Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: menopause

45 Premature Menopause among Women in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey-IV

Authors: Trupti Meher, Harihar Sahoo

Abstract:

Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause before the age of 40 years. Women who experience premature menopause either due to biological or induced reasons have a longer duration of exposure to severe symptoms and adverse health consequences when compared to those who undergo menopause at a later age, despite the fact that premature menopause has a profound effect on the health of women. This study attempted to determine the prevalence and predictors of premature menopause among women aged 25-39 years, using data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted during 2015–16 in India. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to carry out the result. The results revealed that the prevalence of premature menopause in India was 3.7 percent. Out of which, 2.1 percent of women had experienced natural premature menopause, whereas 1.7 percent had premature surgical menopause. The prevalence of premature menopause was highest in the southern region of India. Further, results of the multivariate model indicated that rural women, women with higher parity, early age at childbearing and women with smoking habits were at a greater risk of premature menopause. A sizeable proportion of women in India are attaining menopause prematurely. Unless due attention is given to this matter, it will emerge as a major problem in India in the future. The study also emphasized the need for further research to enhance knowledge on the problems of premature menopausal women in different socio-cultural settings in India.

Keywords: India, natural menopause, premature menopause, surgical menopause

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
44 Association of Caffeine Consumption in Coffee, Tea and Soft Drinks with Age of Menopause

Authors: Julita D. L. Nainggolan, Cindy Novita Ongkowijoyo, Veli Sungono, Dyana Safitri Velies, Ernestine Vivie Sadeli, Jimmy

Abstract:

Introduction: Normal menstrual cycle in women ranges from 21-34 days. Menopause is defined as the time when there have been no menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months and no other biological or physiological cause can be identified. Caffeine might increase the estradiol in the early of follicular phase and possibly increase the progesterone and shorten menstruation cycle. Women with shorter menstrual cycle, (below 26 days) would likely get to menopause 1.4 years earlier than those who are normal, and 2.2 years earlier than women with longer menstrual cycle. Purpose: To study the association of caffeine consumption in coffee, tea, and soft drinks with the age of menopause. Design Study: A cross-sectional study using purposive sampling of 132 menopause women from elderly nursing, hospitals and students’ relatives from August 2015-December 2015. The mean difference of age of menopause among the caffeine intake was analyzed by using the unpaired t-test and logistic regression. Results: Mean current age of the respondents are 61.4 years ± SD 9.8; and age of menopause was 47.7 years ± SD 4.2. There are 49.6% who drink coffee, 62.6% of tea and 7.6% of soft drinks. The analysis of t-test showed no significant mean difference in age of menopause among women who drink coffee, tea and soft drinks, mean age of 47.63 ± 4.3 in coffee with p=0.392, mean age of 47.8 ± 4 in tea with p=0.373; and mean age of 46 ± 5.5 with p=0.083 after adjustment of smoking history. Conclusion: Consumption of caffeine among women who drink coffee, tea, and soft drinks did not show significant mean difference in age of menopause.

Keywords: caffeine, menopause, coffee, tea, soda, soft drinks

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
43 A Discourse Analysis of Menopause for Thai Women

Authors: Prapaipan Phingchim

Abstract:

The number of women approaching menopausal age in Thailand is increasing, making menopause an important health topic. In order to understand Thai women's different ways of interpreting menopausal experiences and the way they construct meaning relating to menopause, it is necessary to include the context in which meaning is constructed as well as the background of cultural attitudes to menopause existing in the Thai society. The aim of this study was to describe different discourses on menopause in Thailand that present themselves to menopausal women through the use of language and to analyze linguistic strategies used to represent such identity. This study adopts discourse theory and a close pragmatic analysis to examine the discursive construction of menopause for Thai women. Two hundreds and fifteen pieces of text under the heading or subject of `menopause' or `becoming a middle-aged woman', published from 2010 to 2019, were included. All material was addressed to Thai women, and consisted of booklets and informational material, articles from newspapers and magazines and popular science books. Five different discourses on menopause were identified: the biomedical discourse; the health-promotion discourse; the consumer discourse; the alternative discourse; and the feminist/ critical discourse. The biomedical discourse on menopause was found to be dominant, but was expanded or challenged by other discourses by offering different scopes of action and/or resting on different fundamental values. The discourses constructed and positioned individual women differently; thus, the women's position varied noticeably from one discourse to another. There are seven major linguistic strategies used to construct those identities. That is, lexical selection, presupposition manipulation, presupposition denial, the use of implication, the use of passive construction, using the cause and effect sentence structure, and rhetoric questions.

Keywords: discourse analysis, discursive construction, menopause, Thai women

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
42 Age at Menarche and Menopause among Bidi Workers Women of Sagar District of Central India

Authors: Arun Kumar

Abstract:

For the present study a total of 219 women, from urban and rural areas of Sagar district of central India were selected. The mean age at menarche of rural women was found 13.89±1.17 years and for urban women, it was 13.78±1.12 years. The difference between the mean age at menarche of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.580, p≤0.05). Mean age at menopause among rural women was (47.4±4.92). The difference between the mean of urban and rural women was statistically insignificant (t=0.739 and p≤0.05). These findings indicate that rural women experience menopause at a later age as compared to their urban counterparts.

