnout, academics, emotional intelligence, general health, canonical correspondence analysis

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17 Effects of Cell Phone Usage on Psychological Health of Students

Authors: Avadhesh Kumar


Background: The cell phone has rapidly become an integral, and, for some, an essential communication tool that is being used worldwide. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available, but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects on users like students. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students. Materials and methods: The present study will be carried out on all the students of Banaras Hindu University. Students of both sexes from urban and rural backgrounds were selected at random and administered a pre- tested questionnaire which included aspects related to few common adverse psychological health signs and symptoms attributed to cell phone over-usage. Results: Stress was found to be the commonest symptom (51.47%) followed by irritability/anger (43.79%). Other common mental symptoms included lack of concentration and academic performance, insomnia, anxiety etc. Suggestions: This study confirms that the younger generation, who are the most frequent cell phone users, needs to be aware of the adverse health effects of cell phone usage especially the mental aspects and take preventive measures to minimize and control the same. Less dependence on the device, a curtailing time period spent on talking, communicating more by texting, etc. are some of the practical measures suggested.

Keywords: cell phones, psychological health effects, students, mental health

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16 Breast Cancer as a Response to Distress in Women with or without a History of Precancerous Breast Disease

Authors: Viacheslav Sushko, Viktor Sushko


Pre-cancerous breast diseases are pathological changes that precede the appearance of adenocarcinoma. The most common benign breast disease is mastopathy. We examined the life and disease history of 114 women aged 58-69 who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the breast at different stages of development. They filled out the Reeder Scale to determine the level of stress. The results of the study revealed that 62 of them had mastopathy at the age of 30-45 years old. These women refused surgical treatment for mastopathy. Five to six years before their diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland, 84 women had experienced severe stress (death of a beloved close relative, torture accompanied by rape, prolonged stay in extreme conditions (under bombardment and bombardment). In the assessment of data from completed Reeder scales, 114 women had a high level of mental stress, with a score from 1-1.72. The 84 women who suffered from severe stress showed overeating or a significant decrease in food intake, insomnia, apathy, increased irritability and restlessness, loss of interest in sexual relationships, forgetfulness, difficulty in performing routine work, prolonged uncontrollable headaches, unexplained fatigue, heart pain, reduced capacity for work. In conclusion, it is important to provide psychotherapy for breast cancer patients as the diagnosis, and the different stages of treatment are very stressful. It is also advisable to see a psychiatrist at an early stage and prevent distress and treat precancerous breast disease.

Keywords: breast cancer, distress, mastopathy, severe stress

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15 Impact of Paint Occupational Exposure on Reproductive Markers: A Case Study in North East Algeria

Authors: Amina Merghad, Cherif Abdennour


Solvents are widely used in paint industry, where humans are highly exposed, especially from inhalation. A case report describes how paint affects reproductive markers and the health of workers. Sixty four subjects were chosen and divided into two groups; a control and an exposed group. A questionnaire was given to male workers from similar socio-economic status in order to know their ages, working conditions, clinical symptoms, working period, smoking history, shift, medical history and nutrition. Blood was withdrawn in the morning from volunteers. The measurement of blood testosterone and prolactin concentrations was then carried out. Results showed that the ages of the two groups were almost similar and were up to 47 and 43 years. The period of employment was 17 years and 14 years for the control and the exposed workers, respectively. Concerning clinical symptoms, the frequency of neuropsychological symptoms of the two groups are presented. It is clear that the symptom of memory loss, headaches are the highest among exposed workers followed by poor coordination, poor concentration and insomnia. On the other hand, the symptoms’ frequency in the control was less than that of the exposed group. Testosterone concentration has significantly decreased in group 2 (4.61±2,005 ng/ml) and group 3 (4.25±1.67 ng/ml) of exposed workers. On the other hand, prolactin concentration was higher in group 3 compared to other groups. To conclude, paint industry has disturbed reproductive markers and created high frequency of neuropsychological symptoms.

Keywords: blood, paint, prolactin, occupational exposure, organic solvent, reproductive toxicity, testosterone

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14 The Effectiveness of the Orem Self-Care Model on Single Parent Women’s General Health

Authors: Sahar Esmaeili, Ramezanali Ghaderi sanavi, Masoomeh Maarefvand, Samaneh Hosseinzadeh


Introduction: Conducted researches reveal that nowadays, 60 percent of women around the world are the households. The adverse economic condition causes female-headed households and their children to be the most vulnerable people against social harm. Mainly a symptoms of mental illness such as depression, anxiety, obsession and aggression can be seen in female-headed households and their children are potentially exposed to issues such as crime-work, child labor in the black and informal jobs, education deprivation and malnutrition. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Orem self-care education with the FGC technique on the public health of female-headed households. Methods: Sixty-four Female-headed householders who were supported by Saleh Foundation participated in a clinical trial study and were assigned to the case (n=32) and control (n=32) groups. The case group received 4-session Orem’s self-care education with family group conferencing technique. Data were collected using the demographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) prior to intervention and post-intervention. ANOVA was used to evaluate outcomes. Results: The results showed significant improvement of the intervention group in GHQ (P<0.001) and subscales of Physical Health (P<0.001) Agitation and Insomnia (P<0.001) and Social disorder (P<0.001) and Depression (P<0.001) compared with the control group after the intervention. Conclusion: The intervention of Orem’s self-care education with family group conferencing technique was effective in improving the General Health of Female-headed households

Keywords: orem’s self-care, female-headed households, general health, group

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13 Mixed Hydrotropic Zaleplon Oral Tablets: Formulation and Neuropharmacological Effect on Plasma GABA Level

Authors: Ghada A. Abdelbary, Maha M. Amin, Mostafa Abdelmoteleb


Zaleplon (ZP) is a non-benzodiazepine poorly soluble hypnotic drug indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia having a bioavailability of about 30%. The aim of the present study is to enhance the solubility and consequently the bioavailability of ZP using hydrotropic agents (HA). Phase solubility diagrams of ZP in presence of different molar concentrations of HA (Sodium benzoate, Urea, Ascorbic acid, Resorcinol, Nicotinamide, and Piperazine) were constructed. ZP/Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol microparticles were prepared adopting melt, solvent evaporation and melt-evaporation techniques followed by XRD. Directly compressed mixed hydrotropic ZP tablets of Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol in different weight ratios were prepared and evaluated compared to the commercially available tablets (Sleep aid® 5 mg). The effect of shelf and accelerated stability storage (40°C ± 2°C/75%RH ± 5%RH) on the optimum tablet formula (F5) for six months were studied. The enhancement of ZP solubility follows the order of: Resorcinol > Sodium benzoate > Ascorbic acid > Piperazine > Urea > Nicotinamide with about 350 and 2000 fold increase using 1M of Sodium benzoate and Resorcinol respectively. ZP/HA microparticles exhibit the order of: Solvent evaporation > melt-solvent evaporation > melt > physical mixture which was further confirmed by the complete conversion of ZP into amorphous form. Mixed hydrotropic tablet formula (F5) composed of ZP/(Resorcinol: Sodium benzoate 4:1w/w) microparticles prepared by solvent evaporation exhibits in-vitro dissolution of 31.7±0.11% after five minutes (Q5min) compared to 10.0±0.10% for Sleep aid® (5 mg) respectively. F5 showed significantly higher GABA concentration of 122.5±5.5mg/mL in plasma compared to 118±1.00 and 27.8±1.5 mg/mL in case of Sleep aid® (5 mg) and control taking only saline respectively suggesting a higher neuropharmacological effect of ZP following hydrotropic solubilization.

Keywords: zaleplon, hydrotropic solubilization, plasma GABA level, mixed hydrotropy

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12 Views of Middle-Aged Women in Malaysia towards Menopause: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Hamizah Sulaiman