Keywords: menarche, menopause, urban, rural, Bidi workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
41 A Literature Review on Virtual Interventions for Midlife Women

Authors: Daniel D'Souza, Ping Zou

Abstract:

The period before, during, and after menopause is a sensitive time for women as they experience intense physical and psychological health changes and symptoms. These changes accompany the hormonal changes that mark the end of a woman’s reproductive age. To help mitigate and cope with these changes, prompt and correct treatment is needed. eHealth has emerged as a branch of telemedicine in the past few decades as an alternate avenue for patients to receive care quickly and conveniently, as it relies on the Internet and computers. Within the past few years, eHealth has also given rise to mHealth, which is the use of personal mobile devices to receive treatment and care. However, there is a lack of study on their use for menopause. This review aimed to review and summarize the literature for eHealth or mHealth and menopause. Several databases related to women’s health and digital health were searched for original studies about eHealth or mHealth and menopause. The search yielded 25 results. The results were generally positive, with these interventions being feasible and having positive effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. However, several issues were raised regarding their design process that may inadvertently prevent these interventions from addressing the needs of all potential users. Therefore, while eHealth and mHealth certainly represent a future model of healthcare delivery for menopausal women, further research and design modifications are needed before this can happen.

Keywords: eHealth, menopause, mHealth, midlife women

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
40 Views of Middle-Aged Women in Malaysia towards Menopause: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Halimatus Sakdiah Minhat, Hamizah Sulaiman

Abstract:

Introduction: Old age is commonly link with menopause among women. The main purpose of this study is to explore the views of middle-aged women and its association with menopause. Methods: Qualitative interviews in the form of focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among women aged between 35 and 59 years old living in urban localities in two different states in Malaysia. Selection of respondents were conducted using the maximum variation sampling, focussing on five age categories which are between 35 to 39, 40 to 44, 45 to 49, 50 to 54 and 55 to 59 years old. Each FGD involved 5 to 7 respondents and lasted for 1 to 2 hours each. The content of the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim after each interview before the next focus group discussion is conducted. Field notes of reflexive observations were recorded by the rapporteur. Individual transcripts were analysed using standard methods of qualitative thematic analysis. The material was read through twice and later coded. The codes were further collapsed into several key themes related to perceptions towards menopause among the respondents. Results: A total number of 36 middle-aged women were consented for the interviews. The contents of the interviews revealed that younger women tend to associate menopause with being old, which were dominated by the younger aged categories of less than 50 years old. Majority of the respondents linked menopause with end of woman’s reproductive capacity or inability to give birth, lethargic or endless feeling of tiredness and insomnia, emotional instability or having more sensitive feelings and also the beginning of many health problems such as osteoarthritis which they perceived very synonyms with being old. Conclusion: The findings of this study indirectly reflect the negative views towards menopause among the middle-aged women in Malaysia. Being residents in the urban areas equipped with advanced technology and health information, do not exclude them from having negative views about menopause. However, this is a qualitative study which only focussing on age ranges, regardless of their socioeconomic and demographic background, which make further studies on related issues are necessaries. The fact that it was a qualitative interview, the findings could not be generalised and only specific to the targeted population.

Keywords: Menopause, Middle-aged women, old, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
39 A Comparitive Study of the Effect of Stress on the Cognitive Parameters in Women with Increased Body Mass Index before and after Menopause

Authors: Ramesh Bhat, Ammu Somanath, A. K. Nayanatara

Abstract:

Background: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is a critical public health problem for women. The negative effect of stress on memory and cognitive functions has been widely explored for decades in numerous research projects using a wide range of methodology. Deterioration of memory and other brain functions are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Estrogen fluctuations and withdrawal have myriad direct effects on the central nervous system that have the potential to influence cognitive functions. Aim: The present study aims to compare the effect of stress on the cognitive functions in overweight/obese women before and after menopause. Material and Methods: A total of 142 female subjects constituting women before menopause between the age group of 18–44 years and women after menopause between the age group of 45–60 years were included in the sample. Participants were categorized into overweight/obese groups based on the body mass index. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) the major tool was used for measuring the perception of stress. Based on the stress scale measurement each group was classified into with stress and without stress. Addenbrooke’s cognitive Examination-III was used for measuring the cognitive functions. Results: Premenopausal women with stress showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the cognitive parameters such as attention and orientation Fluency, language and visuospatial ability. Memory did not show any significant change in this group. Whereas, in the postmenopausal stressed women all the cognitive functions except fluency showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease after menopause stressed group. Conclusion: Stress is a significant factor on the cognitive functions of obese and overweight women before and after menopause. Practice of Yoga, Encouragement in activities like gardening, embroidery, games and relaxation techniques should be recommended to prevent stress. Insights into the neurobiology before and after menopause can be gained from future studies examining the effect on the HPA axis in relation to cognition and stress.

Keywords: cognition, stress, premenopausal, body mass index

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
38 Inflammatory Changes in Postmenopausal Women including Th17 and Treg

Authors: Ae Ra Han, Seoung Eun Huh, Ji Yeon Kim, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Sung Ki Lee

Abstract:

Objective: Prevalence of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disorders, and Alzheimer's disease rapidly increase after menopause. Immune activation and inflammation are suggested as an important pathogenesis of these serious diseases. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased in women with surgical or natural menopause. However, the little is known about IL-17 producing T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in post-menopause. Methods: A total of 34 postmenopausal women, who had no active cardiovascular, endocrine and infectious disorders were recruited as study group and healthy premenopausal women participated as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. Immuno-morphologic (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56/CD16), intracellular cytokine (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-17), and Treg cell (Foxp3) studies were carried out using flow cytometry. The proportion of peripheral lymphocytes, including IL-17 producing and Foxp3+ Treg cells immune cell in each group were statistically analyzed. Results: The proportion of NK cells was significantly increased in menopausal women as compared to that of controls (P=.005). The ratios of TNF-alpha/IL-10 producing CD3+CD4+ T cells were increased in postmenopausal women. CD3+IL-17+ T cell level was higher in postmenopausal women and CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells was lower than that of controls. The ratios of CD3+IL-17+ T cell to CD3+Foxp3+ and to CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells were significantly increased in postmenopausal women (P=.001). Conclusions: We found enhanced innate immunity and Th1- and Th17-mediated adaptive immunity in postmenopausal women. This may explain increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases after menopause. Further studies are needed to elucidate what factors contribute to this inflammatory shift in the postmenopause.

Keywords: inflammation, immune cell, menopause, Th17, regulatory T cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
37 Osteoporosis and Weight Gain – Two Major Concerns for Menopausal Women - a Physiotherapy Perspective

Authors: Renu Pattanshetty

Abstract:

The aim of this narrative review is to highlight the impact of menopause on osteoporosis and weight gain. The review also aims to summarize physiotherapeutic strategies to combat the same.A thorough literature search was conducted using electronic databases like MEDline, PUBmed, Highwire Press, PUBmed Central for English language studies that included search terms like menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies from the year 2000 till date. Out of 157 studies that included metanalyses, critical reviews and randomized clinical trials, a total of 84 were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of obesity is increasing world - wide and is reaching epidemic proportions even in the menopausal women. Prevalence of abdominal obesity is almost double than that general obesity with rates in the US with 65.5% in women ages 40-59 years and 73.8 in women aged 60 years or more. Physical activities and exercises play a vital role in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and weight gain related to menopause that aim to boost the general well-being and any symptoms brought about by natural body changes. Endurance exercises lasting about 30 minutes /day for 5 days/ week has shown to decrease weight and prevent weight gain. In addition, strength training with at least 8 exercises of 8-12 repetitions working for whole body and for large muscle groups has shown to result positive outcomes. Hot flashes can be combatted through yogic breathing and relaxation exercises. Prevention of fall strategies and resistance training are key to treat diagnosed cases of osteoporosis related to menopause. One to three sets with five to eight repetitions of four to six weight bearing exercises have shown positive results. Menopause marks an important time for women to evaluate their risk of obesity and osteoporosis. It is known fact that bone benefit from exercises are lost when training is stopped, hence, practicing bone smart habits and strict adherence to recommended physical activity programs are recommended which are enjoyable, safe and effective.

Keywords: menopause, osteoporosis, obesity, weight gain, exercises, physical activity, physiotherapy strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
36 Climacteric Disorder among Women: A Qualitative Review

Authors: Amandeep Kaur, Manmeet Gill

Abstract:

The climacteric is a wide phenomenon. Women of the entire world go through it at their own level. It’s a topic on which women hesitate to talk openly. It includes breast tenderness, uterine bleeding, arthralgia, hemorrhage, changes in emotional level such as facing depression, emotional breakdown, irritability and others. Other than such emotional breakdown nausea, vomiting, headache, gaining or losing weight is common problem associated with the climacteric disorder. The purpose of the present study is to assess the Climacteric disorders among women such as during menopause whatever a woman or girl faces mentally or physically. This is mainly done in women when they reached the age of 12 to 48 worldwide. For completing the study two objectives have been taken. The first objective of the study is to analyze the symptoms which lead to Climacteric among women such as Vaginal problems, Breast changes, Behavioral problems, Weight gain, Problems in the urinary tract etc. and the second Objective is to identify the variables which affect Climacteric these are Physical variables (lack of energy, joint soreness, stiffness, back pain etc.), Psychological variables (anxiety, poor memory, inability to concentrate) and Vasomotor variables (hormone estrogen fall, etc). The secondary source of method or data is used to deal with the theme of paper. Sometimes the word climacteric is interchanged with the term menopause and all these changes are high during the period of menopause among women.

Keywords: climacteric and their symposiums, disorder, reviews, in middle age

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
35 Prevalence of Menopausal Women with Clinical Symptoms of Allergy and Evaluation the Effect of Sex Hormone Combined with Anti-Allergy Treatment

Authors: Yang Wei, Xueyan Wang, Hui Zou

Abstract:

Objective: Investigation the prevalence of menopausal symptoms in patients with allergic symptoms, evaluation of the effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy in these patients. Method: Age of 45-65 years old women with allergic symptoms at the same time in gynecological-endocrinology clinic in our hospital were selected from Feb 1 to May 31, 2010, randomly. The patients were given oral estradiol valerate plus progestin pills combined with anti-allergy treatment and then evaluated twice a week and one month later. Evaluation criterion: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the degree of clinical symptoms were used to evaluate menopause and allergy separately. Results: 1) There were 195 cases of patients with menopausal symptoms at the age. Their MRS were all over 15. 2) Among them 45 patients were with allergic symptom accounted for 23% which were diagnosed by allergic department. 3) Evaluated after one week: the menopausal symptoms were improved and MRS were less than or equal to 5 in all these patients; the skin symptom of allergic symptoms vanished completely. 4) Evaluated after one month: Menopause symptoms were improved steadily; other clinical symptoms of allergy were also improved or without recurrence. Conclusion: The incidence rate of menopausal women with clinical symptoms of allergic diseases is high and it needs attention. The effect of sex hormones combined with anti-allergic therapy is obvious.