Introduction: Old age is commonly link with menopause among women. The main purpose of this study is to explore the views of middle-aged women and its association with menopause. Methods: Qualitative interviews in the form of focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among women aged between 35 and 59 years old living in urban localities in two different states in Malaysia. Selection of respondents were conducted using the maximum variation sampling, focussing on five age categories which are between 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years old. Each FGD involved 5 to 7 respondents and lasted for 1 to 2 hours each. The content of the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim after each interview before the next focus group discussion is conducted. Field notes of reflexive observations were recorded by the rapporteur. Individual transcripts were analysed using standard methods of qualitative thematic analysis. The material was read through twice and later coded. The codes were further collapsed into several key themes related to perceptions towards menopause among the respondents. Results: A total number of 36 middle-aged women were consented for the interviews. The contents of the interviews revealed that younger women tend to associate menopause with being old, which were dominated by the younger aged categories of less than 50 years old. Majority of the respondents linked menopause with end of woman’s reproductive capacity or inability to give birth, lethargic or endless feeling of tiredness and insomnia, emotional instability or having more sensitive feelings and also the beginning of many health problems such as osteoarthritis which they perceived very synonyms with being old. Conclusion: The findings of this study indirectly reflect the negative views towards menopause among the middle-aged women in Malaysia. Being residents in the urban areas equipped with advanced technology and health information, do not exclude them from having negative views about menopause. However, this is a qualitative study which only focussing on age ranges, regardless of their socioeconomic and demographic background, which make further studies on related issues are necessaries. The fact that it was a qualitative interview, the findings could not be generalised and only specific to the targeted population.

Keywords: Menopause, Middle-aged women, old, Malaysia

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11 The Analysis of Questionnaires about the Health Condition of Students Involved in the Korean Medicine Doctors` Visiting School Program-Cohort Study: Middle and High School Participator of Seong-Nam-

Authors: Narae Yang, Hyun Kyung Sung, Seon Mi Shin, Hee Jung, Yong Ji Kim, Tae-Yong Park, Ho Yeon Go


The aim of this study was to build base-line data for the Korean Medicine Doctors` Visiting School Program (KMDVSP) by analyzing a student health survey filled out by the students. Korean medicine doctors assigned to 20 middle and high schools in Seong-nam visited these schools eight times in five months. During each visit, the assigned doctors performed health consultations and Korean medicine treatment, and taught health education classes. 12115 students answered self-reported questionnaires about their own physical condition at the beginning of the program. In a question about pain, 7080(58%) reported having a headache, while 4048(33%) said they had a backache, nuchal pain/shoulder pain was reported by 5993(49%), dyspepsia was present in 2736(23%), rhinitis/sinusitis was reported by 4176(34%), coughing/dyspnea by 7102(59%), itching/skin rash by 2840(23%), and constipation was reported by 1091(9%), while 2264(18%) said they had diarrhea. Increased urinary frequency/feeling of residual urine was reported by 569 students (5%), and 3324(27%) said they had insomnia/fitful sleep/morning fatigue. When asked about menstruation, 4450(83%) of the female students reported irregular menstruation or said they experienced menstrual pain. Understanding the health condition of adolescent students is the starting point to determining national health policy to prevent various diseases in the future. We have developed the pilot project of KMDVSP and collected research about students’ health. Based on this data, further studies should be performed in order to develop a cooperative program between schools and the Korean medical center.

Keywords: korean medicine doctors` visiting school program(kmdvsp), student`s health condition, questionnaires, cohort study

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10 Associations between Sleep Problems and Disordered Eating in Japanese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Takaharu Hirai, Yuta Mitobe, Hiromi Hirai


Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are serious psychiatric disorders that affect individuals, especially adolescents. It has been suggested that nonclinical ED-like characteristics are related to sleep problems. However, studies exploring the association between potential ED and sleep disorders have primarily been conducted in Europe and the United States. We conducted a survey of Japanese adolescents to investigate this claim. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 398 school-aged adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, matched for gender ratio, responded to a self-administered questionnaire survey. We used the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to measure potential ED and sleep problems, respectively. In this study, participants with an EAT-26 total score of 0–19 points were classified as non-ED, while those with scores of 20 points or higher were classified as potential ED. Result: Of the 398 participants, 17 (4.3%) had an EAT-26 total score of 20 or higher. Among boys, the rate was 6 of 199 participants (3%), and among girls, the rate was 11 of 182 participants (6%). There were 89 participants (22.4%) with an AIS score of 6 points or higher, of which 36 (17.6%) were boys, and 53 (27.5%) were girls. Adolescents with potential ED had significantly higher rates of daytime sleep problems than those without ED. Further, while examining the types of sleep problems, adolescents with potential ED had greater problems with a sense of well-being and physical and mental functioning during the day. In contrast, no significant associations were found between potential ED and sleep initiation, awakenings during the night, early morning awakening, total sleep duration, or overall quality of sleep. Finally, nocturnal and daytime sleep scores were significantly associated with dieting, bulimia, and oral control EAT-26 sub-scores. Discussion: While Japanese adolescents with possible ED do not experience nighttime sleep problems, they do experience problems related to well-being and mental and physical functioning, which are indicators of daytime sleep problems. This may assist with early detection of disordered eating in adolescents. The study suggested that professionals working towards adolescent mental health issues need an approach that comprehensively integrates both sleep problems and potential ED.