Keywords: menopausal, allergy, sex hormone, anti-allergy treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
34 Nursing Experience in Improving Physical and Mental Well-Being of a Patient with Premature Menopause Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Nursing-Led Multi-Discipline Care

Authors: Huang Chiung Chiu

Abstract:

This article is about the nursing experience of assisting an outpatient with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia through a multi-discipline care model. The nursing period is from September 22nd, 2020, to December 7th, 2020, collecting data through interviews with the patient, observation, and physical assessment. It was found that the main health problems were insufficient nutrition, less physical need, insomnia, and potentially dangerous falls. As an outpatient nurse, the author observed that in recent years, the age group of women with premature menopause, osteoporosis and sarcopenia had shifted downward. Integrated multi-disciplinary interventions were provided upon the initial diagnosis of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Under the outpatient care setting, the collaborative team works between the doctors, nutritionists, osteoporosis educators, rehabilitates, physical therapists and other specialized teams were applied to provide individualized, integrated multi-disciplinary care. Through empathy and the establishment of attentive care, companionship and trust, we discussed care plans and treatment guidelines with the case, providing accurate, complete disease information and feedback education to strengthen the patient’s knowledge and motivation for exercise. Nursing guidance regarding the dietary nutrition and adjustment of daily routine was provided to increase the self-care ability, improve the health problems of muscle weakness and insomnia, and prevent falls. For patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and sarcopenia, it is recommended that the nurses coordinate the multi-discipline integrated care model, adjust patients’ lifestyle and diet, and establish a regular exercise plan so that the cases can be evaluated holistically to improve the quality of care and physical and mental comfort.

Keywords: multi-discipline care model, premature menopause, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, insomnia

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
33 The Extraction of Sage Essential Oil and the Improvement of Sleeping Quality for Female Menopause by Sage Essential Oil

Authors: Bei Shan Lin, Tzu Yu Huang, Ya Ping Chen, Chun Mel Lu

Abstract:

This research is divided into two parts. The first part is to adopt the method of supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction to extract sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis) and to find out the differences when the procedure is under different pressure conditions. Meanwhile, this research is going to probe into the composition of the extracted sage essential oil. The second part will talk about the effect of the aromatherapy with extracted sage essential oil to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause. The extracted sage substance is tested by inhibiting DPPH radical to identify its antioxidant capacity, and the extracted component was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Under two different pressure conditions, the extracted experiment gets different results. By 3000 psi, the extracted substance is IC50 180.94mg/L, which is higher than IC50 657.43mg/L by 1800 psi. By 3000 psi, the extracted yield is 1.05%, which is higher than 0.68% by 1800 psi. Through the experimental data, the researcher also can conclude that the extracted substance with 3000psi contains more materials than the one with 1800 psi. The main overlapped materials are the compounds of cyclic ether, flavonoid, and terpenes. Cyclic ether and flavonoids have the function of soothing and calming. They can be applied to relieve cramps and to eliminate menopause disorders. The second part of the research is to apply extracted sage essential oil to aromatherapy for women who are in menopause and to discuss the effect of the improvement for the sleeping quality. This research adopts the approaching of Swedish upper back massage, evaluates the sleeping quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and detects the changes with heart rate variability apparatus. The experimental group intervenes with extracted sage essential oil to the aromatherapy. The average heart beats detected by the apparatus has a better result in SDNN, low frequency, and high frequency. The performance is better than the control group. According to the statistical analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, this research has reached the effect of sleep quality improvement. It proves that extracted sage essential oil has a significant effect on increasing the activities of parasympathetic nerves. It is able to improve the sleeping quality for women in menopause

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction, Salvia officinalis, aromatherapy, Swedish massage, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, heart rate variability, parasympathetic nerves

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
32 Lean Mass and Fat Mass Distribution in Ukrainian Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Овesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: V. V. Povoroznyuk, Lar. P. Martynyuk, N. I. Dzerovych, Lil. P. Martyntyuk

Abstract:

Objective: Menopause-related changes in female body are associated with the greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension. The aim of our study was to reveal peculiarities of fat and lean mass distribution between postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity and with MS. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 43 postmenopausal 60 – 69 years old women (age: mean = 64,8; S.D. = 0,4); duration of menopause: mean = 14,5; S.D.= 0,9). The diagnosis of MS was considered according to IDF (2005 yr) criteria. Lean and fat mass distrubution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometry, and were compared for the cohorts with and without MS. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package 6.0 (Statsoft). Results: Findings revealed that 24 (55,8 %) of postmenopausal women had MS. In patients with and without MS compared, fat mass was higher in the former group (41248,25±2263,89 and 29817,68±2397,78 respectively; F=11,9; p=0,001) and at different body regions also: gynoid fat (6563,72±348,19 and 5115,21±392,43 respectively; F=7,6; p=0,008), android fat (3815,45±200,8128 and 2798,15±282,79 respectively; F=9,06; p=0,004. Lean mass comparing didn’t show significant differences in female with and without MS (42548,0±1239,18 and 40667,53±1223,78 respectively; F=1,1; p=0,29) and at different body regions also. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in postmenopausal women with MS there is prevalence of fat mass without increasing of lean mass quantity in compare to female with abdominal obesity without MS.

Keywords: lean mass, fat mass, овesity, metabolic syndrome, women, postmenopausal period

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
31 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

Abstract:

Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
30 Menstrual Hygiene Management among Young Unmarried Women in India

Authors: Enu Anand, Jayakant Singh

Abstract:

Menstruation among women is an integral part and a natural process that starts with menarche and stops at menopause. Women use sanitary pad, clothes and other methods to prevent blood stain from becoming evident. This paper examines the prevalence and discrepancies in use of hygienic method during menstruation among unmarried women in India using nationally representative District Level Household and facility Survey data (2007-08). The findings suggest that only one-third of the study population used hygienic method during menstruation. Rural-urban and poor-non poor disparity persists across all background characteristics in use of hygienic method. Women with high school and above education (OR=8.8, p<0.001), from richest wealth quintile (OR=5.2, p<0.001) and women following Christian religion (OR=3.6, p<0.001) are more likely to use hygienic method as compared to women with no education, poor household and Hindu women respectively. Locally prepared, low-cost sanitary pads can be promoted across the country for easy accessibility and affordability. Efforts should be made to produce locally prepared low-cost sanitary napkins in bulk and supply it through female health workers such as ANM and Anganwadi worker across the country.

Keywords: menstrual hygiene, sanitary pad, unmarried women, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
29 The Effectiveness of Scalp Cooling Therapy on Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Alopecia: A Critical Literature Review

Authors: M. Krishna

Abstract:

The study was intended to identify if scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced hair loss among cancer patients. Critical literature of non-randomized controlled trials was used to investigate whether scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The review identified that scalp cooling therapy is effective on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Most of the patients receiving chemotherapy experience alopecia. It is also perceived as the worst effect of chemotherapy. This may be severe and lead the patients to withdraw the chemo treatment. The image disturbance caused by alopecia will make the patient depressed and will lead to declined immunity. With the knowledge on effectiveness of scalp cooling therapy on preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, patient undergoing chemotherapy will not be hesitant to undergo the treatment. Patients are recommended to go through scalp cooling therapy every chemo cycle and the proper therapy duration is 30 minutes before, during chemo. The suggested duration of the scalp cooling therapy is 45-90 minutes for an effective and positive outcome. This finding is excluding other factors of alopecia such as menopause, therapeutic drugs, poor hair density, liver function problems, and drug regimes.

Keywords: alopecia, cancer, chemotherapy, scalp cooling therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
28 Metastatic Ovarian Tumor Discovered Accidentally during Cesarean Section in a 34 Year Old Woman: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghufran Kheshaifaty, Kholoud Al-Harbi, Wafa'a Al-Harbi, Ala'a Al-Orabi, Moayad Turkistani

Abstract:

Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic ovarian carcinoma that usually occurs in female between 30 - 40 year old and rarely seen after menopause. Stomach is the most common primary site. Histopathological features of krukenberg tumors appear as diffuse stromal proliferation, mucus-production, and numerous signet-cells and these tumors spread mostly by lymphatic route. Treatment and prognostic factors are not well established. This study describes a 34 year old female with a unilateral ovarian mass discovered accidentally during cesarean section delivery and it was misdiagnosed as luteoma of pregnancy, but histopathological examination showed a diffuse infiltration of the ovary and omentum by signet ring cells. These findings were not correlated with luteoma of pregnancy or any other types of primary ovarian tumors like surface epithelial tumor, sex cord stromal tumor or germ cell tumor. However, after the analysis of immunohistochemical results (negative CK7, positive CK20 and CDX-2), the finding was the diagnostic of metastatic krukenberg tumor. Two weeks later, the patient was evaluated and a large gastric tumor was found in her stomach and she underwent gastrectomy.

Keywords: CK7, CK20, CDX-2, Krukenburg tumor, metastatic ovarian tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
27 Sexual Quality of Life in Women with Gynecological Cancer

Authors: Hatice Kahyaoglu Sut, Serap Unsar, Seda Kurt

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 women with gynecological cancer and 39 control women (in menopausal term) at the Gynecooncology and Menopause Clinics of Trakya University Medical Faculty between January and July 2015. Women who had sexual active and willing to participate in the study filled an information form inquiring socio-demographic characteristics and Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female (SQLQ-F). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The average age of the women was 52.7 ± 7.6 (51.2 ± 8.7 in women with gynecological cancer, 54.3 ± 6.0 in controls). The SQOL-F scores in women with gynecologic cancer (60.8 ± 22.4) was lower than controls (63.5 ± 20.7), however, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.759). Women with gynecological cancer who had vaginal dryness and pain during sexual intercourse (45.7 ± 21.3) were lower SQOL-F total score than control group (66.0 ± 21.7) (p = 0.014). The SQOL-F scores in women who took chemotherapy treatment (55.7 ± 17.8) were lower than in women who had not chemotherapy treatment (86.8 ± 16.6) (p = 0.005). In conclusion, taking chemotherapy treatment and occurring vaginal dryness and pain complaints during sexual intercourse in women with gynecological cancer reduces sexual quality of life. Therefore, sexual quality of life in women with gynecological cancer should be evaluated, and they should be supported in order to improve their sexual quality of life.