Keywords: adolescents, potential eating disorders, sleep problems, eating attitudes test-26

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9 Managing Work–Family Conflict in Today's Nursing Profession: The Role of Supervisors

Authors: Alshutwi Sitah


Many countries around the world are struggling to maintain an adequate number of nurses. Inadequate nursing staffing could compromise the quality of patient care. Among many factors that contribute to registered nurses (RN) turnover, the influence of work–family conflict (WFC) has gained little attention. WFC was found to be significantly associated with increased turnover intention (TI) among employees. Furthermore, WFC has been linked to a number of negative consequences, including lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sleep insufficiency, and high cholesterol. In an effort to find strategies to manage the consequences of WFC, many behavioral, psychological, and career scholars have focused on the role of supervisor support. Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) has been found to be a promising approach contributing to the reduction of TI in employees’ experiencing WFC. Despite the importance of work–family issues and the influence of FSSB, limited studies have been conducted among the nursing population and none were found that included a sample from Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the main Purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of FSSB on the relationship among WFC, Stress, and TI in Saudi Arabian registered nurses. Method: A cross-sectional study. Sample: Convenience sampling; 113 Saudi female nurse. Result: Fifty percent of nurses intended to leave their workplace, 68 % of nurses reported having a conflict between work and family, and 44% reported having a high level of stress. A significant positive correlation was found between WFC and TI (r= .43, P < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between FSSB and TI (r= -.53, P < 0.01). Both WFC and stress were associated with TI; however, these associations were buffered (weaken), when nurses had higher FSSB. Conclusion: The FSSB could be seen as a tool to help married, female nurses to demonstrate their professional role without compromising their family responsibilities. Nurses’ turnover is a complex issue that may require multiple prevention strategies; however, enhancing FSSB could be a key resource for maintaining a positive workplace environment and reducing TI.

Keywords: turnover intention, work-family conflict, supervisor support, nursing retention

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8 Experience of Inpatient Life in Korean Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Se-Hwa Park, En-Kyung Han, Jae-Young Lim, Hye-Jung Ahn


Purpose: The objective of this study is to provide basic data for understanding the substance of inpatient life with CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) and developing efficient and effective nursing intervention. Methods: From September 2018 to November, we have interviewed 10 CRPS patients about inpatient experiences. To understand the implication of inpatient life experiences with CRPS and intrinsic structure, we have used the question: 'How about the inpatient experiences with CRPS'. For data analysis, the method suggested by Colaizzi was applied as a phenomenological method. Results: According to the analysis, the study participants' inpatient life process was structured in six categories: (a) breakthrough pain experience (b) the limitation of pain treatment, (c) worsen factors of pain during inpatient period, (d) treat method for pain, (e) positive experience for inpatient period, (f) requirements for medical team, family and people in hospital room. Conclusion: Inpatient with CRPS have experienced the breakthrough pain. They had expected immediate treatment for breakthrough pain, but they experienced severe pain because immediate treatment was not implemented. Pain-worsening factors which patients with CRPS are as follows: personal factors from negative emotions such as insomnia, stress, sensitive character, pain part touch or vibration stimulus on the bed, physical factors from high threshold or rapid speed during fast transfer, conflict with other people, climate factors such as humidity or low temperature, noise, smell, lack of space because of many visitors. Patients actively manage the pain committing into another tasks or diversion. And also, patients passively manage the pain, just suppress, give-up. They think positively about rehabilitation treatment. And they require the understanding and sympathy for other people, and emotional support, immediate intervention for medical team. Based on the results of this study, we suppose the guideline of systematic breakthrough pain management for the relaxation of sudden pain, using notice of informing caution for touch or vibration. And we need to develop non-medicine pain management nursing intervention.