Keywords: gynecological cancer, quality of life, sexuality, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
26 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung

Abstract:

Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
25 Evaluation on Estrogenic Effects of Diisononyl Adipate (DiNA) on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Shih-cheng Li, Ming-Yi Chung, Mei-Lien Chen

Abstract:

Background: Plasticizers, such as phthalates and adipates, were substances added to a material that provided flexibility and durability to plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Phthalates were generally recognized as an endocrine disrupter due to their estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities. Phthalates had the capacity to bind to estrogen receptors, and hence they might prolong menstrual cycles and increase the proportion of premature menopause. Recently, adipates such as di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) and di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) had replaced phthalates and were now used for food packaging. Methods: MCF-7 cell lines were treated with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di- 2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), or di-isononyl adipate (DiNA) (10-6 , 10-5 , and 10-4 mol/l), using 17β-estradiol (10-8 mol/l) as a positive control. After incubations of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, the cells were tested using the alamarBlue assay. Results: The alamarBlue assay revealed that cell proliferation significantly increased after treatments of DEHP and DEHA for 24 hours at a concentration of 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l. After more than 48 hours, cell proliferations in DEHP at 10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 mol/l significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that adipates, as well as phthalates, were capable of inducing cell proliferation. We further used MDA-MB-231 cell lines to confirm that the proliferation effect was generated through binding to estrogen receptors.

Keywords: MCF-7, phthalate, adipate, endocrine disrupter

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
24 Hysterectomy and Symbolic Damage: When the Desire for Motherhood is Reactivated in a Nun

Authors: Ndje Ndje Mireille

Abstract:

The improvement in the physical aspects of hysterectomy has tended to make us forget the psychological burden of this operation for many women. African women closely associate fertility and femininity, and they fear that their desire will diminish, that they will be less desirable after having undergone a hysterectomy. Medicine may be tempted to trivialize this surgical intervention by relying on the evolution of current surgery that leaves little or no marks. It is possible to think that the uterus is useless for a nun who has decided to freely disregard her motherhood. We used the clinical research method for this study. Through a semi-directive interview guide, we collected the verbatims of an hysterectomized catholic nun. The verbatims were transcribed and analyzed with the thematic content analysis. This analysis shows that the medical reality does not always correspond to the subjective experience of women, for whom hysterectomy can imply strong symbolic damage. The uterus is not essential to life, but it is essential to give life, and this lack can reactivate a desire for motherhood. The experience of hysterectomy is unique for each woman in relation to her history. This operation will eliminate all hope of pregnancy; it will be felt as intimate mutilation and an attack on femininity, it will bring up concerns about sexuality. Even if a woman has past the age of having children, has gone through menopause, or has freely decided not to have children, she still find it difficult to accept this procedure. The lack of uterus make a woman feel useless.

Keywords: hysterectomy, symbolic damage, desire for motherhood, feminity, nun

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
23 Breast Cancer and BRCA Gene: A Study on Genetic and Environmental Interaction

Authors: Abhishikta Ghosh Roy

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women globally, including India. Human breast cancer results from the genetic and environmental interaction. The present study attempts to understand the molecular heterogeneity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, as well as to understand the association of various lifestyle and reproductive variables for the Breast Cancer risk. The study was conducted amongst 110 patients and 128 controls with total DNA sequencing of flanking and coding regions of BRCA1 BRCA2 genes that revealed ten Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (6 novels). The controls selected for the study were age, sex and ethnic group matched. After written and informed consent biological samples were collected from the subjects. After detailed molecular analysis, significant (p < 0.005) molecular heterogeneity is revealed in terms of SNPs in BRCA1 (4 Exonic & 1 Intronic) and BRCA2 (2exonic and 3 Intronic) genes. The augmentation study investigated significant (p < 0.05) association with positive family history, early age at menarche, irregular menstrual periods, menopause, prolong contraceptive use, nulliparity, history of abortions, consumption of alcohol and smoking for breast cancer risk. To the best of authors knowledge, this study is the first of its kind, envisaged that the identification of the SNPs and modification of the lifestyle factors might aid to minimize the risk among the Bengalee Hindu females.

Keywords: breast cancer, BRCA, lifestyle, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
22 Comparing Breast Cancer Risk and the Risk Factors between Heterosexual Women and Sexual Minority Women in Taiwan: A Preliminary Result

Authors: Ya-Ching Wang, Yi-Maun Subeq

Abstract:

Background: There is a lack of evidence to understand differences in risk for developing breast cancer between sexual minority women and heterosexual women in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to compare differences in risk for developing breast cancer between the two groups of Taiwanese women. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was used to collect data. A total of 238 Taiwanese women (mean age 30.69 years old, SD=8.231, range 20-60) were recruited between December 2016 and February 2017, including 115 heterosexual women and 123 sexual minority women. Results: There were no significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in body mass index, history of non-malignant breast disease, age at menarche and menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, use of hormone replacement therapy, nor the prevalence of breast cancer. The sexual minority women had higher rates of current drinking, smoking and using breast-bindings and also reported exercise more a week; the heterosexual women had higher rates of pregnancy, children, breastfeed, miscarriages, abortion and use of birth control pills. Discussion/Conclusion: There were significant differences between heterosexual women and sexual minority women in reproductive factors and behavioral risk factors for the development of breast cancer. In particular, the finding that the sexual minority women had higher rate of using breast-bindings (56.6%) than the heterosexual women (4.7%) should be further explore, in order to understand whether long-term breast compression is associated with the development of breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, risk, sexual orientation, Taiwan

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
21 Herbal Medicinal Materials for Health/Functional Foods in Korea

Authors: Chang-Hwan Oh, Young-Jong Lee

Abstract:

In April, 2015, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety’s announcement that only 10 of the 207 products that list Cynanchum Wilfordii Radix among their ingredients were confirmed to actually contain “iyeobupiso” the counterfeit version of the “baeksuo” raised a fog to consumers who purchased health/functional foods supposedly containing the herbal medicinal material, “baeksuo” in Korean. Baeksuo is the main ingredient of the product “EstroG-100” that contain Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas too (NaturalEndoTech, S.Korea). The hot water extract of the herbal medicinal materials (HMM) was approved as a product specific Health/Functional Food (HFF) having a helpful function to women reaching menopause by Korea Food & Drug Administration (Ministry of Food & Drug Safety at present). The origin of “baeksuo” is the root of Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley in Korea (But “iyeobupiso, the root of Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight is considered as the origin of “baeksuo” in China). In Korea, about 116 HMMs are listed as the food materials in Korea Food Code among the total 187 HMMs could be used for food and medicine purpose simultaneously. But there are some chances of the HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) could be misused by the part and HMMs not permitted for HFF such as the “baeksuo” case. In this study, some of HMMs (shared use for food and medicine purpose) are examined to alleviate the misuse chance of HMMs for HFFs in Korea. For the purpose of this study, the origin, shape, edible parts, efficacy and the side effects of the similar HMMs to be misused for HFF are investigated.

Keywords: herbal medicinal materials, healthy/functional foods, misuse, shared use

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
20 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan

Abstract:

Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
19 Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Cardiometabolic Profile in Inactive Obese Postmenopausal Women: A MONET Study

Authors: Ahmed Ghachem, Johann Colomba, Denis Prud'homme, Martin Brochu

Abstract:

Background: Inactive obese postmenopausal women, are at greater risk for metabolic complications. On the other hand, high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of metabolic complications. Objective: To compare inactive obese postmenopausal women displaying ‘lower’ vs ‘higher’ levels of CRF for body composition, metabolic profile, inflammatory profile and measures of energy expenditure. Methods: 132 women (age: 57.6 ± 4.8 yrs; BMI: 32.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2; Peak VO2: 17.81 ± 3.02 ml O2•kg-1•min-1) were studied. They were first divided into tertiles based on their CRF. Then, women in the first (< 16.51 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) and second tertiles (16.51 to 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) were combined (N= 88), and compared with those in the third tertile (> 19.22 ml O2•min-1•kg-1) (N= 44). Variables of interest were: Peak VO2 (stationary bike), body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis (fasting state and euglycemic/ hyperinsulinemic clamp), fasting lipids, resting blood pressure, inflammatory profile and energy expenditure (DLW). Results: Both CRF groups (lower= 16.0 ± 2.0 ml O2•kg-1•min-1 vs higher= 21.2 ± 1.7 ml O2•kg-1•min-1; p < 0.001) were similar for age. Significant differences were observed between groups for body composition; with lower values for body weight, BMI, fat mass and visceral fat in women with higher CRF (p between 0.001 and 0.005). Also, women with higher CRF had lower values for fasting insulin (13.4 ± 4.5 vs 15.6 ± 6.6 μU/ml; p = 0.03) and CRP levels (2.31 ± 1.97 vs 3.83 ± 3.24 mg/liter; p = 0.001); and higher values for glucose disposal (6.71 ± 1.78 vs 5.92 ± 1.67 mg/kg/min; p = 0.01). However, these differences were no longer significant after controlling for visceral adipose tissue accumulations. Finally, no significant difference was observed between groups for the other variables of interest. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, among inactive overweight/obese postmenopausal women, those with higher CRF levels have a better metabolic profile; which is caused by lower visceral fat accumulations.