Keywords: breakthrough pain, CRPS, complex regional pain syndrome, inpatient life experiences, phenomenological method

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7 Health Status, Perception of Self-Efficacy and Social Support of Thailand Aging

Authors: Wipakon Sonsnam, Kanya Napapongsa


The quantitative aim of the study; 1) health conditions, to examine the state of health of the aging, 2) perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging ,3) perceived of social support of the aging, 4) to examine factors associated with self-efficacy in enhancing the health and self-care when illness. 100 samples selected from communities in Dusit, Bangkok, 2014 by random sampling. The questionnaires were used to collect data have 5-point rating scale, consisting of strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree; approved content valid by 3 experts, reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. ST-5, 2Q used for collect mental health. The ability to engage in a daily routine was collected by Barthel ADL index. Founding, the sample group were female (68%). (33%) of them were in the age of 60-65. Most of them were married and still live with their spouse (55%) and do not work (38%). The average annual income was less than 10,000 baht supported by child. Most people think that income was adequate (49.0%) and Satisfaction (61.0%). Most of aging caring them-self, followed by them spouse (26%). Welfare of the public had supported, living for the aging (100%), followed by Join and health volunteers in communities (23%). In terms of health, (53%) of the sample group feels health was fair, hypertension was the most common health condition among sample group (68%), following by diabetes (55%). About eyesight, (42%) have visual acuity. (59.0%) do not need hearing aids. 84% have more than 20 teeth remaining, and have no problem with chewing (61%). In terms of Ability to engage in a daily routine, most of people (84%) in sample group are in type 1. (91%) of the participants don’t have bladder incontinence. For mental condition, (82%) do not have insomnia. (87%) do not have anxiety. (96%) do not have depression. However, (77%) of the sample group is facing stress. In terms of environment in home, bathroom in the home (90.0%) and floor of bathroom was slippery (91.0%). (48%) of the sample group has the skills of how to look after themselves while being sick, and how to keep up healthy lifestyle. Besides, some other factors, such as gender, age and educational background are related to the health perception. The statistical significance was <0.05. Suggestion: The instruments available to national standards such as ST-5, 2Q and Barthel ADL index. Reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. The instrument used to collect perceived of social support must be further developed to study level of influence of social support that affect the health of elderly.

Keywords: ้health status, perception of aging, self-efficacy, social support

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6 Factors Determining the Vulnerability to Occupational Health Risk and Safety of Call Center Agents in the Philippines

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young-Woong Song


The business process outsourcing (BPO) in the Philippines is expanding rapidly attracting more than 2% of total employment. Currently, the BPO industry is confronted with several issues pertaining to sustainable productivity such as meeting the staffing gap, high rate of employees’ turnover and workforce retention, and the occupational health and safety (OHS) of call center agents. We conducted a survey of OHS programs and health concerns among call center agents in the Philippines and determined the sociocultural factors that affect the vulnerability of call center agents to occupational health risks and hazards. The majority of the agents affirmed that OHS are implemented and OHS orientation and emergency procedures were conducted at employment initiations, perceived favorable and convenient working environment except for occasional noise disturbances and acoustic shock, visual, and voice fatigues. Male agents can easily adjust to the demands and changes in their work environment and flexible work schedules than female agents. Female agents have a higher tendency to be pressured and humiliated by low work performance, experience a higher incidence of emotional abuse, psychological abuse, and experience more physical stress than male agents. The majority of the call center agents had a night-shift schedule and regardless of other factors, night shift work brings higher stress to agents. While working in a call center, higher incidence of headaches and insomnia, burnout, suppressed anger, anxiety, and depressions were experienced by female, younger (21-25 years old) and those at night shift than their counterpart. Most common musculoskeletal disorders include body pain in the neck, shoulders and back; and hand and wrist disorders and these are commonly experienced by female and younger workers. About 30% experienced symptoms of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders and weakened immune systems. Overall, these findings have shown the variable vulnerability by a different subpopulation of call center agents and are important in the occupational health risk prevention and management towards a sustainable human resource for BPO industry in the Philippines.

Keywords: business process outsourcing industry, health risk of call center agents, socio-cultural determinants, Philippines

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