Keywords: cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic profile, menopause, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
18 The Role of Surgery to Remove the Primary Tumor in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

Authors: A. D. Zikiryahodjaev, L. V. Bolotina, A. S. Sukhotko

Abstract:

Purpose. To evaluate the expediency and timeliness of performance of surgical treatment as a component of multi-therapy treatment of patients with stage IV breast cancers. Materials and Methods. This investigation comparatively analyzed the results of complex treatment with or without surgery in patients with metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed retrospectively treatment experience of 196 patients with generalized breast cancer in the department of oncology and breast reconstructive surgery of P.A. Herzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute from 2000 to 2012. The average age was (58±1,1) years. Invasive ductul carcinoma was verified in128 patients (65,3%), invasive lobular carcinoma-33 (16,8%), complex form - 19 (9,7%). Complex palliative care involving drug and radiation therapies was performed in two patient groups. The first group includes 124 patients who underwent surgical intervention as complex treatment, the second group includes 72 patients with only medical therapy. Standard systemic therapy was given to all patients. Results. Overall, 3-and 5-year survival in fist group was 43,8 and 21%, in second - 15,1 and 9,3% respectively [p=0,00002 log-rank]. Median survival in patients with surgical treatment composed 32 months, in patients with only systemic therapy-21. The factors having influencing an influence on the prognosis and the quality of life outcomes for of patients with generalized breast cancer were are also studied: hormone-dependent tumor, Her2/neu hyper-expression, reproductive function status (age, menopause existence). Conclusion.Removing primary breast tumor in patients with generalized breast cancer improve long-term outcomes. Three- and five-year survival increased by 28,7 and 16,3% respectively, and median survival–for 11 months. These patients may benefit from resection of the breast tumor. One explanation for the effect of this resection is that reducing the tumor load influences metastatic growth.

Keywords: breast cancer, combination therapy, factors of prognosis, primary tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
17 Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and Its Impact on the All-Cause Mortality of UK Women: A Matched Cohort Study 1984-2017

Authors: Nurunnahar Akter, Elena Kulinskaya, Nicholas Steel, Ilyas Bakbergenuly

Abstract:

Although Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is an effective treatment in ameliorating menopausal symptoms, it has mixed effects on different health outcomes, increasing, for instance, the risk of breast cancer. Because of this, many symptomatic women are left untreated. Untreated menopausal symptoms may result in other health issues, which eventually put an extra burden and costs to the health care system. All-cause mortality analysis may explain the net benefits and risks of the HRT therapy. However, it received far less attention in HRT studies. This study investigated the impact of HRT on all-cause mortality using electronically recorded primary care data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) that broadly represents the female population in the United Kingdom (UK). The study entry date for this study was the record of the first HRT prescription from 1984, and patients were followed up until death or transfer to another GP practice or study end date, which was January 2017. 112,354 HRT users (cases) were matched with 245,320 non-users by age at HRT initiation and general practice (GP). The hazards of all-cause mortality associated with HRT were estimated by a parametric Weibull-Cox model adjusting for a wide range of important medical, lifestyle, and socio-demographic factors. The multilevel multiple imputation techniques were used to deal with missing data. This study found that during 32 years of follow-up, combined HRT reduced the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality by 9% (HR: 0.91; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.88-0.94) in women of age between 46 to 65 at first treatment compared to the non-users of the same age. Age-specific mortality analyses found that combined HRT decreased mortality by 13% (HR: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.92), 12% (HR: 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93), and 8% (HR: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98), in 51 to 55, 56 to 60, and 61 to 65 age group at first treatment, respectively. There was no association between estrogen-only HRT and women’s all-cause mortality. The findings from this study may help to inform the choices of women at menopause and to further educate the clinicians and resource planners.

Keywords: hormone replacement therapy, multiple imputations, primary care data, the health improvement network (THIN)

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
16 Effects of a 6-Month Caloric Restriction Induced-Weight Loss Program in Obese Postmenopausal Women with and without the Metabolic Syndrome: A MONET Study

Authors: Ahmed Ghachem, Denis Prud’homme, Rémi-Rabasa-Lhoret, M. Brochu

Abstract:

Objective: To compare the effects of a CR on body composition, lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in obese postmenopausal women with and without MetS. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed on seventy-three inactive obese postmenopausal women (age: 57.7 ± 4.8 yrs; body mass index: 32.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2) who participated in the 6-month caloric restriction arm of a study of the Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team. The harmonized MetS definition was used to categorized participants with MetS [n = 20, 27.39%] and without MetS [n = 53, 72.61%]. Variables of interest were: body composition (DXA), body fat distribution (CT scan), glucose homeostasis at the fasting state and during a euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp, fasting lipids and resting blood pressure. Results: By design, the MetS group had a worse cardiometabolic profile; while both groups were comparable for age. Fifty-five patients out of seventy-three displayed no change in MetS status after the intervention. Twelve participants out of twenty (or 60.0%) in the MetS group had no more MetS after weight loss (P= NS); while six participants out of fifty three (or 11.3%) in the other group developed the MetS after the intervention (P= NS). Overall, indices of body composition and body fat distribution improved significantly and similarly in both groups (P between 0.03 and 0.0001). Furthermore, with the exception of triglyceride levels and triglycerides/HDL-C ratio, which decrease significantly more in the MetS group (P ≤ 0.05), no difference was observed between groups for the other variables of the cardiometabolic profile. Conclusion: Despite no overall significant effects on MetS, heterogeneous results were obtained in response to weight loss in the present study; with some improving the MetS while other displaying deteriorations. Further studies are needed in order to identify factors and phenotypes associated with positive and negative cardiometabolic responses to CR intervention.

Keywords: menopause, obesity, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, caloric restriction, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 271